Air Pollution in Urban and Regional Level: Sources, Sinks and Transportation (2nd Edition)

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Air Quality".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 April 2024) | Viewed by 14202

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
National institute of meteorology and hydrology, Department" Meteorology", 66, Tsarigradsko Shose Blvd, 1784 Sofia, Bulgaria
Interests: air pollution; air particulate matter; airborne black carbon; source apportionment; precipitation chemistry
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Guest Editor
Paul Scherrer Institute, Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, 5232 Villigen, Switzerland
Interests: aerosols; source apportionment; elemental analysis; PMF; PM; metals; air pollution
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Guest Editor
Institute for Nuclear Reseast (ATOMKI), 4026 Debrecen, Hungary
Interests: atmospheric pollution; airborne particulate matter; elemental analysis; source apportionment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Institute of Nuclear & Radiological Science & Technology, Energy & Safety, NCSR "Demokritos", 15310 Athens, Greece
Interests: aerosol chemistry and microphysics; particulate matter; air quality; exposure assessment; nanoparticle technology; GHGs
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is a follow-up of the first Issue entitled “Air Pollution at the Urban and Regional Level: Sources, Sinks, and Transportation” (https://www.mdpi.com/journal/atmosphere/special_issues/Air_Pollution_Sources_Sinks_Transportation) published in Atmosphere in 2021.

More than half of the world’s population (55%) lives in urban areas, where they are subjected to high particulate matter (PM)-related pollution. PM can originate from a vast number of different sources, but is mainly attributed to industrial emissions, local traffic, biomass burning, and natural sources like soil dust and sea salt. Therefore, research aimed at better understanding the sources of PM and the processes they undergo in the atmosphere continues to be very relevant.

The goal of this Special Issue is to bring together the latest scientific knowledge aimed at assessing air pollution at urban and regional levels, including experimental and numerical model studies. The Issue will focus on identifying sources of particulate air pollution, their trends, and inter-urban and regional transport. In addition, the Issue will cover all major aspects of urban aerosol observations, including the chemical characterization of particulate matter and its impact on human health.

Dr. Elena Hristova
Dr. Manousos Ioannis Manousakas
Dr. Anikó Angyal
Dr. Maria Gini
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • air pollutants
  • particulate matter (PM)
  • particulate matter chemical characterization
  • long-range transport
  • wet and dry deposition
  • source apportionment
  • air pollution modelling
  • air quality impact on health

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 2970 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Ozone Pollution Characteristics, Meteorological Effects, and Transport Sources in Zhuzhou, China
by Bei Yan, Jia Luo, Min Zhang, Yi Zhang, Tongjue Xiao, Lu Wang, Bo Liu, Yunjuan Han, Gongxiu He, Lili Yang and Zhihong Huang
Atmosphere 2024, 15(5), 559; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15050559 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 573
Abstract
Based on the hourly surface ozone (O3) observations and meteorological data from Zhuzhou in 2021, the pollution characteristics and influencing factors of O3 in Zhuzhou were investigated in the study. In addition, the Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) and Concentration [...] Read more.
Based on the hourly surface ozone (O3) observations and meteorological data from Zhuzhou in 2021, the pollution characteristics and influencing factors of O3 in Zhuzhou were investigated in the study. In addition, the Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) and Concentration Weighted Trajectory (CWT) analysis methods were employed to analyze the transmission paths and potential pollution sources of O3 pollution in Zhuzhou. The results showed that the total number of days with O3 exceeding the standard at all monitoring stations in Zhuzhou was 142 days in 2021. The overall air quality was less affected by SO2, NO2, and CO, and the trend of O3 pollution was still increasing. The concentrations of O3, CO, and NO2 varied significantly in different months, and the variation of O3 exhibited a “double-peak” pattern, with the peak value occurring in September. The O3 concentration in urban areas was significantly higher than that in suburban areas. Meteorological conditions had a significant impact on the degree of O3 pollution in Zhuzhou. The average wind speed in Zhuzhou throughout the year was 1.7 m/s, and the prevailing wind direction in summer was southeast, with a frequency of 16%. O3 pollution was mainly transported by short-distance airflow during the over-standard periods in 2021, accounting for 37.64%. The main source of O3 pollutant was from Jiangxi Province in the east, with the shortest distance of regional transport and the highest O3 concentration. In addition, transportation from central Guangdong Province, western Jiangxi Province, and central Hubei Province also had a significant impact. Full article
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18 pages, 4759 KiB  
Article
Hourly Particulate Matter (PM10) Concentration Forecast in Germany Using Extreme Gradient Boosting
by Stefan Wallek, Marcel Langner, Sebastian Schubert, Raphael Franke and Tobias Sauter
Atmosphere 2024, 15(5), 525; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15050525 - 25 Apr 2024
Viewed by 601
Abstract
Air pollution remains a significant issue, particularly in urban areas. This study explored the prediction of hourly point-based PM10 concentrations using the XGBoost algorithm to assimilate them into a geostatistical land use regression model for spatially and temporally high-resolution prediction maps. The [...] Read more.
