Current Advances in Weed Biology, Ecology and Management

A special issue of Biology (ISSN 2079-7737). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2023) | Viewed by 7839

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China
Interests: weed biology and ecology; sustainable weed management

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Guest Editor
College of Plant Protection, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China
Interests: herbicide resistance; weed management

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Weeds are the most serious threat to agricultural crops and cause great loss to crop production. In recent decades, weed control strategies become more reliant on herbicides, and causes a shift in weed community composition and the evolution of herbicide resistance. The biology of weed species and population ecology affect the adaptive evolution of weeds and remain the foundation for the development of integrated weed management strategies. However,  more knowledge about gene expression, the molecular basis of herbicide-resistant weeds, and evolutionary genetics are still needed to better elucidate the biological bases.

In this Special Issue, original research articles and reviews are welcome. Research areas may include (but are not limited to) the following: seed dormancy and germination, growth biology, molecular basis of weed evolution, population ecology, mechanism of herbicide resistance in weeds, and novel weed control strategies.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Zhaofeng Huang
Prof. Dr. Lang Pan
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • weed
  • seed dormancy and germination
  • growth biology
  • population ecology
  • molecular basis
  • herbicide resistance
  • competitive ability
  • fitness
  • weed management

Published Papers (6 papers)

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18 pages, 9866 KiB  
Article
Tissue-Specific Transcriptomes in the Secondary Cell Wall Provide an Understanding of Stem Growth Enhancement in Solidago canadensis during Invasion
by Yu Zhang, Zhongsai Tian, Jiaqi Shi, Ruoyu Yu, Shuxin Zhang and Sheng Qiang
Biology 2023, 12(10), 1347; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12101347 - 20 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1044
Abstract
Invasive plants generally present a significant enhancement in aboveground vegetative growth, which is mainly caused by variation in secondary cell wall (SCW) deposition and vascular tissue development. However, the coordination of the transcriptional regulators of SCW biosynthesis is complex, and a comprehensive regulation [...] Read more.
Invasive plants generally present a significant enhancement in aboveground vegetative growth, which is mainly caused by variation in secondary cell wall (SCW) deposition and vascular tissue development. However, the coordination of the transcriptional regulators of SCW biosynthesis is complex, and a comprehensive regulation map has not yet been clarified at a transcriptional level to explain the invasive mechanism of S. canadensis. Here, RNA sequencing was performed in the phloem and xylem of two typical native (US01) and invasive (CN25) S. canadensis populations with different stem morphologies. A total of 296.14 million high-quality clean reads were generated; 438,605 transcripts and 156,968 unigenes were assembled; and 66,648 and 19,510 differential expression genes (DEGs) were identified in the phloem and xylem, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the SCW transcriptional network was dramatically altered during the successful invasion of S.canadensis. Based on a comprehensive analysis of SCW deposition gene expression profiles, we revealed that the invasive population is dedicated to synthesizing cellulose and reducing lignification, leading to an SCW with high cellulose content and low lignin content. A hypothesis thus has been proposed to explain the enhanced stem growth of S. canadensis through the modification of the SCW composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Advances in Weed Biology, Ecology and Management)
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14 pages, 3366 KiB  
Article
Cytochrome P450s-Involved Enhanced Metabolism Contributes to the High Level of Nicosulfuron Resistance in Digitaria sanguinalis from China
by Xumiao Wang, Wei Hu, Yuxi Li, Minghao Jiang, Ning Zhao, Haiqun Cao and Min Liao
Biology 2023, 12(9), 1192; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12091192 - 31 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 867
Abstract
Large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.) is one of the major malignant grass weeds in Chinese maize (Zea mays L.) fields, and it has recently developed resistance to the acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicide nicosulfuron. This study focused on a suspected nicosulfuron-resistant [...] Read more.
