Neutrophils in Immunity and Diseases

A special issue of Biomedicines (ISSN 2227-9059). This special issue belongs to the section "Cell Biology and Pathology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2024 | Viewed by 4434

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Biological Applications & Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece
Interests: crosstalk between inflammation and coagulation; the impact of inflammation in fibrotic disorder or autoimmunity; neutrophils; endothelial cells; fibroblasts

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Neutrophils have been historically linked to antimicrobial functions in acute infection. Recent evidence, however, has identified them as having hitherto unsuspecting functions, and thus, neutrophils are now valued as functionally versatile cells with important roles in chronic inflammation. In particular, shifts in the neutrophil phenotype enables them to adapt their function in different inflammatory contexts, in which they exert their regulatory role on both innate and adaptive immune leukocytes. The highly immunogenic products released by neutrophils and enhanced inflammatory pathogenic loops can cause chronic inflammation, as well as influence certain social, environmental and lifestyle factors. In turn, chronic inflammation can result in several diseases that collectively represent the leading causes of disability and mortality worldwide. Hence, the multifaceted involvement of neutrophils in several inflammatory conditions makes them exciting targets for therapeutic intervention. Of course, numerous challenges and controversies in the field remain. Overall, I would like to encourage the researchers involved in such research topics to provide their data, thoughts and concerns in order to establish a broader view of the current state of this specific research area. Thus, readers will enjoy reading innovative papers, while overall, we will help to determine the future directions of neutrophil biology.

Dr. Akrivi Chrysanthopoulou
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • neutrophils
  • inflammation
  • neutrophil biology
  • Immunity

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 2738 KiB  
Article
The Cytological Energy Detection of Purulent Inflammation in Synovial Fluid Is Not All Black and White
by Petr Kelbich, Eliska Vanaskova, Karel Hrach, Jan Krejsek, Frantisek Smisko, Pavla Hruskova, Eva Hanuljakova and Tomas Novotny
Biomedicines 2024, 12(3), 667; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines12030667 - 16 Mar 2024
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Abstract
Neutrophils are frequently found in the cytological picture of synovial fluid in several joint pathologies, and a higher proportion of them can even wrongly indicate these cases as purulent inflammation. For reliable differentiation between purulent and non-purulent cases, we use the cytological energy [...] Read more.
Neutrophils are frequently found in the cytological picture of synovial fluid in several joint pathologies, and a higher proportion of them can even wrongly indicate these cases as purulent inflammation. For reliable differentiation between purulent and non-purulent cases, we use the cytological energy analysis of the synovial fluid. Using this method, we examined 350 knee joint synovial fluid samples. Overall, we found that the percentage of neutrophils ranged between 20.0% and 50.0% in 44 (12.6%) cases and was above 50.0% in 231 (66.0%) cases. In the same group, only 85 (24.3%) highly anaerobic synovial fluid samples were evaluated as purulent inflammation, and another 17 (4.9%) cases were evaluated as very likely purulent inflammation. Further, we quantified the immediate risk of purulent inflammation using the “purulent score” (PS). Of the total of 350 samples, 103 (29.4%) cases were classified as having a very high risk of purulent inflammation (PS = 4), 53 (15.1%) cases were classified as having a significant risk of purulent inflammation (PS = 3), 17 (4.9%) cases were classified as having a moderate risk of purulent inflammation (PS = 2), and 75 (21.4%) cases were classified as having no immediate risk of purulent inflammation (PS = 1). Based on our results and analyses, the cytological energy analysis of synovial fluid is an effective method that can be used to detect and specify joint inflammation and the risk of septic arthritis development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neutrophils in Immunity and Diseases)
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19 pages, 3412 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Local Anesthetics on Neutrophils in the Context of Different Isolation Techniques
by Sara Sixt, Michael Gruber, Gesche Kolle, Thies Galla and Diane Bitzinger
Biomedicines 2023, 11(8), 2170; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11082170 - 2 Aug 2023
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Abstract
Various functions of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are related to diseases and postoperative plasma changes. The influence of some local anesthetics (LAs) on PMNs obtained by conventional isolation methods and their functions has already been demonstrated. This study investigates the effect of selected LAs [...] Read more.
Various functions of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are related to diseases and postoperative plasma changes. The influence of some local anesthetics (LAs) on PMNs obtained by conventional isolation methods and their functions has already been demonstrated. This study investigates the effect of selected LAs on PMNs, comparing a new isolation method with conventional ones. To obtain the PMNs, we performed either gelafundin sedimentation, hypotonic lysis or density gradient centrifugation. Subsequently, PMNs were mixed with different concentrations of bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, lidocaine or ropivacaine. Live cell imaging and flow cytometry were performed to quantify the migration, ROS production, NETosis and antigen expression of PMNs. We found the inhibition of chemotaxis and ROS production by LAs. PMNs showed a strong reduction in time to half maximal NETosis in response to bupivacaine and lidocaine, but not to levobupivacaine and ropivacaine. We also found distinct differences in survival time and migration duration between the isolation methods. This suggests that the careful selection of LAs has a short-term impact on in vitro PMNs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neutrophils in Immunity and Diseases)
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15 pages, 1661 KiB  
Article
Ιnterleukin-17A-Enriched Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Promote Immunofibrotic Aspects of Childhood Asthma Exacerbation
by Maria Ntinopoulou, Dimitrios Cassimos, Eugenia Roupakia, Evangelos Kolettas, Maria Panopoulou, Elpis Mantadakis, Theocharis Konstantinidis and Akrivi Chrysanthopoulou
Biomedicines 2023, 11(8), 2104; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11082104 - 26 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1140
Abstract
Childhood asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disorder that can drive tissue remodeling. Neutrophils are amongst the most prominent inflammatory cells contributing to disease manifestations and may exert a potent role in the progression of inflammation to fibrosis. However, their role in asthma [...] Read more.
Childhood asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disorder that can drive tissue remodeling. Neutrophils are amongst the most prominent inflammatory cells contributing to disease manifestations and may exert a potent role in the progression of inflammation to fibrosis. However, their role in asthma exacerbation is still understudied. Here, we investigate the association between neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and lung fibroblasts in childhood asthma pathophysiology using serum samples from pediatric patients during asthma exacerbation. Cell-based assays and NETs/human fetal lung fibroblast co-cultures were deployed. Increased levels of NETs and interleukin (IL)-17A were detected in the sera of children during asthma exacerbation. The in vitro stimulation of control neutrophils using the sera from pediatric patients during asthma exacerbation resulted in IL-17A-enriched NET formation. The subsequent co-incubation of lung fibroblasts with in vitro-generated IL-17A-enriched NETs led fibroblasts to acquire a pre-fibrotic phenotype, as assessed via enhanced CCN2 expression, migratory/healing capacity, and collagen release. These data uncover the important pathogenic role of the NET/IL-17A axis in asthma exacerbation, linking lung inflammation to fibroblast dysfunction and fibrosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neutrophils in Immunity and Diseases)
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