Wine Chemistry

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Science and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 July 2024 | Viewed by 15873

Special Issue Editor

National Research and Development Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies, Rm. Valcea, Romania
Interests: wine and beverages; fruit juices; stable isotopes; analytical methods; authenticity; chemometrics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Wine is a complex matrix that contains many classes of compounds such us sugars, alcohols, acids, flavonoids (tannins), non-flavonoids, minerals, and proteins, among others. Beyond the mastery of the winemaker and winemaking techniques, including aging conditions, wine is the expression of various factors related to the provenance area, type of grape variety, terroir (soil type and climate), and grape-ripening process. All these features give its uniqueness and value.

The authenticity and typicality of wine are basic attributes that guarantee its quality. The terms are closely related but not identical: authenticity refers to the origin—variety and vineyard—while typicality refers to wine characteristics imprinted by the variety, “terroir”, and technology of production.

This Special Issue aims to provide an insight on wine chemistry, from grapes to wine, covering both winemaking technological aspects, and wine aging and storage. Submissions that explore the chemical profile and sensory properties of wines, particularly chemical markers for specific winemaking practices and assessment of wine traceability, are encouraged. Novel approaches in terms of not only oenological practices and analytical methodologies for identifying compounds of interest (e.g., polyphenols profile, organic acids, minerals, and trace and rare earth elements) as quality and authenticity indicators but also valorization of by-products and waste from vinification processes are also welcome.

Dr. Roxana Elena Ionete
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • grapes
  • wine
  • viticultural practices
  • winemaking
  • chemical profile
  • analytical methods
  • authentication
  • traceability
  • origin
  • typicity
  • waste valorization