Large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.) is one of the major malignant grass weeds in Chinese maize (Zea mays L.) fields, and it has recently developed resistance to the acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicide nicosulfuron. This study focused on a suspected nicosulfuron-resistant (R) population (LJ-01) of D. sanguinalis, collected from Lujiang County in Anhui Province, China, to explore the resistance level and potential resistance mechanism. Whole-plant dose–response testing confirmed that the LJ-01 population evolved a high level of resistance to nicosulfuron (11.5-fold) compared to the susceptible (S) population, DY-02. The ALS gene sequencing and relative expression assay of the R plants indicated that target gene mutation and overexpression were not responsible for the resistance phenotype. However, pretreatment with malathion, a known cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) inhibitor, alleviated the resistance of the R population to nicosulfuron by approximately 36%. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that the R plants metabolized nicosulfuron faster than the S plants. Moreover, cross-resistance testing suggested that the R population exhibited low levels of resistance to thifensulfuron-methyl and pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, but it remained susceptible to rimsulfuron. Multiple resistance patterns showed that the R population evolved low resistance to the photosystem inhibitors bromoxynil octanoate and atrazine and sensitivity to the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitor cyhalofop-butyl and the 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) inhibitors tembotrione, mesotrione, and topramezone. This study reports, for the first time, the simultaneous resistance to ALS and different photosystem inhibitors in D. sanguinalis. The nicosulfuron resistance observed in the R population could primarily be attributed to an enhanced metabolism involving P450 enzymes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Advances in Weed Biology, Ecology and Management)
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19 pages, 2551 KiB  
Article
Adaptability and Germination Characteristics of Volunteer Wheat in China’s Main Wheat-Producing Areas
by Wangcang Su, Muhan Yang, Ronghui Ma, Qingqing Li, Hongle Xu, Fei Xue, Lanlan Sun, Chuantao Lu and Renhai Wu
Biology 2023, 12(8), 1090; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12081090 - 04 Aug 2023
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Abstract
Volunteer wheat commonly occurs and spreads rapidly in the main wheat-producing areas of China, seriously impacting cultivated wheat production. Limited information is currently available regarding the adaptability and germination traits of volunteer wheat. Therefore, this study’s aim was to evaluate the effects of [...] Read more.
Volunteer wheat commonly occurs and spreads rapidly in the main wheat-producing areas of China, seriously impacting cultivated wheat production. Limited information is currently available regarding the adaptability and germination traits of volunteer wheat. Therefore, this study’s aim was to evaluate the effects of environmental conditions on the germination and emergence of volunteer wheat seeds through laboratory experiments. The results showed that the germination percentages and viability of volunteer wheat were significantly higher than those of cultivated wheat at a low temperature of 5 °C, and they were lower than those of cultivated wheat at high temperatures of above 30 °C. Compared to cultivated wheat, volunteer wheat was able to tolerate higher salinity and lower osmotic potential, especially long-dormancy volunteer wheat. The secondary germination ability of volunteer wheat was higher than that of cultivated wheat after water immersion. Furthermore, volunteer wheat could not emerge normally when the seeding depth was greater than 8 cm, and the emergence ability of the volunteer wheat was weaker than that of the cultivated wheats when the seeding depth was 4–8 cm, which indicates that the deep tillage of cultivated land could effectively prevent the spread of volunteer wheat. This study revealed differences in the germination characteristics of volunteer wheat and cultivated wheat under the influence of different environmental factors, which provides a basis for future studies concerning the control of volunteer wheat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Advances in Weed Biology, Ecology and Management)
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18 pages, 4220 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Biological and Genetic Characteristics between Two Most Common Broad-Leaved Weeds in Paddy Fields: Ammannia arenaria and A. multiflora (Lythraceae)
by Yuan Gao, Shenghui Li, Guohui Yuan, Jiapeng Fang, Guohui Shen and Zhihui Tian
Biology 2023, 12(7), 936; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12070936 - 30 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 782
Abstract
Ammannia arenaria and A. multifloras, morphologically similar at the seedling stage, are the most common broad-leaved weeds in paddy fields. Our study showed that A. arenaria occupied more space than A. multifloras when competing with rice. However, A. multifloras germination has lower [...] Read more.
Ammannia arenaria and A. multifloras, morphologically similar at the seedling stage, are the most common broad-leaved weeds in paddy fields. Our study showed that A. arenaria occupied more space than A. multifloras when competing with rice. However, A. multifloras germination has lower temperature adaptability. No difference in sensitivity to common herbicides between two Ammannia species was observed. Chloroplast (cp) genomes could be conducive to clarify their genetic relationship. The complete cp genome sequences of A. arenaria (158,401 bp) and A. multiflora (157,900 bp) were assembled for the first time. In A. arenaria, there were 91 simple sequence repeats, 115 long repeats, and 86 protein-encoding genes, one, sixteen, and thirty more than those in A. multiflora. Inverted repeats regions expansion and contraction and the phylogenetic tree based on cp genomes demonstrated the closely relationship between the two species. However, in A. arenaria, 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the CDS region were detected compared to A. multiflora, which can be used to distinguish the two species. Moreover, there was one unique gene, infA, only in A. arenaria. This study provides reliable molecular resources for future research focusing on the infrageneric taxa identification, phylogenetic resolution, population structure, and biodiversity of Ammannia species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Advances in Weed Biology, Ecology and Management)
