Topic Editors

Gus R. Douglass Institute and Department of Biology, West Virginia State University, Institute, WV 25112-1000, USA
Department of Biology, West Virginia State University, Institute, WV 25112-1000, USA
Laboratory of Vegetable Production, Department of Crop Science, Agricultural University of Athens, Iera Odos 75, 11855 Athens, Greece

Vegetable Breeding, Genetics and Genomics

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 October 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 December 2023)
Viewed by
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Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, vegetable breeding has been driven by genomics and nextgen sequencing tools. NGS advanced breeding to the next level, as orphan crops or undestudied vegetable and fruit crops are currently being sequenced to generate gold-standard genome sequences, deep sequencing of germplasm collections and breeding populations. These resources were used to perform genomic-assisted selections, to identify deleterious alleles and targets for genome editing and, most importantly, to identify lines with the highest breeding value based on genomic predictions. In this Topic, we invite papers addressing the development and use of whole-genome sequncing, SNP or structural variants, genomewide association studies, genomic predictions, QTL analysis, methods for analysis, review articles related to this topic and methods to purge deleterious alleles from the crops, with special reference to vegetable crops.

Prof. Dr. Umesh K. Reddy
Prof. Dr. Padma Nimmakayala
Dr. Georgia Ntatsi
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • vegetable
  • breeding
  • quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis
  • genetics and genomics
  • single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Agriculture
agriculture
3.6 3.6 2011 17.7 Days CHF 2600
Agronomy
agronomy
3.7 5.2 2011 15.8 Days CHF 2600
Crops
crops
- - 2021 30.5 Days CHF 1000
Genes
genes
3.5 5.1 2010 16.5 Days CHF 2600
Plants
plants
4.5 5.4 2012 15.3 Days CHF 2700

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Published Papers (12 papers)

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15 pages, 5469 KiB  
Article
Cloning and Analysis of Expression of Genes Related to Carotenoid Metabolism in Different Fruit Color Mutants of Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)
by Penglong Feng, Yayi Wang, Junqin Wen, Yanjing Ren, Qiwen Zhong and Quanhui Li
Genes 2024, 15(3), 315; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes15030315 - 28 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 763
Abstract
The formation of fruit color in pepper is closely related to the processes of carotenoid metabolism. In this study, red wild-type pepper XHB, SP01, PC01 and their corresponding mutants H0809 (orange), SP02 (yellow), and PC02 (orange) were used as research materials. The Ggps [...] Read more.
The formation of fruit color in pepper is closely related to the processes of carotenoid metabolism. In this study, red wild-type pepper XHB, SP01, PC01 and their corresponding mutants H0809 (orange), SP02 (yellow), and PC02 (orange) were used as research materials. The Ggps, Psy, Lcyb, Crtz, Zep, and Ccs genes involved in carotenoid biosynthesis were cloned, and bioinformatics and expression analyses were carried out. The results showed that the full lengths of the six genes were 1110 bp, 2844 bp, 1497 bp, 2025 bp, 510 bp, and 1497 bp, and they encoded 369, 419, 498, 315, 169, and 498 amino acids, respectively. Except for the full-length Ccs gene, which could not be amplified in the yellow mutant SP02 and the orange mutant PC02, the complete full-length sequences of the other genes could be amplified in different materials, indicating that the formation of fruit color in the SP02 and PC02 mutants could be closely related to the deletion or mutation of the Ccs gene. The analytical results of real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that the Ggps, Psy, Lcyb, Crtz, and Zep genes were expressed at different developmental stages of three pairs of mature-fruit-colored materials, but their patterns of expression were not consistent. The orange mutant H0809 could be amplified to the full Ccs gene sequence, but its expression was maintained at a lower level. It showed a significant difference in expression compared with the wild-type XHB, indicating that the formation of orange mutant H0809 fruit color could be closely related to the different regulatory pattern of Ccs expression. The results provide a theoretical basis for in-depth understanding of the molecular regulatory mechanism of the formation of color in pepper fruit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Vegetable Breeding, Genetics and Genomics)
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24 pages, 5991 KiB  
Article
Enzymes Involved in Antioxidant and Detoxification Processes Present Changes in the Expression Levels of Their Coding Genes under the Stress Caused by the Presence of Antimony in Tomato
by Francisco Luis Espinosa-Vellarino, Inmaculada Garrido, Ilda Casimiro, Ana Cláudia Silva, Francisco Espinosa and Alfonso Ortega
Plants 2024, 13(5), 609; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants13050609 - 23 Feb 2024
Viewed by 582
Abstract
Currently, there is an increasing presence of heavy metals and metalloids in soils and water due to anthropogenic activities. However, the biggest problem caused by this increase is the difficulty in recycling these elements and their high permanence in soils. There are plants [...] Read more.
