Functional Plant Metabolism 2.0

A special issue of Biomolecules (ISSN 2218-273X). This special issue belongs to the section "Cellular Biochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 November 2022) | Viewed by 6442

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Laboratory of Vegetable Production, Department of Crop Science, Agricultural University of Athens, Iera Odos 75, 11855 Athens, Greece
Interests: vegetable production; hydroponics; plant nutrition; plant physiology; abiotic stress; fruit quality; biofortification; biostimulants; nitrogen fixation; phytohormones; plant metabolism; organic production; vertical farming
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Co-Guest Editor
Department of Agricultural Sciences, Biotechnology & Food Science Cyprus University of Technology P.O. Box 50329, 3603 Lemesos, Cyprus
Interests: abiotic stress; antioxidants; priming; reactive oxygen species; reactive nitrogen species; reactive sulfur species; growth promotion; cellular signaling; plant biotechnology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Co-Guest Editor
Department of Food Science, Aarhus University, 8200 Aarhus, Denmark
Interests: plant nutrition; plant hormones; hydroponics; vegetable production; abiotic stress; quality of high-value crops; biofortification; reactive oxygen species
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Plants are considered the primary producers on our planet, using solar energy to convert CO2 and H2O into various organic compounds, which are synthesized though a variety of metabolic processes. Plant metabolism includes both anabolic and catabolic reactions occurring in plants through enzyme-catalyzed reactions that constitute metabolic pathways, the products of which are called metabolites. Plant metabolites are considered the main nutritional and nutraceutical sources for humans and fall into two categories: the primary metabolites (e.g., carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, nucleotides, fatty acids, steroids, or lipids), which are used for growth, development, and reproduction; and secondary metabolites (flavonoids, anthocyanins, chlorophyll degradation products, antioxidants), compounds used to protect plants against herbivores and abiotic stress, or to attract pollinators.

NMR, liquid and gas chromatography, and MS are different analytical methods of high sensitivity and accuracy used for the comprehensive targeted and non-targeted measurement and identification of metabolites. The use of these methods can result in the chemical profiling of the effect of different biotic and abiotic stresses (salinity, drought, heat), nutritional status, and genetic and environmental influences on several metabolites, leading to the optimization of metabolic processes and concomitantly increased agricultural yield and product quality.

The aim of this Special Issue is to provide an international platform for current knowledge on primary and secondary metabolism and the biosynthetic pathways of various plant metabolites. In particular, submissions of review papers and original research reporting novel scientific findings on the following topics (but not limited to these) are welcome:

  • Plant growth and primary–secondary metabolism;
  • Primary–secondary metabolism and carbohydrate storage;
  • Lipids and secondary metabolism;
  • Nitrogen fixation and secondary metabolism;
  • Secondary metabolism and sulfur;
  • Nucleotide metabolism in various plant responses to biotic and abiotic stress;
  • Macronutrients’ role in primary and secondary plant metabolism;
  • Micronutrients’ role in primary and secondary plant metabolism;
  • Abiotic stress and plant metabolism;
  • Hormones and the accumulation of biologically active compounds in plants;
  • Polyamine metabolism and plant growth;
  • Protein metabolism under biotic and abiotic stress;
  • Purine alkaloid metabolism and plant growth;
  • Impact of PGPRs and biostimulants on plant metabolism and plant growth;
  • Optimization of the accumulation of biologically active compounds in plants;
  • Medical use of secondary metabolites extracted from plants;
  • Plant secondary metabolites in nectar;
  • Metabolomic technology to tackle key questions in product quality assessment;
  • Secondary metabolites promoting food nutrition and human health.

Dr. Georgia Ntatsi
Dr. Vasileios Fotopoulos
Dr. Ivan Paponov
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biomolecules is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • primary metabolism
  • secondary metabolism
  • metabolic pathways
  • metabolomics
  • yield
  • plant growth
  • fruit quality
  • crop physiology
  • antioxidants
  • hormones
  • macronutrients
  • micronutrients
  • biotic and abiotic stress
  • nitrogen fixation
  • biofortification

