Dynamical Response of Biological System and Biomaterial

A special issue of Biomimetics (ISSN 2313-7673). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomimetics of Materials and Structures".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 April 2024 | Viewed by 8062

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Engineering (SI-UniBas), Università degli Studi della Basilicata (UniBas), 85100 Potenza, PZ, Italy
Interests: contact mechanics; tribology; mechanical vibrations; vehicle dynamics; material characterization
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Understanding the dynamical response of biological components, such as those of human and animal bodies, is crucial for monitoring their functionalities. In addition, the mechanical performance of biological tissues has in recent years inspired in-depth analyses by researchers who are involved in studying how to mimic these properties for many applications. Indeed, for several years now, bio-inspired materials have been employed to fabricate medical devices (e.g., optimal adhesive tapes), as well as miniaturized robots, but many examples also exist in regenerative medicine, such as synthetic tissues, which are utilized for treating injuries (e.g., in the ligament, brain, and spinal cord). However, when considering a biomaterial to be used in implants, various aspects, such as biocompatibility and its mechanical functions, should also be studied.

It is quite evident, therefore, how important it is to appropriately characterize these materials, both through specific experimental methods and through the development of predictive theories. The main goal of this Special Issue is to report advances in this research field and to disclose some still unknown characteristics of human and animal organ materials, which are typically heterogeneous, ultra-soft, and sometimes biphasic, non-linear or viscoelastic.

The Special Issue welcomes original research and review articles and is devoted to a worthwhile exchange of novel insights regarding biological components and their material properties. Both experimental and modeling approaches are expected to contribute to a more profound and thorough understanding of the mechanical behavior of living matter. Due to the intrinsic multidisciplinary nature of this research topic, synergies are encouraged between different fields, such as engineering, physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics.

Prof. Dr. Giuseppe Carbone
Dr. Elena Pierro
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • biological materials
  • tissue engineering
  • biomimetic materials
  • dynamical response
  • mechanical characterization
  • biomimetics
  • mechanical properties
  • nonlinear materials
  • viscoelastic materials