Currently, there is an increasing presence of heavy metals and metalloids in soils and water due to anthropogenic activities. However, the biggest problem caused by this increase is the difficulty in recycling these elements and their high permanence in soils. There are plants with great capacity to assimilate these elements or make them less accessible to other organisms. We analyzed the behavior of Solanum lycopersicum L., a crop with great agronomic interest, under the stress caused by antimony (Sb). We evaluated the antioxidant response throughout different exposure times to the metalloid. Our results showed that the enzymes involved in the AsA-GSH cycle show changes in their expression level under the stress caused by Sb but could not find a relationship between the NITROSOGLUTATHIONE REDUCTASE (GSNOR) expression data and nitric oxide (NO) content in tomato roots exposed to Sb. We hypothesize that a better understanding of how these enzymes work could be key to develop more tolerant varieties to this kind of abiotic stress and could explain a greater or lesser phytoremediation capacity. Moreover, we deepened our knowledge about Glutathione S-transferase (GST) and Glutathione Reductase (GR) due to their involvement in the elimination of the xenobiotic component. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Vegetable Breeding, Genetics and Genomics)
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18 pages, 1818 KiB  
Review
Lupinus mutabilis Breeding in the Andes of Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia: A Review
by Diego Rodríguez-Ortega, José Luis Zambrano, Santiago Pereira-Lorenzo, Andrés Torres and Ángel Murillo
Agronomy 2024, 14(1), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy14010094 - 30 Dec 2023
Viewed by 914
Abstract
Lupinus mutabilis, also known as tarwi or chocho, is an important agricultural species that has been cultivated in South America since ancient times. Tarwi is native to the Andean regions of Peru, Bolivia, and Ecuador and has very high protein content. Despite [...] Read more.
Lupinus mutabilis, also known as tarwi or chocho, is an important agricultural species that has been cultivated in South America since ancient times. Tarwi is native to the Andean regions of Peru, Bolivia, and Ecuador and has very high protein content. Despite its high nutritional value and promotion efforts by regional researchers and breeders, tarwi is not a widely cultivated crop in its center of origin. In this review, we present the work carried out by public breeding programs of L. mutabilis at national agricultural research institutes, universities, and other institutions in Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. The main breeding method used in the Andes to improve local landraces has been mass selection to adapt lines to specific environments. At least 25 cultivars or ecotypes have been selected and released over the last 40 years using this breeding system. Nevertheless, breeders are currently struggling to develop new varieties that are high yielding, suitable for mechanized harvesting, have a low content of alkaloids or other anti-nutritional properties, and resistant to anthracnose (Colletotrichum acutatum). Therefore, it is necessary to reassess the potential of this crop and invest in its research to incorporate new techniques and breeding strategies to optimize the development of new varieties in the Andes which address the current cultivation challenges of the species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Vegetable Breeding, Genetics and Genomics)
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17 pages, 3424 KiB  
Article
Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of FAR1/FHY3 Gene Family in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)
by Xuelian Li, Yihua Li, Yali Qiao, Siting Lu, Kangding Yao, Chunlei Wang and Weibiao Liao
Agronomy 2024, 14(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy14010050 - 23 Dec 2023
Viewed by 700
Abstract
The FAR1-RELATED SEQUENCE1 (FAR1) and FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL3 (FHY3) gene family plays a crucial role in various physiological and developmental processes, including seed germination, photomorphogenesis, flowering and stress responses. However, genome analysis of FAR1/FHY3 in cucumber (Cucumis sativus [...] Read more.