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

23 pages, 13490 KiB  
Article
Combined Effect of Salt Stress and Nitrogen Level on the Primary Metabolism of Two Contrasting Hydroponically Grown Cichorium spinosum L. Ecotypes
by Martina Chatzigianni, Dimitrios Savvas, Evgenia-Anna Papadopoulou, Konstantinos A. Aliferis and Georgia Ntatsi
Biomolecules 2023, 13(4), 607; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom13040607 - 28 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1279
Abstract
Stamnagathi (Cichorium spinosum L.) is an indigenous plant species well-known for its health-promoting properties. Salinity is a long-term issue with devastating consequences on land and farmers. Nitrogen (N) constitutes a crucial element for plant growth and development (chlorophyll, primary metabolites, etc.). Thus, it [...] Read more.
Stamnagathi (Cichorium spinosum L.) is an indigenous plant species well-known for its health-promoting properties. Salinity is a long-term issue with devastating consequences on land and farmers. Nitrogen (N) constitutes a crucial element for plant growth and development (chlorophyll, primary metabolites, etc.). Thus, it is of paramount importance to investigate the impact of salinity and N supply on plants’ metabolism. Within this context, a study was conducted aiming to assess the impact of salinity and N stress on the primary metabolism of two contrasting ecotypes of stamnagathi (montane and seaside). Both ecotypes were exposed to three different salinity levels (0.3 mM—non-saline treatment, 20 mM—medium, and 40 mM—high salinity level) combined with two different total-N supply levels: a low-N at 4 mM and a high-N at 16 mM, respectively. The differences between the two ecotypes revealed the variable responses of the plant under the applied treatments. Fluctuations were observed at the level of TCA cycle intermediates (fumarate, malate, and succinate) of the montane ecotype, while the seaside ecotype was not affected. In addition, the results showed that proline (Pro) levels increased in both ecotypes grown under a low N-supply and high salt stress, while other osmoprotectant metabolites such as γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) exhibited variable responses under the different N supply levels. Fatty acids such as α-linolenate and linoleate also displayed variable fluctuations following plant treatments. The carbohydrate content of the plants, as indicated by the levels of glucose, fructose, α,α-trehalose, and myo-inositol, was significantly affected by the applied treatments. These findings suggest that the different adaptation mechanisms among the two contrasting ecotypes could be strongly correlated with the observed changes in their primary metabolism. This study also suggests that the seaside ecotype may have developed unique adaptation mechanisms to cope with high N supply and salinity stress, making it a promising candidate for future breeding programs aimed at developing stress tolerant varieties of C. spinosum L. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Plant Metabolism 2.0)
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17 pages, 2689 KiB  
Article
UV Radiation Induces Specific Changes in the Carotenoid Profile of Arabidopsis thaliana
by Uthman O. Badmus, Gaia Crestani, Natalie Cunningham, Michel Havaux, Otmar Urban and Marcel A. K. Jansen
Biomolecules 2022, 12(12), 1879; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12121879 - 14 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1936
Abstract
UV-B and UV-A radiation are natural components of solar radiation that can cause plant stress, as well as induce a range of acclimatory responses mediated by photoreceptors. UV-mediated accumulation of flavonoids and glucosinolates is well documented, but much less is known about UV [...] Read more.
UV-B and UV-A radiation are natural components of solar radiation that can cause plant stress, as well as induce a range of acclimatory responses mediated by photoreceptors. UV-mediated accumulation of flavonoids and glucosinolates is well documented, but much less is known about UV effects on carotenoid content. Carotenoids are involved in a range of plant physiological processes, including photoprotection of the photosynthetic machinery. UV-induced changes in carotenoid profile were quantified in plants (Arabidopsis thaliana) exposed for up to ten days to supplemental UV radiation under growth chamber conditions. UV induces specific changes in carotenoid profile, including increases in antheraxanthin, neoxanthin, violaxanthin and lutein contents in leaves. The extent of induction was dependent on exposure duration. No individual UV-B (UVR8) or UV-A (Cryptochrome or Phototropin) photoreceptor was found to mediate this induction. Remarkably, UV-induced accumulation of violaxanthin could not be linked to protection of the photosynthetic machinery from UV damage, questioning the functional relevance of this UV response. Here, it is argued that plants exploit UV radiation as a proxy for other stressors. Thus, it is speculated that the function of UV-induced alterations in carotenoid profile is not UV protection, but rather protection against other environmental stressors such as high intensity visible light that will normally accompany UV radiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Plant Metabolism 2.0)
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22 pages, 1999 KiB  
Article
Transcriptomics and Metabolomics of Reactive Oxygen Species Modulation in Near-Null Magnetic Field-Induced Arabidopsis thaliana
by Ambra S. Parmagnani, Giuseppe Mannino and Massimo E. Maffei
Biomolecules 2022, 12(12), 1824; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12121824 - 6 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2343
Abstract
The geomagnetic field (GMF) is a natural component of Earth’s biosphere. GMF reduction to near-null values (NNMF) induces gene expression modulation that generates biomolecular, morphological, and developmental changes. Here, we evaluate the effect of NNMF on gene expression and reactive oxygen species (ROS) [...] Read more.
The geomagnetic field (GMF) is a natural component of Earth’s biosphere. GMF reduction to near-null values (NNMF) induces gene expression modulation that generates biomolecular, morphological, and developmental changes. Here, we evaluate the effect of NNMF on gene expression and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in time-course experiments on Arabidopsis thaliana. Plants exposed to NNMF in a triaxial Helmholtz coils system were sampled from 10 min to 96 h to evaluate differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of oxidative stress responses by gene microarray. In 24–96 h developing stages, H2O2 and polyphenols were also analyzed from roots and shoots. A total of 194 DEGs involved in oxidative reactions were selected, many of which showed a fold change ≥±2 in at least one timing point. Heatmap clustering showed DEGs both between roots/shoots and among the different time points. NNMF induced a lower H2O2 than GMF, in agreement with the expression of ROS-related genes. Forty-four polyphenols were identified, the content of which progressively decreased during NNMF exposition time. The comparison between polyphenols content and DEGs showed overlapping patterns. These results indicate that GMF reduction induces metabolomic and transcriptomic modulation of ROS-scavenging enzymes and H2O2 production in A. thaliana, which is paralleled by the regulation of antioxidant polyphenols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Plant Metabolism 2.0)
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