Topic Editors

Plant Physiology Unit, Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Turin, Italy
Dipartimento di Agraria, Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Loc. Feo di Vito, I-89129 Reggio Calabria, Italy
Laboratory of Vegetable Production, Department of Crop Science, Agricultural University of Athens, Iera Odos 75, 11855 Athens, Greece

Plants Nutrients

Abstract submission deadline
closed (30 April 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (30 June 2023)
Viewed by
57001

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

The study of the manner in which plants obtain and use nutrients, namely plant nutrition, is central for feeding the ever-growing global population, improving modern agricultural practices, environmental protection, as well as understanding plant ecological interactions in natural ecosystems. Recently, there has been an upsurge in research and a renewed interest in the field of plant nutrition as contemporary experimental approaches are being used to examine the mechanisms underlying plant nutrient transport and utilization. This has been driven by the availability of new powerful tools, including molecular techniques, complete genome sequences and the development of model plant systems and sophisticated tools to study plant physiology. The present Topic Issue aims to host and gather relevant high-quality papers concerned with many different aspects of the biology of plant nutrients, such as uptake mechanisms, short- and long-distance transport, functions in planta, source–sink relationships, yield and yield quality, relationships with plant diseases and pests, diagnosis of deficiency and toxicity, as well as plant–soil relationships, including rhizosphere chemistry, symbiotic interactions, and the involvement in carbon fluxes in terrestrial agricultural and forestry ecosystems.

Dr. Gianpiero Vigani
Dr. Maurizio Badiani
Dr. Georgia Ntatsi
Topic Editors

Keywords

  •  plant macronutrients
  •  plant micronutrients
  •  plant nutrition’s molecular physiology
  •  plant nutrients’ source–sink relationships
  •  plant nutrition and yield
  •  plant nutrition and yield quality
  •  plant–soil interactions
  •  rhizosphere
  •  nitrogen fixation
  •  plant nutrients and carbon cycling

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Agronomy
agronomy
3.7 5.2 2011 15.8 Days CHF 2600
Crops
crops
- - 2021 30.5 Days CHF 1000
Forests
forests
2.9 4.5 2010 16.9 Days CHF 2600
Horticulturae
horticulturae
3.1 2.4 2015 14.7 Days CHF 2200
Plants
plants
4.5 5.4 2012 15.3 Days CHF 2700

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Published Papers (33 papers)

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15 pages, 1482 KiB  
Article
Tomato Firmness and Shelf-Life Increased by Application of Stimulated Calcium
by Jolyon Dodgson, Anna K. Weston and David J. Marks
Crops 2023, 3(4), 251-265; https://doi.org/10.3390/crops3040023 - 23 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1447
Abstract
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) had almost 190 million tonnes produced in 2021. Tomato fruit suffer losses of up to 50% during harvest and transport, which causes financial hardship, reduces the amount of food available and causes environmental harm. Calcium plays an important [...] Read more.
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) had almost 190 million tonnes produced in 2021. Tomato fruit suffer losses of up to 50% during harvest and transport, which causes financial hardship, reduces the amount of food available and causes environmental harm. Calcium plays an important role in cell wall strength. This work assessed the use of a calcium transport stimulant (MCAS) to increase the firmness of tomato fruit in the laboratory and the foliar application to tomato plants. Then, handling damage was simulated. In the laboratory, the calcium with MCAS significantly increased the fruit firmness compared to the untreated and calcium without MCAS, which were not significantly different. When calcium with MCAS was applied to tomato plants foliarly before harvest, the calcium with MCAS-treated fruit were significantly firmer than the untreated or calcium without MCAS-treated fruit for up to 10 weeks after harvest, and this was achieved by applying only 0.91 kg ha−1 calcium. Finally, when fruit were exposed to a simulated drop, the calcium with MCAS-treated fruit remained firmer than the undamaged fruit or dropped fruit with calcium without MCAS. Calcium with MCAS could significantly increase the fruit firmness and increase the shelf-life of tomatoes while applying less calcium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plants Nutrients)
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23 pages, 2242 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Growth, Yield, and Nutrient Uptake of Mediterranean Tomato Landraces in Response to Salinity Stress
by Theodora Ntanasi, Ioannis Karavidas, Georgios Zioviris, Ioannis Ziogas, Melini Karaolani, Dimitrios Fortis, Miquel À. Conesa, Andrea Schubert, Dimitrios Savvas and Georgia Ntatsi
Plants 2023, 12(20), 3551; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12203551 - 12 Oct 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1279
Abstract
Salinity is a major stress factor that compromises vegetable production in semi-arid climates such as the Mediterranean. The accumulation of salts in the soil can be attributed to limited water availability, which can be exacerbated by changes in rainfall patterns and rising temperatures. [...] Read more.
Salinity is a major stress factor that compromises vegetable production in semi-arid climates such as the Mediterranean. The accumulation of salts in the soil can be attributed to limited water availability, which can be exacerbated by changes in rainfall patterns and rising temperatures. These factors can alter soil moisture levels and evaporation rates, ultimately leading to an increase in soil salinity, and, concomitantly, the extent to which crop yield is affected by salinity stress is considered cultivar-dependent. In contrast to tomato hybrids, tomato landraces often exhibit greater genetic diversity and resilience to environmental stresses, constituting valuable resources for breeding programs seeking to introduce new tolerance mechanisms. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effects of mild salinity stress on the growth, yield, and nutritional status of sixteen Mediterranean tomato landraces of all size types that had been pre-selected as salinity tolerant in previous screening trials. The experiment was carried out in the greenhouse facilities of the Laboratory of Vegetable Production at the Agricultural University of Athens. To induce salinity stress, plants were grown hydroponically and irrigated with a nutrient solution containing NaCl at a concentration that could maintain the NaCl level in the root zone at 30 mM, while the non-salt-treated plants were irrigated with a nutrient solution containing 0.5 mM NaCl. Various plant growth parameters, including dry matter content and fruit yield (measured by the number and weight of fruits per plant), were evaluated to assess the impact of salinity stress. In addition, the nutritional status of the plants was assessed by determining the concentrations of macro- and micronutrients in the leaves, roots, and fruit of the plants. The key results of this study reveal that cherry-type tomato landraces exhibit the highest tolerance to salinity stress, as the landraces ‘Cherry-INRAE (1)’, ‘Cherry-INRAE (3)’, and ‘Cherry-INRAE (4)’ did not experience a decrease in yield when exposed to salinity stress. However, larger landraces such as ‘de Ramellet’ also exhibit mechanisms conferring tolerance to salinity, as their yield was not compromised by the stress applied. The identified tolerant and resistant varieties could potentially be used in breeding programs to develop new varieties and hybrids that are better adapted to salinity-affected environments. The identification and utilization of tomato varieties that are adapted to salinity stress is an important strategy for promoting agriculture sustainability, particularly in semi-arid regions where salinity stress is a major challenge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plants Nutrients)
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14 pages, 5286 KiB  
Article
Plant–Soil Feedback of Companion Species during Grassland Community Succession
by Li Zhang, Linhui Zhang, Lulu Huang, Huiling Zhou, Sha Xue, Minggang Wang and Hongwei Xu
Forests 2023, 14(8), 1634; https://doi.org/10.3390/f14081634 - 13 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 964
Abstract
The responses of dominant species to plant–soil feedback (PSF) are well established; however, the changes in the PSF of companion species remain unclear. This study aims to assess the direction and intensity of PSF, determine the main factors influencing it, and interpret the [...] Read more.
The responses of dominant species to plant–soil feedback (PSF) are well established; however, the changes in the PSF of companion species remain unclear. This study aims to assess the direction and intensity of PSF, determine the main factors influencing it, and interpret the ecological significance of PSF in companion species within the context of grassland community succession. Three typical companion species, namely Artemisia sacrorum, Artemisia capillaris, and Artemisia giraldii, were planted in soils at three grassland community succession stages (early, middle, and late) on the Loess Plateau. Our results indicate that during both plant growth periods, the shoot biomass of A. sacrorum, A. capillaris, and A. giraldii in early- and late-stage soils was higher than that in the middle-stage soil, suggesting consistent growth of the three companion species during the two growth periods. However, plant growth simultaneously led to a reduction in soil nutrient content and microbial biomass, resulting in an overall decrease in the biomass of the three species, indicating a negative PSF effect in companion species. In conclusion, the negative PSF observed in all three associated species explains the temporary dominance of companion species during succession. This study enhances our understanding of the mechanisms driving PSF in community succession. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plants Nutrients)
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17 pages, 6452 KiB  
Article
Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Oil Palm Seedlings: Unraveling the Untapped Potential of Elevated External Ammonium Supply
by Marlon De la Peña, Rodrigo Ruiz-Romero and Hernán Mauricio Romero
Plants 2023, 12(15), 2819; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12152819 - 30 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1266
Abstract
Ammonium (NH4+) is an essential nitrogen source for plants, but excessive exposure can trigger stress responses that vary among and within different plant species. This study investigated the phenotypic variations in response to ammonium nutrition in five oil palm genotypes [...] Read more.