Air pollution remains a significant issue, particularly in urban areas. This study explored the prediction of hourly point-based PM10 concentrations using the XGBoost algorithm to assimilate them into a geostatistical land use regression model for spatially and temporally high-resolution prediction maps. The model configuration and training incorporated meteorological data, station metadata, and time variables based on statistical values and expert knowledge. Hourly measurements from approximately 400 stations from 2009 to 2017 were used for training. The selected model performed with a mean absolute error (MAE) of 6.88 μg m−3, root mean squared error (RMSE) of 9.95 μg m−3, and an R² of 0.65, with variations depending on the siting type and surrounding area. The model achieved a high accuracy of 98.54% and a precision of 73.96% in predicting exceedances of the current EU-limit value for the daily mean of 50 μg m−3. Despite identified limitations, the model can effectively predict hourly values for assimilation into a geostatistical land use regression model. Full article
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17 pages, 2701 KiB  
Article
Trace Elements Concentrations in Urban Air in Helsinki, Finland during a 44-Year Period
by Eleftheria Ioannidou, Stefanos Papagiannis, Manousos Ioannis Manousakas, Chrysoula Betsou, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Jussi Paatero, Lambrini Papadopoulou and Alexandra Ioannidou
Atmosphere 2023, 14(9), 1430; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14091430 - 13 Sep 2023
Viewed by 941
Abstract
The atmospheric concentrations of seventeen elements were measured in air filters at the Finnish Meteorological Institute station in Helsinki, Finland, during a period of 44 years (1962–2005). The mean annual concentrations were calculated and are presented from the lowest values to the highest [...] Read more.
The atmospheric concentrations of seventeen elements were measured in air filters at the Finnish Meteorological Institute station in Helsinki, Finland, during a period of 44 years (1962–2005). The mean annual concentrations were calculated and are presented from the lowest values to the highest ones Cr < Ni < Ti < Br < V < Mn < Cu < Zn < Cl < Al < Fe < K < Ca < Na < Pb < Si < S. Most of the elements (Fe, Si, Ti, K, Ca, Zn, Br, Pb, V, Ni, S, Cr, Na, Al, and Cl) present higher values during spring and winter season, while in summer the elements (Ti, Ca, S, and Na) are found in higher concentrationsdue to the weather conditions across seasons and the sources and emissions of air pollutants. There is a strong correlation between the elements (V-Ni, Si-Pb, Fe-Ca, V-Cr, Si-K, K-Ca, Fe-Ti, K-Na, Si-Ca, and V-S), indicating their common source. The identification of the sources of trace elements was performed based on positive matrix factorization analysis, using SoFi software. Four Suspended Particulate Matter (PM) sources were identified: road dust (due to usage of leaded fuel), heavy oil combustion/secondary sulfates, traffic emissions, and natural dust (soil). For the total of 44 years studied, significant decreases in concentrations were observed for all elements, most of which were over 50%: Na (−74%), Al (−86%), Si (−88%), S (−82%), K (−82%), Ca (−89%), Ti (−80%), V (−89%), Cr (−82%), Mn (−77%), Fe (−77%), Ni (−61%), Zn (−72%), and Pb (−95%). In general, a significant decline has been observed in the majority of the elemental concentrations since the end of the 1970s, underlying the effectiveness of different environmental policies that have been applied during the last few decades. Full article
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24 pages, 6597 KiB  
Article
Low Transportation Emission Analysis and Projection Using LEAP: The Case of Qatar
by Maryam Al-Jabir and Rima J. Isaifan
Atmosphere 2023, 14(8), 1286; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14081286 - 14 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1812
Abstract
The transportation sector is a significant source of pollution and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions contributing to global warming. Although research on the actual emissions from transport has been conducted in several parts of the world, very limited outcomes in this field have been [...] Read more.