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 2141 KiB  
Article
Highlighting the Terroir Influence on the Aromatic Profile of Two Romanian White Wines
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14010019 - 19 Dec 2023
Viewed by 468
Abstract
Climate conditions clearly influence the concentration of important substances in grapes, generating chemical reactions that will determine the final wine aromas. Three different regions were chosen to cover the most important viticultural areas from Romania. The aim of this study was to highlight, [...] Read more.
Climate conditions clearly influence the concentration of important substances in grapes, generating chemical reactions that will determine the final wine aromas. Three different regions were chosen to cover the most important viticultural areas from Romania. The aim of this study was to highlight, for the first time, the volatile profile for two Romanian white wines, Feteasca regala and Feteasca alba, from three different vineyards (Silagiu, Aiud, and Sarica Niculițel). The results showed that wine’s aromatic profile was directly proportional with the area of origin for the grapes, directly correlated to the climate. The obtained values for alcohols, esters, aldehydes, and terpenoid compounds were also related to the oenoclimatic aptitude index, a significant accumulation of aroma compounds being observed mainly for the Feteasca regala wine. A total of 17 superior alcohols were evidenced within the two types of wines, among them, 2-phenyl ethanol being distinguished by its higher level in all samples, varying from 7692 up to 11,783 µg/L. Together with some aromatic esters, it offers one of the most pleasant aromas, resembling rose flavour. Of all the acids found in wines, the succinic acid has the most intense flavour, tasting somehow bitter and salty, imprinting to wine a certain “juiciness” and “vinosity”. Diethyl succinate was one of the main esters in all six samples, with concentrations from 777 up to 1200 µg/L. Also, two terpenoid compounds and two aldehydes were found in all samples. The data obtained from PCA evaluation suggested that there is a significant variance among wine varieties. Nevertheless, hierarchical clustering was applied to explain the relationship between the six samples of wines, the smallest clusters that included Silagiu and Aiud winegrowing regions suggesting an increased similarity of the compositional profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Chemistry)
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17 pages, 2572 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Freisa Wines from Piedmont (Italy) by Aroma and Element Profile
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(13), 7425; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13137425 - 22 Jun 2023
Viewed by 540
Abstract
The main purpose of this study was to characterize Freisa red wines from Piedmont (northern Italy) according to their volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and elemental composition. Moreover, the authors investigated whether it was possible to distinguish among the five different DOCs produced in [...] Read more.
The main purpose of this study was to characterize Freisa red wines from Piedmont (northern Italy) according to their volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and elemental composition. Moreover, the authors investigated whether it was possible to distinguish among the five different DOCs produced in Piedmont on the basis of these chemical parameters. The VOCs profile of Freisa wines was very similar, and the most abundant species detected were isoamyl alcohol, phenylethyl alcohol, ethyl octanoate, and diethyl succinate. Conversely, elemental composition allowed us to partially distinguish one Freisa DOC with respect to the others. Multivariate statistical analysis applied to elemental composition revealed differences among Freisa wines and other red wines from different regions of Italy. In particular, Freisa wines featured higher concentrations of Cr and Ni metals, which are strongly correlated with the composition of the soil of Piedmont. These two elements are hence good candidates as chemical markers for Freisa wines from Piedmont. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Chemistry)
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15 pages, 1878 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Bioactive Phenolic Compounds in Musts and the Corresponding Wines of White and Red Grape Varieties
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(9), 5722; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13095722 - 05 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1357
Abstract
Wine contains important amounts of antioxidants, which contribute to the protection of the body from oxidative stress and associated diseases. This study aims to characterize the bioactive characteristics and individual polyphenolic composition of different white and red musts and the corresponding wines obtained [...] Read more.
Wine contains important amounts of antioxidants, which contribute to the protection of the body from oxidative stress and associated diseases. This study aims to characterize the bioactive characteristics and individual polyphenolic composition of different white and red musts and the corresponding wines obtained at Stefanesti vineyard, Romania, and to observe the evolution of the main phenolic compounds from the musts to the corresponding wines. General bioactive characteristics (total polyphenols, total tannins, total catechins, total anthocyanins contents, total tannin, and antioxidant activity) were determined using UV-Vis spectrometric methods, while phenolic composition (phenolic acids, flavonoids, and stilbenes) was detected using UHPLC–HRMS analysis. The fermentation and stabilization processes that occur during the transformation of musts into the corresponding wines lead to a decrease in the general bioactive characteristics from musts to wines, while the fermentation of the musts leads to an enrichment of the individual phenolic compounds in the corresponding wines, with a significant increase in the content of gallic, syringic, and p-coumaric acids in the wines compared with the musts. A clear distinction of the musts and wines was obtained for both white and red varieties, indicating different phenolic compositions of the musts and wines. The obtained results contribute to the characterization of the polyphenolic fingerprint of the investigated white and red musts and wines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Chemistry)
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20 pages, 1210 KiB  
Article
Comparative Phenolic Profiles of Monovarietal Wines from Different Croatian Regions
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 3031; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13053031 - 27 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1469
Abstract
The phenolic profile of wines is often used to evaluate their quality and authenticity. The phenolic composition of twenty-five commercial wines produced in different Croatian regions from eight red and nine white grape varieties was studied. A total of twenty-four polyphenols were analyzed [...] Read more.
The phenolic profile of wines is often used to evaluate their quality and authenticity. The phenolic composition of twenty-five commercial wines produced in different Croatian regions from eight red and nine white grape varieties was studied. A total of twenty-four polyphenols were analyzed using HPLC-DAD and classified into five groups based on their structure: phenolic acids, flavan-3-ols, anthocyanins, flavonoids, and stilbenes. The red wines contained higher concentrations of phenolic constituents than the white wines, of which gallic acid (11.8–90.3 mg/L), procyanidin B1 (13.7–63.8 mg/L), and catechin (10.5–34.5 mg/L) were the most abundant. In contrast to the white wines, great variability was observed in the red wines, with the autochthonous Plavac Mali and Babić showing the most specific phenolic profiles. The most representative phenolic components in the studied Croatian wines showed strong antioxidant activity. Gallic acid proved to be the most effective DPPH (IC50 = 0.33 µg/mL) and NO scavenger (IC50 = 12.36 µg/mL), while myricetin was the most potent inhibitor of lipid peroxidation (IC50 = 1.68 µg/mL). Our research has contributed to the characterization and varietal differentiation of Croatian wines, highlighting those rich in certain polyphenols as potential nutraceuticals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Chemistry)
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12 pages, 2307 KiB  
Article
Analytical Methods to Assess Polyphenols, Tannin Concentration, and Astringency in Hard Apple Cider
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(19), 9409; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12199409 - 20 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1673
Abstract
The production of hard apple cider frequently involves considerations based on the balance between fermentable sugars and titratable acidity and/or pH. However, these are not the only attributes that influence the sensory properties of cider. Various groups of polyphenols and tannins influence bitterness, [...] Read more.
The production of hard apple cider frequently involves considerations based on the balance between fermentable sugars and titratable acidity and/or pH. However, these are not the only attributes that influence the sensory properties of cider. Various groups of polyphenols and tannins influence bitterness, astringency, and mouthfeel, as well as color of the product. In this study, 19 single variety hard apple ciders were evaluated using analytical methods originally developed for wines. The aim was to determine how the cider matrix affects the functionality of each method. The results indicate that most assays work with sufficient accuracy with the exception of protein precipitation methods. Due to interferences of polysaccharides with the protein reaction, those assays are poorly reproducible and do not reflect the actual polyphenol or tannin concentration. The analytical determination of astringency is also influenced by this interference, since it traditionally uses the concept of protein precipitation as well. Liquid chromatography as a selective method can be readily applied to cider. Other colorimetric methods or non-protein precipitation methods, such as the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, the Methylcellulose Precipitation assay, and the Iron-Reactive Phenolics assay, can be used to classify apple ciders and make decisions based on the desired bitterness and astringency profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Chemistry)
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13 pages, 1498 KiB  
Article
Chemical Composition of White Wines Produced from Different Grape Varieties and Wine Regions in Slovakia
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(22), 11059; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112211059 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3527
Abstract
In this work, chemical parameters such as sugar (glucose and fructose) content, organic acid (total acids, malic and tartaric acids), total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity of 12 white wines (chardonnay, pinot blanc and pinot gris) from various wine regions in Slovakia [...] Read more.
In this work, chemical parameters such as sugar (glucose and fructose) content, organic acid (total acids, malic and tartaric acids), total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity of 12 white wines (chardonnay, pinot blanc and pinot gris) from various wine regions in Slovakia were studied in order to identify differences among the varieties and wine-growing regions. The wine samples were examined by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV-VIS spectrophotometry (for determination of total polyphenolic content (TPC) and total antioxidant activity (TAA)) methods. Content of alcohol ranged between 11.50% and 13.80% with the mean value 12.52%. Mean content of total acids varied between 4.63 ± 0.09 and 6.63 ± 0.05 g.L−1, tartaric acid varied between 1.62 ± 0.09 and 2.93 ± 0.03 g L−1, malic acid was found in the concentrations ranged from 0.07 ± 0.05 and 2.50 ± 0.08 g L−1 and lactic acid was present between 1.53 and 0.01 g L−1. The content of fructose was, in general, higher in the samples from the Južnoslovenská and Nitrianska wine regions and glucose was higher in the Malokarpatská wine region. Chardonnay wines showed the highest content of total polyphenols and the antioxidant activity in the samples ranged from 51.06 ± 027 to 72.53 ± 0.35% inhibition of DPPH. The PCA analysis based on chemical descriptors distinguished the Nitrianska and Stredoslovenská wine regions. According to similarities among the wine samples, four main classes were formed by cluster analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Chemistry)
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17 pages, 1352 KiB  
Article
Influence of Oak Chips and Oak Barrel Ageing on Volatile Profile in Chardonnay Wine of Romania
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(8), 3691; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11083691 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2786
Abstract
The influence of the addition of oak chips and barrel ageing on basic wine parameters and volatile compounds of Chardonnay wines has been studied. Chardonnay wines were obtained by the traditional wine-making process. Oak chips (4 g/L—non-toasted and light toasted) were added at [...] Read more.
The influence of the addition of oak chips and barrel ageing on basic wine parameters and volatile compounds of Chardonnay wines has been studied. Chardonnay wines were obtained by the traditional wine-making process. Oak chips (4 g/L—non-toasted and light toasted) were added at the final stage of the winemaking process for ageing 1, 2 and 3 months, respectively. Also, the control wine was aged in non-toasted barrels for the same period of time. Following Liquid-liquid extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, alcohols, esters, fatty acids, lactones, and phenolic compounds were identified and quantified. The light toasted wine was clearly separated by phenolic compounds (vanillin, p-vinyl guaiacol and acetovanillone). The floral aroma supplied by 2-phenylethanol was slowly increased by ageing with odor activity values (OAV) higher in aged samples than control wine (1.07). The vanilla scent could be easily perceived in all aged samples, mainly for light toasted chip-treated samples with OAV values between 2.30 and 2.37. After 3 months, the volatile compounds of wine from non-toasted medium (chips and barrels) were almost similar from the volatile profile point of view. This could have economic and vinification management implications since oak barrels are expensive and the wine oak barrel aging is a long process. All wines studied in this research can provide a viable alternative to young varietal wines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Chemistry)
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Review