Ammonium (NH4+) is an essential nitrogen source for plants, but excessive exposure can trigger stress responses that vary among and within different plant species. This study investigated the phenotypic variations in response to ammonium nutrition in five oil palm genotypes seedlings. Nitrate nutrition was used as a reference for a non-stressful condition, and three different nitrogen concentrations (5, 10, and 15 mM) were examined. Control groups without external nitrogen application were included for each genotype. Several parameters were analyzed, including plant growth, root length, gas exchange, fluorescence, chlorophyll, reducing sugars, amino acids, proteins, and nitrogen uptake. The results revealed a significant genotype effect, particularly between the interspecific OxG hybrid and the Elaeis guinensis genotypes. Ammonium nutrition increased shoot growth in all genotypes compared to nitrate nutrition. Additionally, there was a trend towards increased primary root length, amino acids, proteins, and nitrogen uptake under ammonium supply. These findings are promising, particularly considering the recommendation to use ammonium with inhibitors for environmental sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plants Nutrients)
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17 pages, 4203 KiB  
Article
Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium Uptake in Rain-Fed Corn as Affected by NPK Fertilization
by Ravinder Singh, Steven Kyle Sawatzky, Matthew Thomas, Samuel Akin, Hailin Zhang, William Raun and Daryl Brian Arnall
Agronomy 2023, 13(7), 1913; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13071913 - 20 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2255
Abstract
Effective nutrient management requires understanding nutrient uptake at various growth stages and nutrient removal by the harvested portion. Information on nutrient accumulation was provided by some older literature, and a few researchers have focused on this issue in this modern period with modern [...] Read more.
Effective nutrient management requires understanding nutrient uptake at various growth stages and nutrient removal by the harvested portion. Information on nutrient accumulation was provided by some older literature, and a few researchers have focused on this issue in this modern period with modern hybrids and improved corn cultivation practices. While almost all the studies were conducted in northern states of the US, information for the Southern Great Plains is still limited. To bridge this knowledge gap, a 2-year field study was conducted in a rain-fed corn production system. The study aimed to evaluate the impact of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertilization on N, P, and K contents in aboveground plants at different growth stages. Pre-plant application of N (0, 67, 133 kg N ha−1), P (0 and 20 kg ha−1) and K (0 and 60 kg ha−1) fertilizers was done. Results from our study revealed that nutrient uptake values, pattern and dynamics depend on environmental conditions, soil type and management practices. N concentration in plants showed a linear response to N application rate while P and K concentrations were unaffected by NPK fertilization rates. Total N, P and K uptake was primarily driven by N application rate, showing a linear increase with higher N rates. Co-application of P and K with N did not significantly affect nutrient concentration and uptake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plants Nutrients)
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12 pages, 2871 KiB  
Article
Response of C:N:P Stoichiometry to Phosphorus Addition and Homeostasis of Plant Tissues in a Subtropical Slash Pine Plantation
by Ting Jia, Min Yi, Fusheng Chen, Meng Lai, Cangfu Jin, Zixuan Nie, Linjin Zhou, Jinwen Xie and Lu Zhang
Forests 2023, 14(7), 1355; https://doi.org/10.3390/f14071355 - 30 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 993
Abstract
Phosphorus (P) fertilizer is commonly used in subtropical plantations to augment nutrients including carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and P to maintain plants engaged in metabolism. Stoichiometric homeostasis reflects the adaptation of plants to various environments (including P fertilizer supply rates). It is thus [...] Read more.
Phosphorus (P) fertilizer is commonly used in subtropical plantations to augment nutrients including carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and P to maintain plants engaged in metabolism. Stoichiometric homeostasis reflects the adaptation of plants to various environments (including P fertilizer supply rates). It is thus of great significance to understand C:N:P stoichiometry in the plant–litter–soil system under P addition and the stoichiometric homeostasis of plant tissues for the P fertilization management of slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm) plantations. In subtropical China, we measured the C, N, and P contents in root, branch, needle, litter, and soil in slash pine plantations fertilized with four treatments, P1 (25 kg P ha1 yr1), P2 (50 kg P ha1 yr1), P3 (100 kg P ha1 yr1), and a control (CK), and calculated the stoichiometric homeostasis of plant tissues. The results show that P3 treatment increased the C, N, and P contents of the needle. P2 and P3 treatments increased the P content of the litter and the N:P ratio of the root while decreasing the C:N ratio of the root. P addition treatments increased C and P element accumulation in soil but had no effect on soil stoichiometry. The nutrient contents of needle and branch were higher than those of root and litter, indicating that slash pine was more inclined to allocate nutrients to the aboveground tissues. The stoichiometric homeostasis of C, N, and P among plant tissues was graded as follows: root > branch > needle. The needle’s nutritional homeostasis was C > N > P, with 1/H values of 0.08, 0.34, and 0.74, respectively. These findings demonstrate that during P addition, the C, N, and P stoichiometric homeostasis varied among plant tissues and element types. In conclusion, P application altered nutrient distribution in the plant–litter–soil system, alleviating P restriction in slash pine forests in southern China. P addition levels should be finely adjusted in the future for longer-term observation trials, and the trade-off between P addition rates and economic and ecological advantages should be properly examined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plants Nutrients)
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20 pages, 3309 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Foliar Zinc Application on the Leaf Chlorophyll Concentrations and Grain Yields of the Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Field Experiments of Two Seasons
by Katalin Irmes, István Kristó, Lajos Szentpéteri, Attila Rácz, Marianna Vályi-Nagy, Mária Katalin Kassai, Klára Veresné Valentinyi and Melinda Tar
Agronomy 2023, 13(6), 1640; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13061640 - 19 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1054
Abstract
This research examined the effectiveness of zinc foliar fertilizers. Two winter wheat varieties, GK Pilis and Zvezdana, were tested in a Zn-limited meadow chernozem soil. Crop yields and chlorophyll concentrations of the leaves were examined in the growing seasons of 2020/2021 of favorable [...] Read more.
This research examined the effectiveness of zinc foliar fertilizers. Two winter wheat varieties, GK Pilis and Zvezdana, were tested in a Zn-limited meadow chernozem soil. Crop yields and chlorophyll concentrations of the leaves were examined in the growing seasons of 2020/2021 of favorable weather conditions and 2021/2022 of drought weather conditions. In the experiment, three treatments were carried out with monozinc foliar fertilizer of a concentrated 12% (w/v) zinc sulfate heptahydrate solution, and the fourth plot was designed as the untreated control. The first monozinc treatment was applied at a dose of 1 L ha−1 and the second monozinc treatment at a dose of 2 L ha−1. These treatments were applied at tillering (BBCH 21–22). The third monozinc treatment was applied at a dose of 1 L ha−1 at tillering and flag leaf emergence (BBCH 21–22, BBCH 37). Samples were taken several times in the vegetation period, and measurements were made using different methods (SPAD, determination of total chlorophyll concentration from acetone solution) before and after Zn treatments. In 2020/2021 of favorable weather conditions, the yield of Zvezdana was 5.47 t ha−1 and that of Gk Pilis was 6.11 t ha−1, compared to 2021/2022 of drought weather conditions, in which year the yield of Zvezdana was 3.14 t ha−1 and that of Gk Pilis was 2.79 t ha−1. Yields of both varieties increased with increasing NPK nutrient doses. In 2021/2022, even at nutrient level D (NPK basal fertilizer and two-times N topdressing), we harvested on average twice as much as in 2020/2021 at nutrient level A (N basal fertilizer and once N topdressing). No significant effects were found between the foliar fertilizers in 2020/2021. In 2021/2022, Zn treatments, mainly at four nutrient levels tended to increase the yields of both varieties. The first treatment resulted in a grain yield reduction of 3% for GK Pilis, and the second treatment resulted in a grain yield reduction of 1.2% for Zvezdana. After the second and third treatments, grain yield reductions were 0.1%–0.5%. Although there was no significant difference in terms of the main averages, foliar fertilizer was found to be effective in the second year. The relationship between chlorophyll and grain yield was found to depend on the year and variety. A weak correlation (r = 0.33, p < 0.05) was found between the total chlorophyll concentration in leaves for Zvezdana in 2021, and a medium correlation for GK Pilis (r = 0.67, p < 0.05). Concerning grain yield and chlorophyll concentration, a strong correlation (r = 0.81, p < 0.05) was found for Zvezdana in 2022, and a weak correlation (r = 0.44, p < 0.05) for GK Pilis. A strong correlation was found between the total leaf chlorophyll concentration and SPAD index in both years (r = 0.81, p < 0.05) Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plants Nutrients)
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13 pages, 1015 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Soybean Meal on Growth, Bioactive Compounds, and Antioxidant Activity of Hericium erinaceus
by Preuk Chutimanukul, Siripong Sukdee, Onmanee Prajuabjinda, Ornprapa Thepsilvisut, Sumalee Panthong, Dusit Athinuwat, Wilawan Chuaboon, Phakpen Poomipan and Vorapat Vachirayagorn
Horticulturae 2023, 9(6), 693; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9060693 - 12 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1963
Abstract
Hericium erinaceus (Bull.:Fr) Pers. is a medicinal mushroom that has various health benefits and is a rich source of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. In recent years, H. erinaceus has been considered for its many medicinal properties and is widely consumed in Asian [...] Read more.