The transportation sector is a significant source of pollution and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions contributing to global warming. Although research on the actual emissions from transport has been conducted in several parts of the world, very limited outcomes in this field have been reported in the Gulf region. This is especially true for road transportation, one of Qatar’s most significant sources of air pollution. To address this research gap, this study provides an invaluable resource for policymakers as it is the first to quantify the current and forecast future transport emissions. In this work, actual data on traffic counts were input into the Low-Emissions Analysis Platform (LEAP) tool, which has never been used in the context of Qatar, making it an outstanding addition to the research in this domain. The ultimate goal is to estimate the transportation emissions from road traffic in Qatar and investigate how different actions lead to three different scenarios that can impact it. Considering that the policy reformation in the transportation sector is crucial to reducing greenhouse gas emissions and climate change, a scenario analysis can provide theoretical support for policy development and implementation. The investigation used the actual vehicle count data from 2017 to 2021, while all future projections considered the duration from 2022 to 2050 using three scenarios. The first was based on the historical growth in the number of vehicles; the second was based on the business-as-usual scenario (BAU); and the third considered that the public transport shall be divided into three sub-scenarios, namely fuel-economy improvement, the electrification of public transportation, and the replacement of diesel or petrol fuel with compressed natural gas (CNG). The results show that carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions were the highest in all scenarios. Moreover, it was found that in the BAU, the light-duty vehicles (LDVs) category is the most significant contributor to GHG emissions compared to motorcycles and heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs). In addition, it was found that emissions can be reduced by improving public transportation, switching to a cleaner fuel, and reducing reliance on private vehicles. Full article
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19 pages, 5862 KiB  
Article
Study of Particular Air Quality and Meteorological Parameters at a Construction Site
by Lazar Milivojević, Sanja Mrazovac Kurilić, Zvonimir Božilović, Suzana Koprivica and Olja Krčadinac
Atmosphere 2023, 14(8), 1267; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14081267 - 10 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1255
Abstract
The construction industry is a major contributor to dust, greenhouse gases, and other air pollutants. Implementing effective and sustainable practices in managing construction site operations can greatly mitigate the environmental effects of a project. To achieve this, a collaboration between a scientific research [...] Read more.
The construction industry is a major contributor to dust, greenhouse gases, and other air pollutants. Implementing effective and sustainable practices in managing construction site operations can greatly mitigate the environmental effects of a project. To achieve this, a collaboration between a scientific research institution and a construction company enabled the real-time monitoring of air quality parameters at a construction site using Internet of Things (IoT) technologies. They implemented an IoT-based system framework that integrated a distributed sensor network to collect real-time data from the construction site. Various sensors were utilized to gather data on the concentration of NO2 and particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), as well as meteorological parameters such as wind speed, wind direction, humidity, pressure, and temperature. The real-time measurements yielded insights into the level of air pollution at the construction site and its association with earth excavation, the primary construction activity. This information can be utilized to manage excavation work and reduce the levels of polluting gases (NO2) and suspended particles. By conducting an on-site monitoring of these three pollutants, the study discovered that the dust levels resulting from excavation activities were relatively high. When comparing the wind direction with NO2 and PM concentrations, it was concluded that earth excavation significantly influenced the air quality in the construction area. However, in terms of the primary factors affecting NO2 and construction dust concentrations, the analysis revealed that meteorological factors did not exhibit a significant correlation with NO2 and dust levels at the construction site. The multiple linear regression (MLR) and the artificial neural network (ANN) models for predicting PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 concentration in air using meteorological parameters as predictors were applied. The ANN model showed greater accordance with the measured concentrations in air than the MLR model. Full article
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11 pages, 284 KiB  
Article
Risk Assessment of the Impact of Heavy Metals in Urban Traffic Dust on Human Health
by Nima Mahmoud, Dana Al-Shahwani, Hanadi Al-Thani and Rima J. Isaifan
Atmosphere 2023, 14(6), 1049; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14061049 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2491
Abstract
Excessive exposure to heavy metals induces potential adverse health impacts in humans. More specifically, heavy metals in particulate matter (PM) have a significant impact since PM can penetrate human organs and systems, causing several morbidities. In this work, dust samples were collected from [...] Read more.