The FAR1-RELATED SEQUENCE1 (FAR1) and FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL3 (FHY3) gene family plays a crucial role in various physiological and developmental processes, including seed germination, photomorphogenesis, flowering and stress responses. However, genome analysis of FAR1/FHY3 in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) has not been systemically investigated. In this study, 20 FAR1/FHY3 genes in cucumber were identified. The 20 FAR1/FHY3 members are randomly distributed on six chromosomes. The examination of subcellular localization indicated that the nucleus is the primary site where the 20 FAR1/FHY3 members are predominantly found. The analysis of the phylogenetic tree further revealed that the FAR1/FHY3 genes in cucumber are grouped into three distinct categories, exhibiting remarkable resemblance to the corresponding genes in other plant species. The analysis of cis-acting elements showed that most FAR1/FHY3 genes contain a variety of hormones as well as stress-related and light response elements. Through scrutinizing the expression patterns in various tissues, it was discerned that these genes are prominently expressed in roots, stems and leaves, with roots exhibiting the highest level of expression. Additionally, the 20 cucumber FAR1/FHY3 genes are all responsive to jasmonic acid methyl ester (Me-JA) and abscisic acid (ABA). CsFAR6 and CsFAR12 are significantly induced by Me-JA and ABA, respectively. CsFAR13 positively responds to NaCl and PEG6000 stresses. CsFAR11, CsFAR15 and CsFAR13 are significantly induced by the dark. The findings presented in this study establish compelling support for the potential involvement of FAR1/FHY3 genes in the growth, development and stress response of cucumbers. Moreover, these results serve as a solid basis for future investigations into the functional analysis of FAR1/FHY3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Vegetable Breeding, Genetics and Genomics)
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12 pages, 1601 KiB  
Article
Development and Investigation of HRM Markers to Discriminate Two Ogura Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Restorer Genes in Radish
by Hong-Il Ahn, Koeun Han, Hee-Bum Yang, Eun Su Lee, Ye-Rin Lee, Jinhee Kim, Han Yong Park and Do-Sun Kim
Agronomy 2024, 14(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy14010043 - 22 Dec 2023
Viewed by 542
Abstract
Ogura male sterile cytoplasm is widely used for radish breeding. In this study, high-resolution melting (HRM) markers associated with Rft and Rfo, major restorer-of-fertility genes in Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in radish, were developed. Genetic mapping was carried out using F [...] Read more.
Ogura male sterile cytoplasm is widely used for radish breeding. In this study, high-resolution melting (HRM) markers associated with Rft and Rfo, major restorer-of-fertility genes in Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in radish, were developed. Genetic mapping was carried out using F2 populations derived from crosses between male-sterile Ogura CMS lines and male-fertile lines. Identification of the Rft and Rfo loci was achieved through SNP-based genotyping and linkage grouping. HRM markers were subsequently developed based on flanking sequences of SNPs linked to these loci. For the Rft gene, a set of 117 SNPs was selected within a candidate region on chromosome 5, and 14 HRM markers were successfully developed. Genotyping of F2 showed high correlation between three markers and the phenotype. Regarding the Rfo gene, a set of 27 HRM markers was designed based on flanking sequences of SNPs located on chromosomes 9 and 0. Genotyping in the Rfo segregating population identified a single marker, RSRF27, that accurately distinguished the male sterility phenotype. Validation of the developed markers was performed in populations containing both Rft and Rfo genes, confirming their utility for genotyping and demonstrating that these two genes independently contribute to male sterility recovery. Overall, this study provides HRM markers that can be used for genotyping Rft and Rfo and contributes to a deeper understanding of male sterility restoration mechanisms in Ogura CMS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Vegetable Breeding, Genetics and Genomics)
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23 pages, 1791 KiB  
Article
Genome-Wide Association Study to Identify Possible Candidate Genes of Snap Bean Leaf and Pod Color
by Burcu Celebioglu, John P. Hart, Timothy Porch, Phillip Griffiths and James R. Myers
Genes 2023, 14(12), 2234; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes14122234 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 990
Abstract
Color can be an indicator of plant health, quality, and productivity, and is useful to researchers to understand plant nutritional content in their studies. Color may be related to chlorophyll content and photosynthetic activity and provides information for those studying diseases and mineral [...] Read more.