Hericium erinaceus (Bull.:Fr) Pers. is a medicinal mushroom that has various health benefits and is a rich source of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. In recent years, H. erinaceus has been considered for its many medicinal properties and is widely consumed in Asian countries. Remarkably, the effect of mushroom cultivation using substrates composed of soybean meal by-products on growth, as well as the enhancement of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity, was evaluated. Our results confirmed that using soybean meal-produced H. erinaceus displayed a higher mycelial growth and biological efficiency than the control treatment. Bioactive compounds with triterpenoid content and total phenolic content of H. erinaceus grown on soybean meal contained the highest values at 56.78–69.15 mg Urs/g DW and 15.52–16.07 mg GAE/g DW, respectively, while H. erinaceus grown on the control treatment had the lowest value at 32.15 mg Urs/g DW and 7.75 mg GAE/g DW, respectively. In addition, H. erinaceus cultivated on soybean meal had higher DPPH activities than those grown on the control treatment, with IC50 values of 0.67–0.89 and 1.08 mg/mL, respectively. Therefore, this study provided baseline information on the potential role of soybean meal by-product substrates in H. erinaceus growth and their effect on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plants Nutrients)
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23 pages, 1663 KiB  
Review
Ammonium Phytotoxicity and Tolerance: An Insight into Ammonium Nutrition to Improve Crop Productivity
by Jayabalan Shilpha, Jinnan Song and Byoung Ryong Jeong
Agronomy 2023, 13(6), 1487; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13061487 - 28 May 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2579
Abstract
Ammonium sensitivity is considered a globally stressful condition that affects overall crop productivity. The major toxic symptom associated with ammonium nutrition is growth retardation, which has been associated with a high energy cost for maintaining ion, pH, and hormone homeostasis and, eventually, the [...] Read more.
Ammonium sensitivity is considered a globally stressful condition that affects overall crop productivity. The major toxic symptom associated with ammonium nutrition is growth retardation, which has been associated with a high energy cost for maintaining ion, pH, and hormone homeostasis and, eventually, the NH3/NH4+ level in plant tissues. While certain species/genotypes exhibit extreme sensitivity to ammonium, other species/genotypes prefer ammonium to nitrate as a form of nitrogen. Some of the key tolerance mechanisms used by the plant to deal with NH4+ toxicity include an enhanced activity of an alternative oxidase pathway in mitochondria, greater NH4+ assimilation plus the retention of the minimum level of NH4+ in leaves, and/or poor response to extrinsic acidification or pH drop. Except for toxicity, ammonium can be considered as an energy-efficient nutrition in comparison to nitrate since it is already in a reduced form for use in amino acid metabolism. Through effective manipulation of the NH4+/NO3  ratio, ammonium nutrition can be used to increase productivity, quality, and resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses of crops. This review highlights recent advancements in ammonium toxicity and tolerance mechanisms, possible strategies to improve ammonium tolerance, and omics-based understanding of nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plants Nutrients)
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17 pages, 3972 KiB  
Article
H2S Crosstalk in Rhizobia Modulates Essential Nutrient Allocation and Transport in Soybean
by Nina Zhang, Li Wang, Juan Chen and Zhouping Shangguan
Agronomy 2023, 13(5), 1332; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13051332 - 10 May 2023
Viewed by 1158
Abstract
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a novel gas signaling molecule, plays a crucial role in plant growth and stress response. However, little attention has been devoted to the regulation of H2S on nutrient transport and utilization in legume–rhizobia symbiosis systems. Although [...] Read more.
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a novel gas signaling molecule, plays a crucial role in plant growth and stress response. However, little attention has been devoted to the regulation of H2S on nutrient transport and utilization in legume–rhizobia symbiosis systems. Although we have previously proven that H2S synergized with rhizobia to considerably enhance nitrogen (N) metabolism and remobilization in N-deficient soybeans, it remains uncertain if changes in nutrient absorption, metabolism, and accumulation occur concurrently. Therefore, employing a synergistic treatment of H2S and rhizobia, we examined the dry matter biomass and carbon (C), N, phosphorous (P), and potassium (K) nutrient content in various organs of soybean from blooming to maturity. Firstly, H2S and rhizobia application obviously improved leaf and plant phenotypes and biomass accumulation in different organs during N-deficient soybean development. Second, from flowering to maturity, the contents and stoichiometric ratios of C, N, P, and K in various organs of soybean were changed to variable degrees by H2S and rhizobia. Furthermore, H2S collaborated with rhizobia to significantly affect grain nutrient harvest across soybean growth as well as overall plant nutrient accumulation. Consequently, H2S synergizes with rhizobia to optimize grain harvest quality and nutrient accumulation across the plant by managing the rational allocation and dynamic balance of nutrients in diverse organs, hence boosting soybean development and production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plants Nutrients)
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10 pages, 3415 KiB  
Article
Use of Stabilised Amine Nitrogen (SAN) Reduces Required Nitrogen Input and Increases Yield of Onions (Allium cepa L.)
by Jolyon Dodgson, Anna K. Weston and David J. Marks
Crops 2023, 3(2), 148-157; https://doi.org/10.3390/crops3020015 - 04 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1877
Abstract
Nitrogen is the main nutrient required by plants for growth. The production of onions (Allium cepa) results in low nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) as nitrogen is applied when it is not required by the plant; resulting in loss to the environment. [...] Read more.
Nitrogen is the main nutrient required by plants for growth. The production of onions (Allium cepa) results in low nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) as nitrogen is applied when it is not required by the plant; resulting in loss to the environment. This work assessed the ability of stabilised amine nitrogen (SAN) to increase the NUE and yield of onion. In a glasshouse, two onion cultivars (F1 Hybound (pelleted) and Ramrod) were grown and fertilised with 150 kg N ha−1 as urea applied to the soil or 2.7 kg N ha−1 as SAN applied foliarly at the three, four and five leaf stages. The survival percentage, number of leaves, height, weight, bulb diameter and stem diameter were recorded. For both cultivars, the survival percentage was increased with the SAN, with the increase being significant for Ramrod. While for all other parameters, SAN resulted in significant increases for both cultivars. In field plot trails, applications of 150 kg N ha−1 were compared to applications of 7.56 kg N ha−1 as SAN, which gave statistically similar yields and increased the NUE. This work shows that considerably reduced N as SAN was a significant improvement over the traditional 150 kg N ha−1 for onion production. Commercial application of this work would significantly improve the profitability of onion production due to reduced purchase of N and increased yield. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plants Nutrients)
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14 pages, 4115 KiB  
Article
Effects of Pruning on Tea Tree Growth, Soil Enzyme Activity and Microbial Diversity
by Qi Zhang, Ying Zhang, Pengyao Miao, Meihui Chen, Mengru Du, Xiaomin Pang, Jianghua Ye, Haibin Wang and Xiaoli Jia
Agronomy 2023, 13(5), 1214; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13051214 - 25 Apr 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2280
Abstract
In order to investigate the effect of pruning on the soil environment in which tea trees grow and the growth of tea trees, this study used Wuyi Meizhan (Camellia sinensis) as a research object and measured its growth indexes, soil physicochemical [...] Read more.