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23 pages, 1727 KiB  
Review
An Overview on Management and Valorisation of Winery Wastes
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(8), 5063; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13085063 - 18 Apr 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2592
Abstract
As we address important societal needs, the circular economy equips us with the means to jointly combat climate change and biodiversity loss, including the revaluation of waste. The wine-making process is a huge generator of waste, creating problems for manufacturers every year; therefore, [...] Read more.
As we address important societal needs, the circular economy equips us with the means to jointly combat climate change and biodiversity loss, including the revaluation of waste. The wine-making process is a huge generator of waste, creating problems for manufacturers every year; therefore, an appropriate management and valorisation of winery wastes are crucial, even if it is difficult. This results from the hardship of disposing of grape marc, which is considered a pollutant for the environment. In the past, the simplest option for this waste disposal was the payment of a fee around EUR 3000, which recently increased up to EUR 30,000–40,000. Several environmentally friendly technologies have been proposed for the recovery of cellar waste. Fermentation of grape residue, pruning, or wine-making lees have been reported to yield lactic acid, surfactants, xylitol, ethanol, and other compounds. In addition, grape pulp and seeds are rich in phenolic compounds, which have antioxidant properties, and tartaric acid from vinasse can be extracted and marketed. Additionally, complex phenol mixtures, such as those found in wine residues (seeds, bark, stems, or leaves), are effective as chemotherapeutic agents and can be used in medicine. In this review, the potential of using wine-making by-products, extracts, and their constituent parts as raw materials for adsorbents, biopolymers, natural reinforcing fillers, and sustainable energy production will be a key point of discussion. An overview on how wine producers, based on wine and wastes chemistry, can implement the circular economy as an alternative to the conventional linear economy (make, use, dispose) will be provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Chemistry)
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