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15 pages, 4081 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Herbicide Metabolism and Target-Site Mutations Confer Multiple Resistance to Fomesafen and Nicosulfuron in Amaranthus retroflexus L.
by Cheng Yang, Hao Wang, Yunxia Duan, Feng Bei, Sisi Jia, Jinxin Wang, Hengzhi Wang and Weitang Liu
Biology 2023, 12(4), 592; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12040592 - 13 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1772
Abstract
Amaranthus retroflexus L. is a highly competitive broadleaf weed of corn–soybean rotation in northeastern China. In recent years, the herbicide(s) resistance evolution has been threatening its effective management in crop fields. One resistant A. retroflexus (HW-01) population that survived the protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) [...] Read more.
Amaranthus retroflexus L. is a highly competitive broadleaf weed of corn–soybean rotation in northeastern China. In recent years, the herbicide(s) resistance evolution has been threatening its effective management in crop fields. One resistant A. retroflexus (HW-01) population that survived the protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) inhibitor fomesafen and acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor nicosulfuron applied at their field-recommended rate was collected from a soybean field in Wudalianchi City, Heilongjiang Province. This study aimed to investigate the resistance mechanisms of fomesafen and nicosulfuron and determine the resistance profile of HW-01 to other herbicides. Whole plant dose–response bioassays revealed that HW-01 had evolved resistance to fomesafen (50.7-fold) and nicosulfuron (5.2-fold). Gene sequencing showed that the HW-01 population has a mutation in PPX2 (Arg-128-Gly) and a rare mutation in ALS (Ala-205-Val, eight/twenty mutations/total plants). In vitro enzyme activity assays showed that ALS extracted from the HW-01 plants was less sensitive to nicosulfuron (3.2-fold) than ST-1 plants. Pre-treatment with the cytochrome P450 inhibitors malathion, piperonyl butoxide (PBO), 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (amitrole), and the GSTs inhibitor 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan (NBD-Cl) significantly increased fomesafen and nicosulfuron sensitivity in the HW-01 population compared with that of the sensitive (S) population ST-1. Moreover, the rapid fomesafen and nicosulfuron metabolism in the HW-01 plants was also confirmed via HPLC-MS/MS analysis. Furthermore, the HW-01 population showed multiple resistance (MR) to PPO, ALS, and PSII inhibitors, with resistance index (RI) values ranging from 3.8 to 9.6. This study confirmed MR to PPO-, ALS-, and PSII-inhibiting herbicides in the A. retroflexus population HW-01, as well as confirming that the cytochrome P450- and GST-based herbicide metabolic along with TSR mechanisms contribute to their multiple resistance to fomesafen and nicosulfuron. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Advances in Weed Biology, Ecology and Management)
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11 pages, 3691 KiB  
Brief Report
Generation of Herbicide-Resistant Soybean by Base Editing
by Tao Wei, Linjian Jiang, Xiang You, Pengyu Ma, Zhen Xi and Ning Ning Wang
Biology 2023, 12(5), 741; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12050741 - 19 May 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1902
Abstract
Weeds cause the largest yield loss in soybean production. The development of herbicide-resistant soybean germplasm is of great significance for weed control and yield improvement. In this study, we used the cytosine base editor (BE3) to develop novel herbicide-resistant soybean. We have successfully [...] Read more.
Weeds cause the largest yield loss in soybean production. The development of herbicide-resistant soybean germplasm is of great significance for weed control and yield improvement. In this study, we used the cytosine base editor (BE3) to develop novel herbicide-resistant soybean. We have successfully introduced base substitutions in GmAHAS3 and GmAHAS4 and obtained a heritable transgene-free soybean with homozygous P180S mutation in GmAHAS4. The GmAHAS4 P180S mutants have apparent resistance to chlorsulfuron, flucarbazone-sodium, and flumetsulam. In particular, the resistance to chlorsulfuron was more than 100 times that of with wild type TL-1. The agronomic performance of the GmAHAS4 P180S mutants showed no significant differences to TL-1 under natural growth conditions. In addition, we developed allele-specific PCR markers for the GmAHAS4 P180S mutants, which can easily discriminate homozygous, heterozygous mutants, and wild-type plants. This study demonstrates a feasible and effective way to generate herbicide-resistant soybean by using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated base editing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Advances in Weed Biology, Ecology and Management)
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