In order to investigate the effect of pruning on the soil environment in which tea trees grow and the growth of tea trees, this study used Wuyi Meizhan (Camellia sinensis) as a research object and measured its growth indexes, soil physicochemical indexes, soil enzyme activity and microbial functional diversity to analyze the effects of pruning treatments on the growth of tea trees, soil enzyme activity and soil microbial functional diversity and the correlation between them. The results of the analysis of tea tree growth indexes showed that the hundred-bud weight, leaf area and yield in the pruning treatment were significantly higher than those in the unpruned treatment. The results of soil physicochemical index analysis showed that pH, available phosphorus, available potassium and organic matter were significantly higher in the pruning treatment than in the unpruned treatment (p < 0.05), while available nitrogen and total phosphorus were significantly lower than in unpruned treatment (p < 0.05). The results of soil enzyme activities showed that only polyphenol oxidase and catalase activities were significantly higher in the pruning than in the unpruned treatment, while urease, protease, acid phosphatase, asparaginase and glutaminase activities were significantly lower than in the unpruned treatment (p < 0.05). Biolog analysis showed that the utilization of microbial carbon sources, especially amino acid and amine, increased in the rhizosphere soil of the pruned tea tree, while there was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in microbial diversity. It is evident that pruning promoted tea tree growth and some enzyme activity, while inhibiting the activity of enzymes associated with the nitrogen cycle, and the utilization of microbial carbon sources increased, but their diversity decreased. This study provides a theoretical basis for the daily management of tea plantation after pruning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plants Nutrients)
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15 pages, 4458 KiB  
Article
Dynamics of Micronutrient Uptake and Removal by Three Modern Runner Peanut Cultivars
by Carlos Alexandre Costa Crusciol, José Roberto Portugal, João William Bossolani, Luiz Gustavo Moretti, Adalton Mazetti Fernandes, Adônis Moreira, Jader Luis Nantes Garcia, Gleize Leviski de Brito Garcia, Cristiane Pilon and Heitor Cantarella
Crops 2023, 3(2), 101-115; https://doi.org/10.3390/crops3020010 - 11 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1293
Abstract
Micronutrient fertilization is usually neglected by producers, especially for peanut, a crop that is frequently grown in crop rotation systems due to its low perceived nutrient requirements. New peanut cultivars are able to achieve high yields when grown under suitable conditions. However, fertilization [...] Read more.
Micronutrient fertilization is usually neglected by producers, especially for peanut, a crop that is frequently grown in crop rotation systems due to its low perceived nutrient requirements. New peanut cultivars are able to achieve high yields when grown under suitable conditions. However, fertilization recommendation tables are dated and do not consider the need for micronutrients. To support improvements in these recommendations, this study quantified the micronutrient demand (B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn) of three runner peanut cultivars (IAC Runner 886, IAC 505, and IAC OL3) during the biological cycle and the transport of these micronutrients to pods and kernels. The experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block with a split-plot design and nine replications. The whole plots consisted of the three peanut cultivars, and the subplots comprised nine plant samplings (at 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84, 105, 126, and 147 days after emergence (DAE)). These modern peanut cultivars exhibited high uptake and accumulation of Fe, but the proportion of Fe removed by pods and kernels was lowest among all analyzed micronutrients. The second-most-accumulated micronutrient was Mn. The maximum requirement for micronutrients of peanut occurred around 84 DAE, and IAC 505 had the highest micronutrient uptake and accumulation among the cultivars (especially at later stages), followed by IAC OL3 and IAC Runner 886. Our results provide new insights into micronutrient requirements for peanut and demonstrate the need for new fertilizer recommendation programs for peanut cultivation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plants Nutrients)
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19 pages, 1113 KiB  
Article
Quantitative Analysis of Source-Sink Relationships in Two Potato Varieties under Different Nitrogen Application Rates
by Kunyu Liu, Meilian Meng, Tingting Zhang, Youjun Chen, Haotian Yuan and Taimin Su
Agronomy 2023, 13(4), 1083; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13041083 - 09 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1198
Abstract
Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for plant growth. However, the excessive use of nitrogen fertilizers not only increases production cost, but also has negative a impact on the environment. The purpose of this study was to quantify the source-sink characteristics and length of [...] Read more.
Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for plant growth. However, the excessive use of nitrogen fertilizers not only increases production cost, but also has negative a impact on the environment. The purpose of this study was to quantify the source-sink characteristics and length of each growth stage in two potato varieties under different nitrogen application rates. This clarifies the source-sink coordination characteristics of the nitrogen-efficient variety and the source-sink coordination mechanisms of high nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). Field experiments were conducted in 2019, 2020, and 2021 using a split-plot design, with a nitrogen application rate of (0; 150 kg·ha−1; 300 kg·ha−1) as the main plot and variety (J, nitrogen-efficient variety Jizhang 12; Y, nitrogen-inefficient variety Youjia 70) as the subplot. The results showed that the yield and NUE of Jizhang 12 at 300 kg·ha−1 were, on average, 90.73% and 75.15% higher than those of Youjia 70, respectively. The NUE and nitrogen utilization efficiency of Jizhang 12 increased on average, with decreasing N application at 68.66% and 24.53%, which were higher than those of Youjia 70 at 62.89% and 10.86%. Quantitative analysis of the source and sink showed that the Jizhang 12 had a higher source and sink capacity of 23.45 g and 51.85 g, respectively, and the maximum source and sink activity was on average 0.28 g·plant−1·d−1 and 1.47 g·plant−1·d−1 higher, and the growth period of the source and sink was on average 24 days and 7 days longer, respectively. On the basis of these results, the nitrogen-efficient varieties had a higher yield base and a smaller reduction in NUE with reduced N application. In terms of source-sink growth, N-efficient varieties lasted longer at the seedling and tuber initiation stages, when potatoes grew above ground and source organs grew for longer periods, providing a solid foundation for later sink growth, as evidenced by their higher source-sink activity, capacity, and growth time than N-inefficient varieties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plants Nutrients)
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13 pages, 4024 KiB  
Article
Plant Traits Variably Respond to Plant–Soil Interactions during Secondary Succession on the Loess Plateau
by Zemin Ai, Jiayi Li, Xinghua Li, Jiaoyang Zhang, Hongfei Liu, Hongwei Xu, Guobin Liu and Sha Xue
Forests 2023, 14(4), 726; https://doi.org/10.3390/f14040726 - 01 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1052
Abstract
Knowledge of plant photosynthesis, biomass, and stress resistance could contribute to exploring the growth and restoration of vegetation. However, the response of these plant traits to plant–soil interactions at different successional stages remains poorly understood, which limits the understanding of secondary succession. A [...] Read more.
Knowledge of plant photosynthesis, biomass, and stress resistance could contribute to exploring the growth and restoration of vegetation. However, the response of these plant traits to plant–soil interactions at different successional stages remains poorly understood, which limits the understanding of secondary succession. A greenhouse experiment was designed to test the effects of rhizosphere soils collected from early- (EarlySoil), mid- (MidSoil), and late-successional (LateSoil) plant communities on plant traits of early-, mid-, and late-successional species (EarlySp, MidSp, and LateSp, respectively). We found that plant traits reacted in a specific direction to plant–soil interactions at different successional stages. Specifically, compared with treatments of plants growing in their own soil, the net photosynthetic rate and single-photon avalanche diode significantly increased in LateSp–EarlySoil (treatment of plants growing in soil) (20%–31%) and LateSp–MidSoil (10%–18%); the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II increased in MidSp–EarlySoil (1%) and LateSp–MidSoil (4%); belowground soluble sugar concentrations decreased in LateSp–EarlySoil (33%) and LateSp–MidSoil (45%); leaf, stem, and root biomass increased in MidSp–EarlySoil (76%–123%), LateSp–EarlySoil (180%–342%), and LateSp–MidSoil (83%–137%), and in turn they decreased in EarlySp–MidSoil (40%–73%) and EarlySp–LateSoil (53%–67%). The results indicated that soil conditioned by pre-successional species (early- or mid-successional species) would be conducive to plant functional traits of subsequent successional species (mid- or late-successional species). Constrained redundancy analysis and path analysis suggested that water-soluble ammonium N, total N, and available N concentrations were key soil factors affecting early-, mid-, and late-successional species, respectively. Our findings confirm the directionality of succession and provide new information for plant population dynamics during secondary succession. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plants Nutrients)
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14 pages, 1996 KiB  
Article
Nutrient Resorption and Stoichiometric Characteristics of Wuyi Rock Tea Cultivars
by Dehuang Zhu, Suhong Peng, Wenzhen Liu, Shengjie Yu and Dafeng Hui
Forests 2023, 14(4), 675; https://doi.org/10.3390/f14040675 - 24 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1084
Abstract
Nutrient resorption is an important strategy for plants to retain critical nutrients from senesced leaves and plays important roles in nutrient cycling and ecosystem productivity. As a main economic crop and soil and water conservation species, Wuyi Rock tea has been widely planted [...] Read more.