Color can be an indicator of plant health, quality, and productivity, and is useful to researchers to understand plant nutritional content in their studies. Color may be related to chlorophyll content and photosynthetic activity and provides information for those studying diseases and mineral nutrition because every nutrient deficiency and many diseases produce symptoms that affect color. In order to identify significant loci related to both leaf and pod color in a snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) diversity panel, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was carried out. Leaf color in one and pod traits in multiple environments were characterized using a colorimeter. L*a*b* color data were recorded and used to calculate chroma (C*) and hue angle (H°). Leaves were evaluated at three positions (lower, middle, and upper) in the canopy and both pod exterior and interior colors were obtained. GWAS was conducted using two reference genomes that represent the Andean (G19833) and Middle American (5-593) domestication centers. Narrow sense heritabilities were calculated using the mixed linear model (MLM) method in genome association and prediction integrated tool (GAPIT), and significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for each color parameter were obtained using the Bayesian-information and linkage-disequilibrium iteratively nested keyway (BLINK) GWAS model with two principal components (PCAs). In comparison to pod color traits, narrow sense heritabilities of leaf traits were low and similar for both reference genomes. Generally, narrow sense heritability for all traits was highest in the lower, followed by middle, and then upper leaf positions. Heritability for both pod interior and exterior color traits was higher using the G19833 reference genome compared to 5-593 when evaluated by year and means across years. Forty-five significant SNPs associated with leaf traits and 872 associated with pods, totaling 917 significant SNPs were identified. Only one SNP was found in common for both leaf and pod traits on Pv03 in the 5-593 reference genome. One-hundred thirteen significant SNPs, 30 in leaves and 83 in pods had phenotypic variation explained (PVE) of 10% or greater. Fourteen SNPs (four from G19833 and ten from 5-593) with ≥10 PVE%, large SNP effect, and largest p-value for L* and H° pod exterior was identified on Pv01, Pv02, Pv03, and Pv08. More SNPs were associated with pod traits than with leaf traits. The pod interior did not exhibit colors produced by anthocyanins or flavonols which allowed the differentiation of potential candidate genes associated with chloroplast and photosynthetic activity compared to the pod exterior where candidate genes related to both flavonoids and photosynthesis affected color. Several SNPs were associated with known qualitative genes including the wax pod locus (y), persistent color (pc), purple pods (V), and two genes expressed in seeds but not previously reported to affect other plant tissues (B and J). An evaluation of significant SNPs within annotated genes found a number, within a 200 kb window, involved in both flavonoid and photosynthetic biosynthetic pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Vegetable Breeding, Genetics and Genomics)
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20 pages, 19182 KiB  
Article
Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of the Cucumber FKBP Gene Family in Response to Abiotic and Biotic Stresses
by Dekun Yang, Yahui Li, Mengdi Zhu, Rongjing Cui, Jiong Gao, Yingjie Shu, Xiaomin Lu, Huijun Zhang and Kaijing Zhang
Genes 2023, 14(11), 2006; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes14112006 - 27 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 957
Abstract
The FKBP (FK506-binding protein) gene family is an important member of the PPlase protease family and plays a vital role during the processes of plant growth and development. However, no studies of the FKBP gene family have been reported in cucumber. In this [...] Read more.
