Speech and Language Processing in Typical Speakers and Individuals with Developmental Disorders

A special issue of Brain Sciences (ISSN 2076-3425). This special issue belongs to the section "Neurolinguistics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2023) | Viewed by 7405

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Speech-Language-Hearing Sciences, University of Minnesota Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN, USA
Interests: psycholinguistics; phonology; phonetics; speech; language processing; electroen-cephalography; stutter
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, research advancements have focused on the neurological basis of speech production. This work has enhanced our understanding of the neural basis of speech and speech disorders, advanced clinical assessment and diagnostic practices, and paved way for theoretical and mechanistic models of speech production. The findings of this research have also resulted in advancements in neural implementation science, including the identification of neural pathways facilitating plasticity with rehabilitation, which have had translational value towards the development of novel treatment methods. The aim of this Special Issue is to provide a venue for the dissemination of research findings from the study of brain mechanisms supporting speech production.

The process of speech production involves interactions between the language, cognitive, and speech motor systems. Studies published in the Special Issue will use established and state-of-the-art imaging methods and tools, implement rigorous study designs and statistical methods, advance mechanistic models, and offer valuable insight into the processes and neural pathways that support speech production in typical speakers and individuals with developmental disorders.

Submissions must follow the submission guidelines and review guidelines set forth by Brain Sciences.

Prof. Dr. Jayanthi Sasisekaran
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • neural basis of speech production
  • neural basis of developmental disorders of speech and language
  • developmental disabilities
  • autism
  • developmental language disorders
  • hearing disorders
  • stuttering
  • childhood apraxia of speech
  • developmental dysarthria
  • neural basis of hearing and hearing disorders
  • electrophysiological
  • neuroimaging
  • neural computational science
  • neural plasticity
  • translational research/implementation science

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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39 pages, 4527 KiB  
Article
Mismatch Responses to Speech Contrasts in Preschoolers with and without Developmental Language Disorder
by Ana Campos, Jyrki Tuomainen and Outi Tuomainen
Brain Sci. 2024, 14(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci14010042 - 31 Dec 2023
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Abstract
This study compared cortical responses to speech in preschoolers with typical language development (TLD) and with Developmental Language Disorder (DLD). We investigated whether top-down language effects modulate speech perception in young children in an adult-like manner. We compared cortical mismatch responses (MMRs) during [...] Read more.
This study compared cortical responses to speech in preschoolers with typical language development (TLD) and with Developmental Language Disorder (DLD). We investigated whether top-down language effects modulate speech perception in young children in an adult-like manner. We compared cortical mismatch responses (MMRs) during the passive perception of speech contrasts in three groups of participants: preschoolers with TLD (n = 11), preschoolers with DLD (n = 16), and adults (n = 20). We also measured children’s phonological skills and investigated whether they are associated with the cortical discrimination of phonemic changes involving different linguistic complexities. The results indicated top-down language effects in adults, with enhanced cortical discrimination of lexical stimuli but not of non-words. In preschoolers, the TLD and DLD groups did not differ in the MMR measures, and no top-down effects were detected. Moreover, we found no association between MMRs and phonological skills, even though the DLD group’s phonological skills were significantly lower. Our findings suggest that top-down language modulations in speech discrimination may not be present during early childhood, and that children with DLD may not exhibit cortical speech perception deficits. The lack of association between phonological and MMR measures indicates that further research is needed to understand the link between language skills and cortical activity in preschoolers. Full article
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26 pages, 2968 KiB  
Article
The Resilience of the Phonological Network May Have Implications for Developmental and Acquired Disorders
by Michael S. Vitevitch, Nichol Castro, Gavin J. D. Mullin and Zoe Kulphongpatana
Brain Sci. 2023, 13(2), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13020188 - 23 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1597
Abstract
A central tenet of network science states that the structure of the network influences processing. In this study of a phonological network of English words we asked: how does damage alter the network structure (Study 1)? How does the damaged structure influence lexical [...] Read more.
A central tenet of network science states that the structure of the network influences processing. In this study of a phonological network of English words we asked: how does damage alter the network structure (Study 1)? How does the damaged structure influence lexical processing (Study 2)? How does the structure of the intact network “protect” processing with a less efficient algorithm (Study 3)? In Study 1, connections in the network were randomly removed to increasingly damage the network. Various measures showed the network remained well-connected (i.e., it is resilient to damage) until ~90% of the connections were removed. In Study 2, computer simulations examined the retrieval of a set of words. The performance of the model was positively correlated with naming accuracy by people with aphasia (PWA) on the Philadelphia Naming Test (PNT) across four types of aphasia. In Study 3, we demonstrated another way to model developmental or acquired disorders by manipulating how efficiently activation spread through the network. We found that the structure of the network “protects” word retrieval despite decreases in processing efficiency; words that are relatively easy to retrieve with efficient transmission of priming remain relatively easy to retrieve with less efficient transmission of priming. Cognitive network science and computer simulations may provide insight to a wide range of speech, language, hearing, and cognitive disorders. Full article
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Review