Nutrient resorption is an important strategy for plants to retain critical nutrients from senesced leaves and plays important roles in nutrient cycling and ecosystem productivity. As a main economic crop and soil and water conservation species, Wuyi Rock tea has been widely planted in Fujian Province, China. However, foliar nutrient resorptions of Wuyi Rock tea cultivars have not been well quantified. In this study, three Wuyi Rock tea cultivars (Wuyi Jingui, Wuyi Rougui, and Wuyi Shuixian) were selected in the Wuyishan National Soil and Water Conservation, Science and Technology Demonstration Park. Resorption efficiencies of nitrogen (NRE), phosphorus (PRE), and potassium (KRE) along with their stoichiometric characteristics were determined. PRE of the three tea cultivars was significantly higher than KRE and NRE, indicating that tea cultivars were P limited due to low P availability for the tea growth. With the exception of Wuyi Rougui, leaf N and P contents of the other two cultivars (Wuyi Jingui and Wuyi Shuixian) had strong homeostasis under the changing soil environments. Leaf thickness and specific leaf area were positively and significantly correlated with KRE, and total chlorophyll concentration was positively correlated with NRE, indicating that leaf functional traits can be used as indicators for nutrient resorption status. Wuyi Rock tea cultivars had strong adaptabilities to the environments and had high carbon sequestration capabilities; thus, they and could be introduced into nutrient-poor mountainous areas for both economic benefits and soil and water conservation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plants Nutrients)
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23 pages, 1971 KiB  
Article
Influence of Long-Term Organic Fertilization on Changes in the Content of Various Forms of Sulfur in the Soil under Maize Monoculture
by Pavel Suran, Jiří Balík, Martin Kulhánek, Ondřej Sedlář and Jindřich Černý
Agronomy 2023, 13(4), 957; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13040957 - 23 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1240
Abstract
Sulfur nutrition is a crucial part of proper crop growth. In this study, we investigated the influence of organic fertilizers in a long-term field experiment (23 years) with continuous maize monoculture. We focused on: (a) changes in the soil sulfur fraction pools, (b) [...] Read more.
Sulfur nutrition is a crucial part of proper crop growth. In this study, we investigated the influence of organic fertilizers in a long-term field experiment (23 years) with continuous maize monoculture. We focused on: (a) changes in the soil sulfur fraction pools, (b) the balance of total sulfur inputs and outputs, and (c) sulfur uptake by maize. The following treatments were selected: unfertilized control (Control), urea and ammonium nitrate (UAN), UAN and wheat straw (UAN + St), sewage sludge (SS), farmyard manure (FYM), and slurry (Slurry). Using sequential extraction, we determined water-soluble (SW—in water), adsorbed (Sads—in 0.032 mol L−1 NaH2PO4), and available (Sav = SW + Sads) sulfur content. Microwave-assisted digestion in an Aqua regia solution was used to measure the pseudo-total sulfur content (Spt). Organic-bound sulfur (Sorg) was calculated as a difference between Spt and Sav. We found that average biomass yields responded to a uniform 120 kg N ha−1 year−1 dose, rather than the dose of S in fertilizers, with an increase over the Control by 34–49%. The effect of an additional 33.5 kg N ha−1 year−1 on UAN + St treatment was not significant. Average sulfur uptake responded to increased yields (69-121% higher than Control), rather than the sulfur application, with the exception of SS, where the dose of sulfur was high enough to cause an additional uptake. In the topsoil, we discovered a significant decrease over time (from 1997 to 2019) in water-soluble (SW), adsorbed (Sads), available (Sav), and pseudo-total (Spt) fractions on all treatments to 29, 59, 37, and 82% of their initial values, respectively. For all treatments, the proportion of Sorg in Spt increased over time, which was caused by the decrease in mineral fractions (SW, Sads, Sav). The absolute content of Sorg decreased over time for all treatments except SS and FYM to about 85% of the initial value. Using the simple balancing method, we calculated that UAN + St, SS, FYM, and Slurry treatments annually lost 8.04, 66.1, 21.4, and 26.8 kg of S ha−1, respectively. This loss was attributed to the decrease in atmospheric depositions, as well as the release of sulfur from soil organic matter (for UAN + St and Slurry treatments) and a high proportion of easily mineralizable and inorganic sulfur from the SS treatment. Generally, the FYM fertilizer provided the highest potential for maintaining soil Spt status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plants Nutrients)
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30 pages, 6441 KiB  
Article
Growth Characteristics of Seven Willow Species Distributed in Eastern Japan in Response to Compost Application
by Masazumi Kayama, Satoshi Kikuchi, Akira Uemura and Masayoshi Takahashi
Forests 2023, 14(3), 606; https://doi.org/10.3390/f14030606 - 18 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1453
Abstract
To establish a short rotation coppice (SRC) system in the temperate region of East Asia, planting was conducted for cuttings from seven species, including Salix eriocarpa, S. gilgiana, S. gracilistyla, S. integra, S. sachalinensis, S. serissaefolia, and [...] Read more.
To establish a short rotation coppice (SRC) system in the temperate region of East Asia, planting was conducted for cuttings from seven species, including Salix eriocarpa, S. gilgiana, S. gracilistyla, S. integra, S. sachalinensis, S. serissaefolia, and S. subfragilis, with wide distribution in eastern Japan. During cultivation, cheap compost derived from swine manure and containing high concentrations of various nutrients was added. Three treatment groups, including control, low manure (5 Mg ha−1), and high manure (10 Mg ha−1) treatments, were established, and seven willows were grown for two complete growing seasons to obtain the clone density of 10,000 cuttings ha−1. The manure treatments accelerated the growth of all the willow species after two growing seasons. The averages of annual biomass production of seven willows grown under the control, low manure, and high manure treatments were 0.2 Mg ha−1yr−1, 5.3 Mg ha−1yr−1, and 8.5 Mg ha−1yr−1, respectively. By comparing with the biomasses of seven willows, the largest annual biomass production rates of 14.1 and 13.7 Mg ha−1yr−1 were observed in the high manure treatments of S. sachalinensis and S. subfragilis, respectively. For two species under the high manure treatment, S. sachalinensis had the thickest shoots, and S. subfragilis had the tallest shoots. These growth characteristics of S. sachalinensis and S. subfragilis originate from their high biomass production. Overall, these results suggest that S. sachalinensis and S. subfragilis are potentially feasible candidates for the SRC system in temperate regions of East Asia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plants Nutrients)
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17 pages, 7482 KiB  
Article
Modelling Leverage of Different Soil Properties on Selenium Water-Solubility in Soils of Southeast Europe
by Lucija Galić, Vlatko Galić, Vladimir Ivezić, Vladimir Zebec, Jurica Jović, Mirha Đikić, Adrijana Filipović, Maja Manojlović, Åsgeir Rossebø Almås and Zdenko Lončarić
Agronomy 2023, 13(3), 824; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13030824 - 11 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1476
Abstract
Selenium (Se) is a nonmetal that is essential for humans and other animals, and is considered beneficial for plants. The bioavailability of Se strongly influences its content in the food chain. Soils are the main source of Se, and their Se content primarily [...] Read more.
Selenium (Se) is a nonmetal that is essential for humans and other animals, and is considered beneficial for plants. The bioavailability of Se strongly influences its content in the food chain. Soils are the main source of Se, and their Se content primarily influences its availability, along with other soil properties. A field survey was conducted on soils of Southeast Europe, specifically in Croatia (Osijek), Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo, Banja Luka, Mostar, and Prud), and Serbia (Novi Sad). Soil samples were taken from the arable soil layer (0–30 cm depth), and two types of Se availability were measured: Se extracted using pure HNO3 (SeTot) and Se readily extracted in water (SeH2O). Only soils from the Mostar area had Se concentrations above deficit levels (0.5 mg kg−1), with the highest values of cation exchange capacity (CEC), soil organic matter (SOM) measured as loss of ignition (LOI), total C, total N, ZnTot and CdTot. The connections between the chemical characteristics of the soil and SeH2O were investigated. Principal component analysis (PCA) explained 73.7% of the variance in the data set in the first three principal components (PCs). Using the provided data, we developed a partial least squares (PLS) regression model that predicted the amount of SeH2O in the soil, with an accuracy ranging from 77% to 90%, depending on the input data. The highest loadings in the model were observed for LOI, CEC, total C, total N, and SeTot. Our results indicate the need for biofortification in these key agricultural areas to supplement the essential dietary requirements of humans and livestock. To efficiently and economically implement biofortification measures, we recommend utilizing regression models to accurately predict the availability of Se. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plants Nutrients)
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17 pages, 754 KiB  
Article
Hydroponic Common-Bean Performance under Reduced N-Supply Level and Rhizobia Application
by Ioannis Karavidas, Georgia Ntatsi, Theodora Ntanasi, Anastasia Tampakaki, Ariadni Giannopoulou, Dimitra Pantazopoulou, Leo Sabatino, Pietro P. M. Iannetta and Dimitrios Savvas
Plants 2023, 12(3), 646; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12030646 - 01 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1730
Abstract
This study aims to explore the possibility of a reduced application of inorganic nitrogen (N) fertiliser on the yield, yield qualities, and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) of the hydroponic common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), without compromising plant performance, by utilizing the inherent [...] Read more.