The FKBP (FK506-binding protein) gene family is an important member of the PPlase protease family and plays a vital role during the processes of plant growth and development. However, no studies of the FKBP gene family have been reported in cucumber. In this study, 19 FKBP genes were identified in cucumber, which were located on chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 6, and 7. Phylogenetic analysis divided the cucumber FKBP genes into three subgroups. The FKBP genes in the same subgroup exhibited similar structures and conserved motifs. The cis-acting elements analysis revealed that the promoters of cucumber FKBP genes contained hormone-, stress-, and development-related cis-acting elements. Synteny analysis of the FKBP genes among cucumber, Arabidopsis, and rice showed that 12 kinds of syntenic relationships were detected between cucumber and Arabidopsis FKBP genes, and 3 kinds of syntenic relationships were observed between cucumber and rice FKBP genes. The tissue-specific expression analysis showed that some FKBP genes were expressed in all tissues, while others were only highly expressed in part of the 10 types of tissues. The expression profile analysis of cucumber FKBP genes under 13 types of stresses showed that the CsaV3_1G007080 gene was differentially expressed under abiotic stresses (high temperature, NaCl, silicon, and photoperiod) and biotic stresses (downy mildew, green mottle mosaic virus, Fusarium wilt, phytophthora capsica, angular leaf spot, and root-knot nematode), which indicated that the CsaV3_1G007080 gene plays an important role in the growth and development of cucumber. The interaction protein analysis showed that most of the proteins in the FKBP gene family interacted with each other. The results of this study will lay the foundation for further research on the molecular biological functions of the cucumber FKBP gene family. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Vegetable Breeding, Genetics and Genomics)
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12 pages, 2315 KiB  
Article
McAPRR2: The Key Regulator of Domesticated Pericarp Color in Bitter Gourd
by Shouwei Tian, Jingjing Yang, Yiqian Fu, Xiaofei Zhang, Jian Zhang, Hong Zhao, Qi Hu, Pangyuan Liu, Weiming He, Xiangyang Han and Changlong Wen
Plants 2023, 12(20), 3585; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12203585 - 16 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 741
Abstract
Pericarp color is a crucial commercial trait influencing consumer preferences for bitter gourds. However, until now, the gene responsible for this trait has remained unidentified. In this study, we identified a gene (McAPRR2) controlling pericarp color via a genome-wide association study [...] Read more.
Pericarp color is a crucial commercial trait influencing consumer preferences for bitter gourds. However, until now, the gene responsible for this trait has remained unidentified. In this study, we identified a gene (McAPRR2) controlling pericarp color via a genome-wide association study (GWAS) utilizing the resequencing data of 106 bitter gourd accessions. McAPRR2 exhibits three primary haplotypes: Hap1 is a wild type with a green pericarp, Hap2 is a SA (South Asian) and SEA (Southeast Asia) type with a green pericarp, and Hap3 is primarily a SEA type with a light green pericarp. The McAPRR2 haplotype is significantly correlated with both pericarp color and ecological type. Importantly, McAPRR2 with the light green pericarp demonstrated premature termination due to a 15 bp sequence insertion. The phylogenetic tree clustered according to pericarp color and ecological type, using SNPs located in the McAPRR2 gene and its promoter. High πwild/SEA and πSA/SEA values indicate high nucleotide diversity between wild and SEA types and between SA and SEA types in the McAPRR2 gene. The haplotypes, phylogenetic tree, and nucleotide diversity of McAPRR2 suggest that McAPRR2 has undergone domestication selection. This study identifies McAPRR2 as the key gene determining pericarp color in bitter gourds and introduces a novel insight that McAPRR2 is subject to domestication selection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Vegetable Breeding, Genetics and Genomics)
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14 pages, 2415 KiB  
Article
Selection of Short-Day Strawberry Genotypes through Multivariate Analysis
by Thiago Rutz, Juliano Tadeu Vilela de Resende, Keny Henrique Mariguele, Ricardo Antônio Zeist and Andre Luiz Biscaia Ribeiro da Silva
Plants 2023, 12(14), 2650; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12142650 - 14 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1092
Abstract
Strawberries are produced in tropical regions using imported cultivars adapted to temperate and subtropical climates. These cultivars, under tropical conditions, produce below their genetic potential. Through multivariate analyses, the objective was to evaluate and select short-day strawberry genotypes based on intraspecific crosses, product [...] Read more.