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39 pages, 2097 KiB  
Review
Bridging the Divide: Brain and Behavior in Developmental Language Disorder
by Noelle Abbott and Tracy Love
Brain Sci. 2023, 13(11), 1606; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13111606 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1986
Abstract
Developmental language disorder (DLD) is a heterogenous neurodevelopmental disorder that affects a child’s ability to comprehend and/or produce spoken and/or written language, yet it cannot be attributed to hearing loss or overt neurological damage. It is widely believed that some combination of genetic, [...] Read more.
Developmental language disorder (DLD) is a heterogenous neurodevelopmental disorder that affects a child’s ability to comprehend and/or produce spoken and/or written language, yet it cannot be attributed to hearing loss or overt neurological damage. It is widely believed that some combination of genetic, biological, and environmental factors influences brain and language development in this population, but it has been difficult to bridge theoretical accounts of DLD with neuroimaging findings, due to heterogeneity in language impairment profiles across individuals and inconsistent neuroimaging findings. Therefore, the purpose of this overview is two-fold: (1) to summarize the neuroimaging literature (while drawing on findings from other language-impaired populations, where appropriate); and (2) to briefly review the theoretical accounts of language impairment patterns in DLD, with the goal of bridging the disparate findings. As will be demonstrated with this overview, the current state of the field suggests that children with DLD have atypical brain volume, laterality, and activation/connectivity patterns in key language regions that likely contribute to language difficulties. However, the precise nature of these differences and the underlying neural mechanisms contributing to them remain an open area of investigation. Full article
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Other

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19 pages, 2958 KiB  
Case Report
Enhancing Speech Rehabilitation in a Young Adult with Trisomy 21: Integrating Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) with Rapid Syllable Transition Training for Apraxia of Speech
by Ester Miyuki Nakamura-Palacios, Aldren Thomazini Falçoni Júnior, Gabriela Lolli Tanese, Ana Carla Estellita Vogeley and Aravind Kumar Namasivayam
Brain Sci. 2024, 14(1), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci14010058 - 06 Jan 2024
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Abstract
Apraxia of speech is a persistent speech motor disorder that affects speech intelligibility. Studies on speech motor disorders with transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) have been mostly directed toward examining post-stroke aphasia. Only a few tDCS studies have focused on apraxia of speech [...] Read more.
Apraxia of speech is a persistent speech motor disorder that affects speech intelligibility. Studies on speech motor disorders with transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) have been mostly directed toward examining post-stroke aphasia. Only a few tDCS studies have focused on apraxia of speech or childhood apraxia of speech (CAS), and no study has investigated individuals with CAS and Trisomy 21 (T21, Down syndrome). This N-of-1 randomized trial examined the effects of tDCS combined with a motor learning task in developmental apraxia of speech co-existing with T21 (ReBEC RBR-5435x9). The accuracy of speech sound production of nonsense words (NSWs) during Rapid Syllable Transition Training (ReST) over 10 sessions of anodal tDCS (1.5 mA, 25 cm) over Broca’s area with the cathode over the contralateral region was compared to 10 sessions of sham-tDCS and four control sessions in a 20-year-old male individual with T21 presenting moderate–severe childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). The accuracy for NSW production progressively improved (gain of 40%) under tDCS (sham-tDCS and control sessions showed < 20% gain). A decrease in speech severity from moderate–severe to mild–moderate indicated transfer effects in speech production. Speech accuracy under tDCS was correlated with Wernicke’s area activation (P3 current source density), which in turn was correlated with the activation of the left supramarginal gyrus and the Sylvian parietal–temporal junction. Repetitive bihemispheric tDCS paired with ReST may have facilitated speech sound acquisition in a young adult with T21 and CAS, possibly through activating brain regions required for phonological working memory. Full article
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