This study aims to explore the possibility of a reduced application of inorganic nitrogen (N) fertiliser on the yield, yield qualities, and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) of the hydroponic common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), without compromising plant performance, by utilizing the inherent ability of this plant to symbiotically fix N2. Until the flowering stage, plants were supplied with a nutrient solution containing N-concentrations of either a, 100%, conventional standard-practice, 13.8 mM; b, 75% of the standard, 10.35 mM; or c, 50% of the standard, 6.9 mM. During the subsequent reproductive stage, inorganic-N treatments b and c were decreased to 25% of the standard, and the standard (100% level) N-application was not altered. The three different inorganic-N supply treatments were combined with two different rhizobia strains, and a control (no-inoculation) treatment, in a two-factorial experiment. The rhizobia strains applied were either the indigenous strain Rhizobium sophoriradicis PVTN21 or the commercially supplied Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899. Results showed that the 50–25% mineral-N application regime led to significant increases in nodulation, BNF, and fresh-pod yield, compared to the other treatment, with a reduced inorganic-N supply. On the other hand, the 75–25% mineral-N regime applied during the vegetative stage restricted nodulation and BNF, thus incurring significant yield losses. Both rhizobia strains stimulated nodulation and BNF. However, the BNF capacity they facilitated was suppressed as the inorganic-N input increased. In addition, strain PVTN21 was superior to CIAT 899—as 50–25% N-treated plants inoculated with the former showed a yield loss of 11%, compared to the 100%-N-treated plants. In conclusion, N-use efficiency optimises BNF, reduces mineral-N-input dependency, and therefore may reduce any consequential negative environmental consequences of mineral-N over-application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plants Nutrients)
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14 pages, 2002 KiB  
Article
Different Environmental and Phylogenetic Controls over the Altitudinal Variation in Leaf N and P Resorption Traits between Woody and Herbaceous Plants
by Haoxuan Chen, Shuang Chen, Xiaochun Wang, Xinrui Liu, Xue Wang, Rong Zhu, Weiyi Mo, Ruili Wang and Shuoxin Zhang
Forests 2023, 14(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/f14010005 - 20 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1618
Abstract
Leaf nutrient resorption traits are regarded as important indicators reflecting the strategy of plant nutrient conservation, yet the mechanism underlying the variation of resorption traits in different plant growth forms (PGFs) remains unclear. In order to untangle the phylogenetic and environmental influences on [...] Read more.
Leaf nutrient resorption traits are regarded as important indicators reflecting the strategy of plant nutrient conservation, yet the mechanism underlying the variation of resorption traits in different plant growth forms (PGFs) remains unclear. In order to untangle the phylogenetic and environmental influences on leaf nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) resorption traits between woody and herbaceous plants, we investigated N and P contents of green and senesced leaves in 53 species along an altitudinal gradient (1374–3649 m) in the Taibai Mountain of central China and estimated leaf N and P resorption efficiency and proficiency. Our results show that leaf N and P resorption efficiency (NRE and PRE) had significant positive trends with altitude in both woody and herbaceous plants (all p < 0.05); however, their altitudinal patterns of N and P resorption proficiency (NRP and PRP) were different. For woody plants, leaf NRP and NRE:PRE first decreased and then increased with altitude (p < 0.05), while NRP:PRP had the opposite trend (p < 0.05). In herbaceous plants, leaf NRP and PRP decreased but NRP:PRP increased with altitude (p < 0.05). Climatic factors exerted the major influences on the variation in leaf NRE and PRE (18.5–24.8% explained variation). However, phylogenetic taxonomy mainly affected the variation of leaf PRP and NRP:PRP (45.2% and 41.4% explained variation) in all species, NRP:PRP in woody plants (37.8% explained variation), and NRE:PRE in herbaceous plants (49.7% explained variation). In addition, leaf NRP:PRP showed a significant phylogenetic signal (Blomberg’s p < 0.05). These results highlight the importance of taking PGFs and phylogenetic information into consideration when examining the interspecies variation in leaf resorption under environmental changes, which can advance our knowledge of plant nutrient utilization strategies in response to fluctuating environments and lay the groundwork for the development of complex element biogeochemical models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plants Nutrients)
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16 pages, 1062 KiB  
Review
The Potential Roles of the N and P Supplies on the Internal Browning Incidence in Sweet Cherries in the Southern Chile
by Cristóbal Palacios-Peralta, Marjorie Reyes-Díaz, Jorge González-Villagra and Alejandra Ribera-Fonseca
Horticulturae 2022, 8(12), 1209; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8121209 - 17 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1920
Abstract
Southern Chile has experienced a strong increase in sweet cherry production in recent years. However, there are climatic gaps that negatively reduce the fruit quality and yield of exportable fruit, such as the high incidence of rains during flowering and pre-harvest. The use [...] Read more.
Southern Chile has experienced a strong increase in sweet cherry production in recent years. However, there are climatic gaps that negatively reduce the fruit quality and yield of exportable fruit, such as the high incidence of rains during flowering and pre-harvest. The use of roof covers has become an agronomic solution that offers protection from weather events, such as rain, which will significantly increase the exportable fruit. However, the use of plastic covers can cause negative impacts on the fruit, such as a loss of firmness and acidity. Currently, the incidence of internal (pulp) browning has reduced the quality of cherries produced in Southern Chile, although research on this subject is largely under explored. Some studies reported that a high content of antioxidants in the fruit, both phenolic and non-phenolic (e.g., ascorbic acid), could reduce the incidence of the physiological disorder of browning. The soils of Southern Chile are characterized by the high content of organic matter, which implies high levels of available nitrogen (N) and a high phosphorus (P) content. Some studies, however, have shown that fertilization with N and P would significantly improve the postharvest quality, shelf life, and the accumulation of antioxidant compounds in fruits, even better than other strategies, including selenium and chitosan applications. However, there needs to be more detailed information on this aspect of the sweet cherry fruit production. The quality attributes and postharvest life of cherries are closely associated with the antioxidant levels of fruits, which could be related to either the soil acidity level of the Chilean Andisols or the levels of P and N in soil or plant tissues. Therefore, the objective of this review was to discuss the role of the N and P supply on the internal browning incidence in sweet cherries and relate it to what is known in other fruits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plants Nutrients)
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19 pages, 1323 KiB  
Article
Identification of Genomic Loci Controlling Grain Macro and Micronutrient Variation in a Wild Barley (Hordeum vulgare spp. spontaneum) Diversity Panel
by Jillian A. Abendroth, Ahmad H. Sallam, Brian J. Steffenson, Marcus A. Vinje, Ramamurthy Mahalingam and Jason G. Walling
Agronomy 2022, 12(11), 2839; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12112839 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1843
Abstract
Nutrient deficiencies in humans are problematic on a global scale but are more prevalent in regions where high-quality and nutrient-dense foods are scarce. Developing nutrient-rich crops that thrive in these regions of the world would help alleviate the disparity. We leveraged the wild [...] Read more.
Nutrient deficiencies in humans are problematic on a global scale but are more prevalent in regions where high-quality and nutrient-dense foods are scarce. Developing nutrient-rich crops that thrive in these regions of the world would help alleviate the disparity. We leveraged the wild barley (Hordeum vulgare spp. spontaneum) Diversity Collection (WBDC) (N = 232) to characterize the variation in seed macronutrient (P, K, Ca, and Mg) and micronutrient (B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn) contents found in this subspecies and to reveal chromosomal regions associated with these traits. Most micro- and macronutrients displayed variation in the WBDC and, except for boron and phosphorous, had a modest level of heritability (>0.5). Variation due to environment was significant (p < 0.001) for each element, except iron, and genotype was significant for all the tested nutrients, except boron. Thirty-seven marker–trait associations (MTAs) were detected for three (K, Ca, and Mg) of the four macro- and four (Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn) of the five micronutrients. Several compelling candidate genes harbored within MTAs were also identified, including ABC transporters, NAC transcription factors, and bZIP transcription factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plants Nutrients)
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17 pages, 2549 KiB  
Article
Optimal Nutrient Solution and Dose for the Yield of Nuclear Seed Potatoes under Aeroponics
by Jaime B. Silva Filho, Paulo Cezar Rezende Fontes, Jorge F. S. Ferreira, Paulo R. Cecon and Elizabeth Crutchfield
Agronomy 2022, 12(11), 2820; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12112820 - 11 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2253
Abstract
The aeroponic production of certified seed potatoes is a booming alternative for arid and semi-arid areas where fresh water is scarce and soil-borne diseases and nematodes preclude field production. Although widely used in aeroponics, nutrient-solution salinity effects have not been evaluated in potatoes. [...] Read more.