Strawberries are produced in tropical regions using imported cultivars adapted to temperate and subtropical climates. These cultivars, under tropical conditions, produce below their genetic potential. Through multivariate analyses, the objective was to evaluate and select short-day strawberry genotypes based on intraspecific crosses, product characteristics, and fruit quality. The genotypes were obtained from the cross between ‘Camino Real’ (female parent) and the first-generation genotypes RVCA16, RVCS44, RVFS06, RVFS07, and RVDA11 (male parent), obtained in previous selections. The experimental design consisted of augmented blocks with standard controls, consisting of first-generation genotypes and commercial cultivars. The fruits were harvested and evaluated for productivity and post-harvest characteristics: total fruit mass (MTF), total number of fruits (TFN), average fruit mass (AFM), commercial fruit mass (CFM), fruit commercial number (CFN), average commercial mass of fruits (ACFM), total soluble solids (TSS), firmness (F), brightness (L), hue angle (°Hue), and chroma (C). The selection index of Mulamba and Mock (1978) was used with an intensity of 3% to obtain superior genotypes and submitted to multivariate analysis for comparative purposes. Of the 1500 genotypes evaluated, it was possible to select 44 genotypes with characteristics superior to the 13 controls. The RVDA11CR59 genotype showed better values for the attributes of interest, but the RVCS44CR population, from the cross between ‘Camino Real’ × RVCS44 (‘Camarosa’ × ‘Sweet Charlie’), obtained the highest number (16) of individuals among those selected. Significant traits had high heritability but were not necessarily reflected in high selection gain. Coefficients of genetic variation were high, indicating sufficient genetic variability to select genotypes for these traits. When multivariate analyses were used, it was possible to group the selected genotypes into the same cluster according to the similarity and balance in the responses to the evaluated variables, demonstrating that these analyses help other parameters choose superior genotypes. The multivariate analysis allowed the selection of more balanced genotypes for production and post-harvest traits for tropical climates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Vegetable Breeding, Genetics and Genomics)
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25 pages, 781 KiB  
Review
Genetic Mechanisms for Hybrid Breeding in Vegetable Crops
by Hira Singh, Bhallan Singh Sekhon, Pradeep Kumar, Rajinder Kumar Dhall, Ruma Devi, Tarsem Singh Dhillon, Suman Sharma, Anil Khar, Ramesh Kumar Yadav, Bhoopal Singh Tomar, Theodora Ntanasi, Leo Sabatino and Georgia Ntatsi
Plants 2023, 12(12), 2294; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12122294 - 12 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3202
Abstract
To address the complex challenges faced by our planet such as rapidly changing climate patterns, food and nutritional insecurities, and the escalating world population, the development of hybrid vegetable crops is imperative. Vegetable hybrids could effectively mitigate the above-mentioned fundamental challenges in numerous [...] Read more.