Excessive exposure to heavy metals induces potential adverse health impacts in humans. More specifically, heavy metals in particulate matter (PM) have a significant impact since PM can penetrate human organs and systems, causing several morbidities. In this work, dust samples were collected from 20 different types of roads in a busy zone in Doha during the winter of 2016–2017, where a higher human exposure rate occurs due to extensive outdoor activities during this time of the year. The elemental composition in terms of the mass concentration of 30 elements was determined in each sample via an energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer. Then, the toxicity of six heavy metals in these airborne traffic dust samples was investigated. The heavy metals reported to have a hazardous impact on human health are As, Pb, Hg, Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn. The extent of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk impact was assessed using pollution indices and then determining the health risks associated with exposure to heavy metals through inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact. The non-carcinogenic hazard index analysis results indicate no toxicity for all metals. However, the carcinogenic risk factor results show that only chromium might induce a slight risk for children and adults. In light of this, further research is recommended to investigate more areas in urban Doha where more samples can be collected and analyzed. Full article
25 pages, 6165 KiB  
Article
The Chemical Characteristics of Rainwater and Wet Atmospheric Deposition Fluxes at Two Urban Sites and One Rural Site in Côte d’Ivoire
by Mohamed L. Kassamba-Diaby, Corinne Galy-Lacaux, Véronique Yoboué, Jonathan E. Hickman, Camille Mouchel-Vallon, Kerneels Jaars, Sylvain Gnamien, Richmond Konan, Eric Gardrat and Siélé Silué
Atmosphere 2023, 14(5), 809; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14050809 - 28 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2445
Abstract
Due to their close relationship with atmospheric chemical composition and global impacts on ecosystems, it is of crucial importance to determine rain chemical composition and quantify wet deposition. In this study, we characterized the chemical composition of precipitation at one rural and two [...] Read more.
Due to their close relationship with atmospheric chemical composition and global impacts on ecosystems, it is of crucial importance to determine rain chemical composition and quantify wet deposition. In this study, we characterized the chemical composition of precipitation at one rural and two urban sites in Côte d’Ivoire along a south-north transect. Annual and monthly Volume Weighted Mean (VWM) concentration of major ions, as well as wet deposition fluxes in rainwater samples from Abidjan, Korhogo (urban sites), and Lamto (rural site), have been calculated. We also simulated air mass back-trajectories and generated satellite maps of burnt fraction and nitrogen species emissions (NH3, NO2) to better analyze our results. Results show that the dominant ion at both urban sites is Ca2+, whereas NH4+ dominates the chemical content of the Lamto rural site. The analysis of atmospheric sources of influence shows that urban sites rains are characterized by a mixture of terrigenous continental and anthropogenic sources (39–33%), as well as a high marine contribution (34–24%) and a significant nitrogenous contribution (18–25%) mainly associated to fossil fuel from road traffic, domestic and biomass burning sources. At the rural Lamto site, marine, terrigenous, and nitrogenous contributions represent, respectively, 14%, 25%, and 30%. The average pH values are, respectively, 5.76, 5.31, and 5.57 for Abidjan, Lamto, and Korhogo, with a preponderance of mineral acidity contribution at the urban sites, while the organic acidity contribution dominates in Lamto. Neutralization factor (NF) of mineral and organic acids calculations revealed that Ca2+ and NH4+ are the most important neutralizing ions in the rain at all three sites, and we estimated that 79% to 87% of the rain acidity is neutralized by alkaline compounds. Full article
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25 pages, 4292 KiB  
Article
Source Apportionment of Ambient Particulate Matter (PM) in Two Western African Urban Sites (Dakar in Senegal and Bamako in Mali)
by Thierno Doumbia, Catherine Liousse, Marie-Roumy Ouafo-Leumbe, Seydi Ababacar Ndiaye, Eric Gardrat, Corinne Galy-Lacaux, Cyril Zouiten, Véronique Yoboué and Claire Granier
Atmosphere 2023, 14(4), 684; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14040684 - 5 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2953
Abstract
Following population growth and rapid urbanization, West African cities have become major sources of anthropogenic pollution. Additionally, Saharan dust has had a significant impact, representing a potentially toxic mix of sources for the population. This study characterizes the atmospheric composition and its sources [...] Read more.
Following population growth and rapid urbanization, West African cities have become major sources of anthropogenic pollution. Additionally, Saharan dust has had a significant impact, representing a potentially toxic mix of sources for the population. This study characterizes the atmospheric composition and its sources in two African capitals, Bamako, Mali and Dakar, Senegal. TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected during the dry season in 2009 when pollution levels were high: chemical analysis included organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), ions, and metals. PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations were 5–10 times and 3–8 times higher, respectively, than the 2005 WHO 24 h standards. Using PCA and PMF methodologies, five sources were identified in each city. In Bamako, traffic (motor vehicles and resuspended road dust) was the prevailing source of PM2.5 and PM10, accounting for 47% and 45%, respectively. Crustal dust was the second most important source (24–30%), followed by solid fuel combustion (16–13%) and secondary aerosols (10–16%). In Dakar, the following sources of PM2.5 and PM10 are identified: traffic (49%), mineral dust (16–25%), sea salts (15–20%) and industries (10–11%). Our study provides crucial information about the historical change in source characteristics in these two African cities, which can help for future mitigation strategies. Full article
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