The aeroponic production of certified seed potatoes is a booming alternative for arid and semi-arid areas where fresh water is scarce and soil-borne diseases and nematodes preclude field production. Although widely used in aeroponics, nutrient-solution salinity effects have not been evaluated in potatoes. This study aimed to (1) establish the best of two nutrient solutions (Otazú vs. modified Furlani) at 20, 50, 100, and 150% of the crop-recommended dose for seed-potato production, (2) evaluate growth indexes to diagnose plant-N status, and (3) establish a prognosis for the yield of nuclear seed potatoes under aeroponics. At 21 days after transplanting, there was a significant correlation between the nitrate-N petiole-sap test and some of the parameters measured. The 4th leaf indexes correlated with yield parameters indicating that they can be used to prognosticate the final minituber yield. The best parameters to diagnose the N status in potato plants were: 4th leaf area, length, and dry weight (Otazú’s), SPAD, and 4th leaf area (modified Furlani’s). Although both nutrient solutions had similar nitrogen concentrations, Otazú’s nutrient solution at 100% of the recommended nitrogen dose had lower salinity than the modified Furlani’s solution and was the best to produce nuclear seed potatoes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plants Nutrients)
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17 pages, 3342 KiB  
Article
Allocation of Phosphorus Fractions in Chinese Fir in Response to Low Phosphorus Availability Using 32P Tracer
by Xianhua Zou, Qingqing Liu, Zhijun Huang, Sitong Chen, Pengfei Wu, Xiangqing Ma and Liping Cai
Forests 2022, 13(11), 1769; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13111769 - 27 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1294
Abstract
Phosphorus (P) is among the most intractable constraints on plant fertility, particularly in acidic soils with high P fixation capacities. The effects of nutrient limitation and the adaptive strategies of plants in infertile soils are central topics in plant ecology. The development of [...] Read more.
Phosphorus (P) is among the most intractable constraints on plant fertility, particularly in acidic soils with high P fixation capacities. The effects of nutrient limitation and the adaptive strategies of plants in infertile soils are central topics in plant ecology. The development of tree cultivars with greater P use efficiency (PUE), defined as the ability of a tree to grow and be productive in soils with reduced P availability, would substantially improve forest development. The ability of plants to redistribute and transfer P across fractions determines their adaptability to P limitations. However, the mechanisms of P utilization and transport remain unknown in Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.) from the perspective of P fraction distribution. In this study, we investigated the distribution and translocation patterns of exogenous P and different P fractions in the M1 Chinese fir, which was identified as exhibiting high P-deficient resistance ability and maintaining higher yield under low P stress relative to the average clones, using 32P tracking, which can accurately trace the migration pathways of exogenous P after plant absorption. We found that exogenous P in the roots was higher than in the stems or leaves under low-P conditions in which the amount of the exogenous P absorbed by M1 was significantly reduced. Under low-P conditions, the plants optimized P allocation, which led to higher PUE than under high-P conditions, with the highest PUE in the leaves, followed by the stems and roots. The M1 clone maintained a high ratio of soluble P (i.e., inorganic P and ester P) in its leaves and stems, which improved P mobility and recycling under the conditions of limited P. In the roots, the P fractions shifted from soluble inorganic P and ester P to insoluble P (i.e., nucleic P), but the total P concentration was relatively stable, which may ensure root growth and exogenous P absorption under the conditions of limited P. Our results confirm that the M1 Chinese fir reduces P demand, optimizes the allocation of P among P fractions, and increases PUE to maintain aboveground productivity in response to limited P conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plants Nutrients)
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15 pages, 937 KiB  
Article
Nitrogen Fertilizer and Sowing Density Affect Flag Leaf Photosynthetic Characteristics, Grain Yield, and Yield Components of Oat in a Semiarid Region of Northwest China
by Zeliang Ju, Kaiqiang Liu, Guiqin Zhao, Xiang Ma and Zhifeng Jia
Agronomy 2022, 12(9), 2108; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12092108 - 04 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1867
Abstract
Oat has been gaining renewed interest due to its role in a healthy human diet, in animal feed, and as a source of high value compounds with industrial applications. Nitrogen fertilization and planting density are two of the most important crop management practices [...] Read more.
Oat has been gaining renewed interest due to its role in a healthy human diet, in animal feed, and as a source of high value compounds with industrial applications. Nitrogen fertilization and planting density are two of the most important crop management practices that affect the formation of yield components and final yield of oat. A 2 year 3 × 5 factorial field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of nitrogen (N) fertilizer and planting density on the flag leaf photosynthetic characteristics, grain yield, and yield components under rainfed conditions. The experiment consisted of three sowing densities (60, 180, and 300 kg·ha−1) and five nitrogen fertilizer rates (0, 45, 90, 135, and 180 kg·ha−1). Results showed that the grain yield was significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with the leaf net photosynthesis rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), transpiration rate (Tr), water-use efficiency (WUE), stomatal limitation value (Ls), chlorophyll content (SPAD value), leaf area index (LAI), panicle length, number of spikelets per panicle (NSP), number of grains per panicle (NGP), weight of grains per panicle (WGP), and 1000-kernel weight. Among the yield components, grain yield was driven by number of spikelets per panicle (NSP) and number of grains per panicle (NGP) at low (or high) planting density with low N supply, whereas, at high N supply, 1000-kernel weight was also an important factor for yield. Nitrogen fertilizer and sowing density had significant (p < 0.05) effects on the flag leaf photosynthetic characteristics, grain yield, and yield components of oat. The yield components increased and then decreased with the increase in nitrogen fertilizer, while they decreased with the increase in planting density. The maximum values (p < 0.05) of grain yield were observed in the nitrogen fertilization of 90 kg·ha−1 and sowing density of 180 kg·ha−1 treatment in both growing seasons, mainly contributing to the improved leaf photosynthesis traits (Pn, Gs, Tr, Ls, SPAD, and LAI). The combination of nitrogen fertilization of 90 kg·ha−1 and sowing density of 180 kg·ha−1 is suitable for oat production on a cool semiarid plateau or other agroecozones with similar environmental conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plants Nutrients)
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20 pages, 1956 KiB  
Article
Yield and Nitrogen Status of Maize (Zea mays L.) Fertilized with Solution of Urea—Ammonium Nitrate Enriched with P, Mg or S
by Jadwiga Wierzbowska, Stanisław Sienkiewicz and Arkadiusz Światły
Agronomy 2022, 12(9), 2099; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12092099 - 02 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1975
Abstract
UAN is a popular nitrogen fertilizer, broadly used in world agriculture. Research concerning the effects of this fertilizer is just as common. Contrarily, studies on the combined application of UAN with P, Mg or S are lacking. This fact has stimulated our study, [...] Read more.
UAN is a popular nitrogen fertilizer, broadly used in world agriculture. Research concerning the effects of this fertilizer is just as common. Contrarily, studies on the combined application of UAN with P, Mg or S are lacking. This fact has stimulated our study, undertaken in order to evaluate the effects of maize grown for grain and fertilized with UAN enriched with the macronutrients (P, Mg and S) on the crop’s yields and nitrogen metabolism. The following nitrogen fertilizers were applied: UAN 32%N, UAN + S—26% N + 3% S, UAN + P (Medium)—26% N and 11% P2O5, UAN + P (Starter)—21% N and 18% P2O5, UAN + Mg—20% N + 4% Mg. Based on the results of chemical analyses and yields of maize, the following indicators of nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) were calculated: agricultural efficiency (AE), physiological efficiency (PE), internal N utilization efficiency (IE), reciprocal internal N utilization efficiency (RIE), grain share in N accumulation (HIN), recovery of N from mineral fertilizers (RN) and partial nitrogen balance (PNB). The highest grain yields were harvested after the application of UAN + S/UAN + Mg, and after the pre-sowing and top-dressing application of UAN or UAN + P (Medium). Values of all calculated nitrogen use efficiency indicators were more strongly dependent on the weather conditions, which determined volumes of maize yields in a given year, than on the applied fertilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plants Nutrients)
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13 pages, 2043 KiB  
Article
Metabolite Analysis of Lettuce in Response to Sulfur Nutrition
by Jung-Sung Chung, Hyeong-Cheol Kim, Su-Min Yun, Hyun-Jin Kim, Cheol-Soo Kim and Jeung-Joo Lee
Horticulturae 2022, 8(8), 734; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8080734 - 16 Aug 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1856
Abstract
Sulfur is an essential nutrient required for plant growth and metabolism, and plays an important role in relieving stress. Nutrient deficiency is one of the main factors that negatively affect crop growth, quality, and yield. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of [...] Read more.
Sulfur is an essential nutrient required for plant growth and metabolism, and plays an important role in relieving stress. Nutrient deficiency is one of the main factors that negatively affect crop growth, quality, and yield. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sulfur nutrients on the growth and metabolites of lettuce after treatment with two different sulfur concentrations (16 μM and 2 mM) in spray hydroponics. The fresh weight, chlorophyll, and carotenoid content of lettuce leaves were analyzed. Root morphology was examined using the WinRHIZO program. Metabolites were comparatively evaluated with the help of LC-MS and GC-MS. The fresh weight, chlorophyll, and carotenoid contents of lettuce were higher in the high concentration sulfur treatment group than in the low concentration sulfur treatment group. In the characteristics analysis of the lettuce roots, treatment with a high concentration of sulfur had a more positive effect on the lettuce root development than treatment with a low concentration of sulfur. Moreover, mass-based metabolomics analysis showed that the lettuce metabolites content was significantly different according to low- and high-concentration sulfur treatments. Therefore, this study highlights the importance of sulfur nutrient content in lettuce growth and metabolites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plants Nutrients)
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17 pages, 2976 KiB  
Article
Optimum Nitrogen Application Promotes Sweetpotato Storage Root Initiation
by Hong Tham Dong, Yujuan Li, Craig Henderson, Philip Brown and Cheng-Yuan Xu
Horticulturae 2022, 8(8), 710; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8080710 - 06 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1753
Abstract
Storage root formation of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) is a complex developmental process relating to the activity of cambium. Little information is available on the relationship between nitrogen (N) application levels and the initiation and development of sweetpotato storage roots (SRs). [...] Read more.