To address the complex challenges faced by our planet such as rapidly changing climate patterns, food and nutritional insecurities, and the escalating world population, the development of hybrid vegetable crops is imperative. Vegetable hybrids could effectively mitigate the above-mentioned fundamental challenges in numerous countries. Utilizing genetic mechanisms to create hybrids not only reduces costs but also holds significant practical implications, particularly in streamlining hybrid seed production. These mechanisms encompass self-incompatibility (SI), male sterility, and gynoecism. The present comprehensive review is primarily focused on the elucidation of fundamental processes associated with floral characteristics, the genetic regulation of floral traits, pollen biology, and development. Specific attention is given to the mechanisms for masculinizing and feminizing cucurbits to facilitate hybrid seed production as well as the hybridization approaches used in the biofortification of vegetable crops. Furthermore, this review provides valuable insights into recent biotechnological advancements and their future utilization for developing the genetic systems of major vegetable crops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Vegetable Breeding, Genetics and Genomics)
15 pages, 3014 KiB  
Article
Expression Characterization of ABCDE Class MADS-Box Genes in Brassica rapa with Different Pistil Types
by Yi Zhang, Tong Zhao, Yuqi Wang, Rong Yang, Weiqiang Li, Kaiwen Liu, Nairan Sun, Iqbal Hussian, Xinyan Ma, Hongrui Yu, Kun Zhao, Jisuan Chen and Xiaolin Yu
Plants 2023, 12(11), 2218; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12112218 - 04 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1508
Abstract
MADS-box is a vital transcription factor family that functions in plant growth and development. Apart from APETALA2, all genes in the ABCDE model that explain the molecular mechanism of floral organ development belong to the MADS-box family. Carpel and ovule numbers in [...] Read more.
MADS-box is a vital transcription factor family that functions in plant growth and development. Apart from APETALA2, all genes in the ABCDE model that explain the molecular mechanism of floral organ development belong to the MADS-box family. Carpel and ovule numbers in plants are essential agronomic traits that determine seed yield, and multilocular siliques have great potential for the development of high-yield varieties of Brassica. In this study, ABCDE genes in the MADS-box family from Brassica rapa were identified and characterized. Their tissue-specific expression patterns in floral organs and their differential expression in different pistil types of B. rapa were revealed by qRT-PCR. A total of 26 ABCDE genes were found to belong to the MADS-box family. Our proposed ABCDE model of B. rapa is consistent with that of Arabidopsis thaliana, indicating that ABCDE genes are functionally conserved. These results of qRT-PCR showed that the expression levels of class C and D genes were significantly different between the wild-type (wt) and tetracarpel (tetrac) mutant of B. rapa. Interestingly, the expression of the homologs of class E genes was imbalanced. Therefore, it is speculated that class C, D, and E genes are involved in developing the carpel and ovule of B. rapa. Our findings reveal the potential for the selection of candidate genes to improve yield traits in Brassica crops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Vegetable Breeding, Genetics and Genomics)
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17 pages, 6046 KiB  
Article
GWAS Characterization of the Genetic Regions Associated with Nine Important Agronomic Traits in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)
by Zengbing Liu, Jingbin Jiang and Jingfu Li
Agronomy 2023, 13(5), 1191; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13051191 - 23 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1722
Abstract
Understanding the genetic background of elite cultivated tomato germplasm resources in crossbreeding and revealing the genetic basis of complex traits are vital for better-targeted germplasm expansion and the creation of strong hybrids. Here, we obtained approximately 21 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) based on [...] Read more.
Understanding the genetic background of elite cultivated tomato germplasm resources in crossbreeding and revealing the genetic basis of complex traits are vital for better-targeted germplasm expansion and the creation of strong hybrids. Here, we obtained approximately 21 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) based on the sequencing of 212 cultivated tomato accessions and the population structure of which was revealed. More importantly, we found that target genes distributed on chromosomes 1, 5, 9, and 11 may be actively selected in breeding. In particular, the significant signals related to soluble sugar content (chr1_94170222, chr1_96273188, chr9_4167512, and chr11_55592768), fruit firmness (chr5_4384919 and chr5_5111452) and gray leaf spot resistance (chr11_8935252 and chr11_9707993) were also detected on the corresponding chromosomes, respectively. Overall, we reported 28 significant association signals for nine agronomic traits based on a mixed linear model (MLM), including 114 genes. Among these signals, 21 contained potential novel genes for six fruit traits. These novel candidate genes located in genomic regions without previously known loci or on different chromosomes explained approximately 16% of the phenotypic variance on average in cultivated tomatoes. These findings could accelerate the identification and validation of novel and known candidate genes and QTLs, improving the understanding of the genetic structure of complex quantitative traits. These results also provide a basis for tomato breeding and improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Vegetable Breeding, Genetics and Genomics)
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