Biomarkers in Dementia Disorders

A special issue of Biomedicines (ISSN 2227-9059). This special issue belongs to the section "Neurobiology and Clinical Neuroscience".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2024 | Viewed by 6012

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
2nd Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece
Interests: dementia; neurodegenerative disorders; Alzheimer’s disease; Lewy body synucle-inopathies; frontotemporal lobar degenerations; tauopathies; TDP43 proteinopa-thies; vascular cognitive impairment; cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers; neurochem-istry; neuropsychology; neuroimaging
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece
Interests: progressive supranuclear palsy; multiple system atrophy; corticobasal syndrome; CSF biomarkers; MRI
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Alzheimer’s disease, the most common type of neurodegenerative dementia, is characterized by two main pathological features: extracellular accumulation of amyloid beta peptides in the form of amyloid plaques and hyperphosphorylation of tau protein, which polymerizes in the form of paired helical filaments, the key component of intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles. Most frontotemporal lobar degenerations are due to tau or TDP-43 pathology, while a small percentage is due to FUS or more rare pathologies. Parkinson’s disease with or without dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies belong to the group of synucleinopathies. Thus, neurodegenerative dementia disorders are currently viewed as proteinopathies, being characterized by the aggregation (and probably prion-like spread) of one or more protein(s) or peptides. Some of these proteins can be quantified in the CSF or plasma (and probably other fluids as well) and serve not only as biomarkers of various biochemical processes but also as important diagnostic tools. The accumulation of amyloid beta peptides and/or tau in the brain can also be studied with positron emission tomography. Fluid or imaging biomarkers may also be helpful in the diagnosis of secondary causes of dementia, such as autoimmune encephalitis and normal pressure hydrocephalus.

This upcoming Special Issue will highlight the latest advances in fluid and imaging biomarkers for dementia disorders. Original articles, reviews and case reports are all welcome.

Dr. George P. Paraskevas
Dr. Vasilios C. Constantinides
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • dementia
  • biomarkers
  • cerebrospinal fluid
  • plasma
  • neuroimaging
  • positron emission tomography
  • tau
  • phospho-tau
  • amyloid-beta
  • alpha synuclein

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Review

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17 pages, 359 KiB  
Review
Imaging Markers for Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus: An Overview
by Efstratios-Stylianos Pyrgelis, Georgios Velonakis, Sokratis G. Papageorgiou, Leonidas Stefanis, Elisabeth Kapaki and Vasilios C. Constantinides
Biomedicines 2023, 11(5), 1265; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11051265 - 24 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2684
Abstract
Idiopathic bormal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a neurological syndrome that clinically presents with Hakim’s triad, namely cognitive impairment, gait disturbances, and urinary incontinence. The fact that iNPH is potentially reversible makes its accurate and early diagnosis of paramount importance. Its main imaging characteristic [...] Read more.
Idiopathic bormal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a neurological syndrome that clinically presents with Hakim’s triad, namely cognitive impairment, gait disturbances, and urinary incontinence. The fact that iNPH is potentially reversible makes its accurate and early diagnosis of paramount importance. Its main imaging characteristic is the dilation of the brain’s ventricular system and the imaging parameters are also included in its diagnostic criteria along with clinical data. There is a variety of different modalities used and a great number of imaging markers that have been described while assessing iNPH patients. The present literature review attempts to describe the most important of these imaging markers and to shed some light on their role in diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and possibly prognosis of this potentially reversible neurological syndrome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers in Dementia Disorders)

Other

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8 pages, 214 KiB  
Brief Report
Signatures and Discriminative Abilities of Multi-Omics between States of Cognitive Decline
by Filippos Anagnostakis, Michail Kokkorakis, Keenan A. Walker and Christos Davatzikos
Biomedicines 2024, 12(5), 941; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines12050941 - 23 Apr 2024
Viewed by 625
Abstract
Dementia poses a substantial global health challenge, warranting an exploration of its intricate pathophysiological mechanisms and potential intervention targets. Leveraging multi-omic technology, this study utilizes data from 2251 participants to construct classification models using lipidomic, gut metabolomic, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteomic markers [...] Read more.
Dementia poses a substantial global health challenge, warranting an exploration of its intricate pathophysiological mechanisms and potential intervention targets. Leveraging multi-omic technology, this study utilizes data from 2251 participants to construct classification models using lipidomic, gut metabolomic, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteomic markers to distinguish between the states of cognitive decline, namely, the cognitively unimpaired state, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia. The analysis identifies three CSF proteins (apolipoprotein E, neuronal pentraxin-2, and fatty-acid-binding protein), four lipids (DEDE.18.2, DEDE.20.4, LPC.O.20.1, and LPC.P.18.1), and five serum gut metabolites (Hyodeoxycholic acid, Glycohyodeoxycholic acid, Hippuric acid, Glyceric acid, and Glycodeoxycholic acid) capable of predicting dementia prevalence from cognitively unimpaired participants, achieving Area Under the Curve (AUC) values of 0.879 (95% CI: 0.802–0.956), 0.766 (95% CI: 0.700–0.835), and 0.717 (95% CI: 0.657–0.777), respectively. Furthermore, exclusively three CSF proteins exhibit the potential to predict mild cognitive impairment prevalence from cognitively unimpaired subjects, with an AUC of 0.760 (95% CI: 0.691–0.828). In conclusion, we present novel combinations of lipids, gut metabolites, and CSF proteins that showed discriminative abilities between the states of cognitive decline and underscore the potential of these molecules in elucidating the mechanisms of cognitive decline. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers in Dementia Disorders)
17 pages, 2348 KiB  
Systematic Review
State of the Art of microRNAs Signatures as Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets in Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s Diseases: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Idiberto José Zotarelli-Filho, Bassam Felipe Mogharbel, Ana Carolina Irioda, Priscila Elias Ferreira Stricker, Nathalia Barth de Oliveira, Claudia Sayuri Saçaki, Maiara Carolina Perussolo, Nádia Nascimento da Rosa, Larissa Lührs, Dilcele Silva Moreira Dziedzic, Rogério Saad Vaz and Katherine Athayde Teixeira de Carvalho
Biomedicines 2023, 11(4), 1113; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11041113 - 7 Apr 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2153
Abstract
Identifying target microRNAs (miRNAs) might serve as a basis for developing advanced therapies for Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Alzheimer’s disease. This review aims to identify the main therapeutic targets of miRNAs that can potentially act in Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. The publication research [...] Read more.
Identifying target microRNAs (miRNAs) might serve as a basis for developing advanced therapies for Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Alzheimer’s disease. This review aims to identify the main therapeutic targets of miRNAs that can potentially act in Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. The publication research was conducted from May 2021 to March 2022, selected from Scopus, PubMed, Embase, OVID, Science Direct, LILACS, and EBSCO. A total of 25 studies were selected from 1549 studies evaluated. The total number of miRNAs as therapeutic targets evidenced was 90 for AD and 54 for PD. An average detection accuracy of above 84% for the miRNAs was observed in the selected studies of AD and PD. The major signatures were miR-26b-5p, miR-615-3p, miR-4722-5p, miR23a-3p, and miR-27b-3p for AD and miR-374a-5p for PD. Six miRNAs of intersection were found between AD and PD. This article identified the main microRNAs as selective biomarkers for diagnosing PD and AD and therapeutic targets through a systematic review and meta-analysis. This article can act as a microRNA guideline for laboratory research and pharmaceutical industries for treating Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases and offers the opportunity to evaluate therapeutic interventions earlier in the disease process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers in Dementia Disorders)
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