Storage root formation of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) is a complex developmental process relating to the activity of cambium. Little information is available on the relationship between nitrogen (N) application levels and the initiation and development of sweetpotato storage roots (SRs). This study aims to examine how N application rates promoted/inhibited the formation and development of storage roots (SRs) for sweetpotato cultivar ‘Orleans’ during the first 8 weeks after planting. Cuttings were grown in coarse river sand culture supplied with modified Hoagland nutrient solution at four different rates (0 (N0), 50 (N50), 100 (N100) or 200 (N200) mg L−1) of N. The results showed that N100 treatment promoted the formation of primary and secondary cambium, resulting in a significant higher rate of SR formation between 21 and 56 days after transplanting (DAT). Due to the higher N demand after formation of SRs, N200 treatment displayed faster growth, higher N acquisition and the highest efficiency of N use after 35 DAT, but the SR formation rate and SR number per plant remained insignificantly lower than N100 when differentiation of adventitious root was mostly completed (49 DAT), suggesting irreversible an effect of N rate during SR initiation, which eventually affects SR number. The results suggested that the optimal substrate N level for sweetpotato SR initiation is lower than that for following SR growth, which should be considered in the fertilisation scheme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plants Nutrients)
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15 pages, 2751 KiB  
Article
Industrial Hemp Clone Selection Method under LED Smart Farm Condition Based on CBD Production per Cubic Meter
by Byeong-Ryeol Ryu, Chang-Hyeug Kim, Tae-Hyung Kwon, Joon-Hee Han, Gyeong-Ju Gim, Md Jahirul Islam, Md Obyedul Kalam Azad, Md Hafizur Rahman, Md Soyel Rana, Jung-Dae Lim and Young-Seok Lim
Agronomy 2022, 12(8), 1809; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12081809 - 30 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3728
Abstract
Cannabis breeders are combining several genes to develop economically valuable fiber, seed, and medicinal hemp. This study analyzed the characteristics and selection of traits based on cannabidiol production of medicinal cannabis lines successfully grown under artificial light and nutrient solution cultivation conditions in [...] Read more.
Cannabis breeders are combining several genes to develop economically valuable fiber, seed, and medicinal hemp. This study analyzed the characteristics and selection of traits based on cannabidiol production of medicinal cannabis lines successfully grown under artificial light and nutrient solution cultivation conditions in smart farm conditions. Sixteen female plants were selected by seeding medical hemp F1 hybrid specimens obtained by randomly crossing Cherry Wine and native hemp from each country. The F1 generation was treated with 12 h light to induce flower differentiation. CBD production peaked on day 50 of the treatment, and this was selected as the harvesting day. All F1 hybrids were separated by leaf and inflorescence after collecting morphological data, and fresh and dry weights were measured. The CBD production of leaf and inflorescence per cubic meter was calculated. The CW21-5 line produced a total of 53.002 ± 0.228 g of CBD per cubic meter, the highest CBD producer. In addition, heatmap correlation analysis showed that most morphological data were not related to cannabinoid content. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Self-Organizing Map (SOM) analysis showed that CW21-5 is an arbitrary line that does not cluster with other lines, and the reason for its excellent CBD yield per cubic meter is that it has a narrow plant diameter and a high CBD content at the same time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plants Nutrients)
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12 pages, 817 KiB  
Article
Autochthonous Rose Hybrid Rosa pendulina × spinosissima Overshines Main Genotype Rosa pendulina in the Biochemical Characteristics of Their Hips
by Nina Kunc, Maja Mikulič-Petkovšek, Metka Hudina, Jože Bavcon, Branko Vreš, Gregor Osterc and Blanka Ravnjak
Horticulturae 2022, 8(8), 669; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8080669 - 22 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1357
Abstract
The medicinal value of rose hips largely depends on the contents of vitamin C and flavonoids. Rose hips contain more vitamin C than most fruits and vegetables. We were particularly interested in how the bioactive substances of rose hips are inherited from main [...] Read more.
The medicinal value of rose hips largely depends on the contents of vitamin C and flavonoids. Rose hips contain more vitamin C than most fruits and vegetables. We were particularly interested in how the bioactive substances of rose hips are inherited from main rose species. The aim of the study was to compare the contents of ascorbic acid, organic acids, and phenolics in the fruits, rose hips, of Rosa pendulina L. and the hybrid Rosa pendulina L. × spinosissima L. The contents of ascorbic acid in the studied hips were higher in R. pendulina × spinosissima than in R. pendulina. The contents of total organic acids were higher in the hips of R. pendulina × spinosissima than in the hips of R. pendulina. The contents of phenolics in the hybrid were significantly higher in flesh with skin and in seeds. The contents of cyanidin-3-glucoside were higher in R. pendulina × spinosissima. We can conclude that the contents of bioactive substances in our samples is rich and could potentially be used for human consumption. The results will help to increase transparency about which rose species provide rose hips that are the most suitable for nutritional purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plants Nutrients)
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16 pages, 1257 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Different Nitrogen Fertilizer Rates, Sowing Density, and Plant Growth Regulator Application on the Quality and Milling Value of Triticum durum Desf. Grain
by Kamila Sabina Bożek, Krystyna Żuk-Gołaszewska, Jarosław Bojarczuk and Janusz Gołaszewski
Agronomy 2022, 12(7), 1622; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12071622 - 06 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1780
Abstract
Agronomic treatments and environmental conditions of cultivation affect the nutritional value and technological quality of durum-wheat-based products. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 18 agronomic treatments that differed in nitrogen rate, sowing density, and growth regulator application on [...] Read more.
Agronomic treatments and environmental conditions of cultivation affect the nutritional value and technological quality of durum-wheat-based products. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 18 agronomic treatments that differed in nitrogen rate, sowing density, and growth regulator application on variability in the quality and milling parameters of durum wheat grain, and the interrelationships between these parameters. The study demonstrated that the investigated parameters were modified by the agronomic treatments. However, environmental variance resulting from differences in soil characteristics and climatic conditions dominated in most cases (44–93%). The percentage of variance induced by differences between treatments in total variance was distinctly higher only in the case of the gluten index (59%). The treatments without nitrogen fertilization and with or without the application of the growth regulator, and the treatments with the application of the growth regulator and the nitrogen rate of 120 kg N ha−1, discriminated between the milling parameters associated with sifting (bran, type 1 semolina) and grading of milling products (flour, type 2 semolina, and type 3 semolina), respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plants Nutrients)
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15 pages, 4339 KiB  
Article
Calcium in Photosynthetic Restoration and Growth of Annona emarginata after Mechanical Damage
by Felipe Girotto Campos, Gustavo Ribeiro Barzotto, Jonas Akenaton Venturineli Pagassini, Marilia Caixeta Sousa, Gisela Ferreira and Carmen Sílvia Fernandes Boaro
Horticulturae 2022, 8(6), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8060495 - 02 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1356
Abstract
Calcium, an essential element with structural function in the cell wall and plasma membrane, in addition to being a secondary messenger, is responsible for the regulation of physiological processes in plant development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. This study investigated the [...] Read more.
Calcium, an essential element with structural function in the cell wall and plasma membrane, in addition to being a secondary messenger, is responsible for the regulation of physiological processes in plant development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. This study investigated the effects of calcium variation on photosynthetic performance, growth, and enzymatic antioxidant defense system in A. emarginata subjected to mechanical damage. The experimental design was in 6 × 5 factorial randomized blocks. A. emarginata plants were submitted to the six treatments: plants grown in solution with 0 mM Ca2+ without mechanical damage, 0 mM Ca2+ with mechanical damage, 2 mM Ca2+ without mechanical damage, 2 mM Ca2+ with mechanical damage, 4 mM Ca2+ without mechanical damage, and 4 mM Ca2+ with mechanical damage, as well as five evaluation periods at 0, 15, 30, 60, and 90 days after mechanical damage. The fluorescence of chlorophyll a, gas exchange, total dry mass, quantitative growth, and lipid peroxidation was studied. It is concluded that the A. emarginata plants showed better performance in restoration after mechanical damage in the presence of Ca2+ and was more sensitive in the absence of the mineral. Cultivation of the species with 2 mM Ca2+ in complete nutrient solution was sufficient to guarantee the efficiency of the enzymatic antioxidant defense system, and photosynthetic restoration of plants subjected to mechanical damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plants Nutrients)
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