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

28 pages, 17887 KiB  
Article
Study of the Influence of Boundary Conditions on Corneal Deformation Based on the Finite Element Method of a Corneal Biomechanics Model
by Carmelo Gómez, David P. Piñero, Manuel Paredes, Jorge L. Alió and Francisco Cavas
Biomimetics 2024, 9(2), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics9020073 - 25 Jan 2024
Viewed by 994
Abstract
Implementing in silico corneal biomechanical models for surgery applications can be boosted by developing patient-specific finite element models adapted to clinical requirements and optimized to reduce computational times. This research proposes a novel corneal multizone-based finite element model with octants and circumferential zones [...] Read more.
Implementing in silico corneal biomechanical models for surgery applications can be boosted by developing patient-specific finite element models adapted to clinical requirements and optimized to reduce computational times. This research proposes a novel corneal multizone-based finite element model with octants and circumferential zones of clinical interest for material definition. The proposed model was applied to four patient-specific physiological geometries of keratoconus-affected corneas. Free-stress geometries were calculated by two iterative methods, the displacements and prestress methods, and the influence of two boundary conditions: embedded and pivoting. The results showed that the displacements, stress and strain fields differed for the stress-free geometry but were similar and strongly depended on the boundary conditions for the estimated physiological geometry when considering both iterative methods. The comparison between the embedded and pivoting boundary conditions showed bigger differences in the posterior limbus zone, which remained closer in the central zone. The computational calculation times for the stress-free geometries were evaluated. The results revealed that the computational time was prolonged with disease severity, and the displacements method was faster in all the analyzed cases. Computational times can be reduced with multicore parallel calculation, which offers the possibility of applying patient-specific finite element models in clinical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamical Response of Biological System and Biomaterial)
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11 pages, 1968 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Ocular Response to Mechanical Loading: The Role of Viscoelasticity in Energy Dissipation by the Cornea
by Frederick H. Silver, Tanmay Deshmukh, Dominick Benedetto and Michael Gonzalez-Mercedes
Biomimetics 2023, 8(1), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics8010063 - 03 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1356
Abstract
We have used vibrational optical coherence tomography (VOCT) to measure the resonant frequency, elastic modulus, and loss modulus of components of the anterior segment of pig eyes in vitro. Such basic biomechanical properties of the cornea have been shown to be abnormal not [...] Read more.
We have used vibrational optical coherence tomography (VOCT) to measure the resonant frequency, elastic modulus, and loss modulus of components of the anterior segment of pig eyes in vitro. Such basic biomechanical properties of the cornea have been shown to be abnormal not only in diseases of the anterior segment but also in posterior segment diseases as well. This information is needed to better understand corneal biomechanics in health and disease and to be able to diagnose the early stages of corneal pathologies. Results of dynamic viscoelastic studies on whole pig eyes and isolated corneas indicate that at low strain rates (30 Hz or less), the viscous loss modulus is as high as 0.6 times the elastic modulus for both whole eyes and corneas. This large viscous loss is similar to that of skin, which has been hypothesized to be dependent upon the physical association of proteoglycans with collagenous fibers. The energy dissipation properties of the cornea provide a mechanism to dissipate energy associated with blunt trauma, thereby preventing delamination and failure. The cornea possesses the ability to store impact energy and transmit excess energy to the posterior segment of the eye through its serial connection to the limbus and sclera. In this manner, the viscoelastic properties of the cornea, in concert with that of the posterior segment of the pig eye, function to prevent mechanical failure of the primary focusing element of the eye. Results of resonant frequency studies suggest that the 100–120 Hz and 150–160 Hz resonant frequency peaks reside in the anterior segment of the cornea since the removal of the anterior segment of the cornea decreases the peak heights at these resonant frequencies. These results suggest that there is more than one collagen fibril network found in the anterior portion of the cornea that provides structural integrity to prevent corneal delamination and that VOCT may be useful clinically to diagnose corneal diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamical Response of Biological System and Biomaterial)
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11 pages, 4712 KiB  
Article
In Vivo Analysis of the Dynamic Motion Stability Characteristics of Geese’s Neck
by Jiajia Wang, Haoxuan Sun, Wenfeng Jia, Fu Zhang, Zhihui Qian, Xiahua Cui, Lei Ren and Luquan Ren
Biomimetics 2022, 7(4), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics7040160 - 12 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1445
Abstract
The goose’s neck is an excellent stabilizing organ with its graceful neck curves and flexible movements. However, the stabilizing mechanism of the goose’s neck remains unclear. This study adopts a dynamic in vivo experimental method to obtain continuous and accurate stable motion characteristics [...] Read more.
The goose’s neck is an excellent stabilizing organ with its graceful neck curves and flexible movements. However, the stabilizing mechanism of the goose’s neck remains unclear. This study adopts a dynamic in vivo experimental method to obtain continuous and accurate stable motion characteristics of the goose’s cervical vertebra. Firstly, the results showed that when the body of a goose was separately moved back and forth along the Y direction (front and back) and Z direction (up and down), the goose’s neck can significantly stabilize the head. Then, because of the limitation of the X-ray imaging area, the three-dimensional intervertebral rotational displacements for vertebrae C4–C8 were obtained, and the role that these five segments play in the stabilization of the bird’s neck was analyzed. This study reveals that the largest range of the adjacent vertebral rotational movement is around the X-axis, the second is around the Y-axis, and the smallest is around the Z-axis. This kinematic feature is accord with the kinematic feature of the saddle joint, which allows the flexion/around X-axis and lateral bending/around Y-axis, and prevents axial rotation/around Z-axis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamical Response of Biological System and Biomaterial)
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9 pages, 3266 KiB  
Article
Effect of α-Amylase on the Structure of Chia Seed Mucilage
by Francesco Piazza, Matilde Colella, Giuseppe Cinelli, Francesco Lopez, Ivan Donati and Pasquale Sacco
Biomimetics 2022, 7(4), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics7040141 - 23 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1756
Abstract
Thanks to its nutritional and mechanical properties, chia seed mucilage is becoming increasingly popular in the food industry as a small biomolecule. The mechanical properties of an ingredient are a key element for food appreciation during chewing. Therefore, with this study, we explore [...] Read more.
Thanks to its nutritional and mechanical properties, chia seed mucilage is becoming increasingly popular in the food industry as a small biomolecule. The mechanical properties of an ingredient are a key element for food appreciation during chewing. Therefore, with this study, we explore for the first time the structural changes that chia seed mucilage undergoes when treated with α-amylase, the most abundant enzyme in human saliva. First, rheological time-sweep tests were performed on samples with different enzyme and constant chia mucilage concentrations. Then, the effect of increasing the chia mucilage concentration at a constant enzyme content was investigated. The results show that structural changes occur after enzyme treatment. Rheological measurements show a thickening of the material with an increase in the elastic modulus depending on the concentrations of α-amylase and chia used. This effect is attributed to the release and aggregation of insoluble fibrous aggregates that naturally form the mucilage after the cleavage of the α-1,4-glucoside bond between the α-D-glucopyranose residue and the second β-D-xylopyranose residue by α-amylase. Thus, our data suggest an α-amylase-mediated restructuring of the chia mucilage network that could have implications for the commercial processing of this material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamical Response of Biological System and Biomaterial)
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14 pages, 4939 KiB  
Article
Bio-Inspired Sutures: Using Finite Element Analysis to Parameterize the Mechanical Response of Dovetail Sutures in Simulated Bending of a Curved Structure
by Melissa M. Gibbons and Diana A. Chen
Biomimetics 2022, 7(2), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics7020082 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2254
Abstract
Many animals have protective anatomical structures that allow for growth and flexibility; these structures contain thin seams called sutures that help the structure to absorb impacts. In this study, we parameterized the stiffness and toughness of a curved archway structure based on three [...] Read more.
Many animals have protective anatomical structures that allow for growth and flexibility; these structures contain thin seams called sutures that help the structure to absorb impacts. In this study, we parameterized the stiffness and toughness of a curved archway structure based on three geometric properties of a suture through finite element, quasi-static, three-point bending simulations. Each archway consisted of two symmetric pieces linked by a dovetail suture tab design. The three parameters included suture tab radii (1–5 mm), tangent lengths (0–20 mm), and contact angles (0–40°). In the simulations, a steel indenter was displaced 6.5 mm to induce progressive tab disengagement. Sutures with large contact angles and large tangent lengths generally led to stiffer and tougher structures. Sutures with a small tab radius exhibited the most sensitivity to the input parameters, and the smallest tab radius led to the stiffest and toughest archways. Results suggested that it was a combination of the largest number of tab repeats with the largest possible contact surface area that improved the mechanical response of the archway. The study revealed several suture geometries that hold significant promise, which can aid in the development of hemispherical 3D structures for dynamic impact applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamical Response of Biological System and Biomaterial)
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