Pollution Control Chemistry

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemical and Molecular Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 September 2021) | Viewed by 21314

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Associate Professor, Department of Environmental Engineering and Management, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection, ‘Gheorghe Asachi’ Technical University of Iasi, Romania
Interests: environmental engineering and management; environmental chemistry (atmosphere, water, soil/subsoil chemistry); analysis and control of environment pollution; water and wastewater treatment systems; elements of environmental monitoring and/or risk control; optimization of some processes applied for environmental protection; environmental assessments; waste management; energy and the environment, chemical engineering
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We would like to invite you to contribute with an original research paper, a review article or hot topic for Applied Sciences, on a Special Issue called “Pollution Control Chemistry”, for peer-review and possible publication.

As is already known, the quality management of all environmental components (i.e., atmosphere, water, soil/subsoil, etc.) and its subareas of environmental remediation or treatment becomes a key issue in the environmental policy of all countries, and a few targets are already recommended until 2020, or 2030. One of such key targets was that of fulfillment of adequate recommended quality of environmental components in each country, especially for local/regional atmosphere and surface waters/underground waters in which a lot of direct discharges (wanted and nonwanted/accidental) of final effluents and uncontrolled wastes are periodically produced. The assessment of environmental quality around/in the vicinity of a such a discharging section is recommended to be continuously controlled for any pollution episode identification and, thereafter, remediation action implementation.

Periodic control of environment quality through common and specific analysis of its physical, chemical, microbiological, and biological characteristics is a continuous agreed and viable action useful for identification of any pollution level increase and also pollution sources and selection of a corresponding remediation plan.

Original unpublished research reports, or review articles on environmental pollution control and its subareas of new advanced environmental analysis methods and associated environment characterization, pollution level assessment, supervising monitoring and remediation/depollution/treatment action implementation are invited to be submitted for possible publishing in this special issue.

Prof. Dr. Carmen Zaharia
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • environmental analysis and control
  • environmental chemistry
  • environment characteristic
  • environmental remediation/depollution
  • monitoring
  • quality
  • treatment

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 2503 KiB  
Article
Smoke Particle, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Total Benzo[a]pyrene Toxic Equivalence Emitted by Palm Oil Sewage Sludge Bio-Char Combustion
by Wachara Kalasee and Panya Dangwilailux
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(18), 8339; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11188339 - 08 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1673
Abstract
The size distribution, total particle mass concentration (TPMC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) value, and total Benzo[a]pyrene Toxic Equivalence (BaPTE) concentration of smoke particles from palm oil sewage sludge (POSS) bio-char combustion were studied. In this experiment, temperature data of the POSS [...] Read more.
The size distribution, total particle mass concentration (TPMC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) value, and total Benzo[a]pyrene Toxic Equivalence (BaPTE) concentration of smoke particles from palm oil sewage sludge (POSS) bio-char combustion were studied. In this experiment, temperature data of the POSS bio-char combustion were recorded in two parts: particle temperature (Tp) by using a two-color pyrometer and temperature at 300, 500 and 800 mm, respectively, above the fire base by using K-type thermocouples. The POSS bio-char moisture content, clean air speed values, and burning period affected the change of temperature above the fire base. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) values of the POSS bio-char combustion were found to be 0.44 to 1.05 micron at various moisture contents and burning periods. The MMAD, TPMC, and PAHs values increased with increasing moisture content and decreased the POSS bio-char combustion period. For the total BaPTE values, the results showed that the decrease in moisture content of the POSS bio-char samples had a prime influence in decreasing the total BaPTE values. Meanwhile, with decreases in the clean air speed values, the total BaPTE values were increased. Comparing the total BaPTE data between the experimental results and predicted values, the first-degree model had a better fit in predicting than the zero-degree model; this result was confirmed by the higher mean of the coefficient of determination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pollution Control Chemistry)
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11 pages, 3514 KiB  
Article
Prediction of Size Distribution and Mass Concentration of Smoke Particles on Moisture Content and Combustion Period from Para Rubber Wood Burning
by Wachara Kalasee and Panya Dangwilailux
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 5649; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11125649 - 18 Jun 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1902
Abstract
The size distribution and total particle mass concentration (TPMC) of smoke particles from para rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis) combustion in the ribbed smoked sheet (RSS) process were studied. In this experiment, temperature data values of para rubber wood combustion were recorded [...] Read more.
The size distribution and total particle mass concentration (TPMC) of smoke particles from para rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis) combustion in the ribbed smoked sheet (RSS) process were studied. In this experiment, temperature data values of para rubber wood combustion were recorded at 500 mm above the base of the fire by K-type thermocouples. The wood moisture content and wood combustion period were used to find and improve an equation of smoke particle size distribution (SPSD) and TPMC by the response surface method (RSM). An eight-stage Andersen air sampler and a high-volume sampler were used to measure and calculate SPSD and TPMC, respectively. Resulting data in this experiment showed that TPMC ranged from 3.12 to 77.42 mg/m3. SPSD was single mode in which MMAD, mass median aerodynamic diameter, ranged from 0.64 to 1.27 microns for para wood with moisture content ranging from 31.5 to 89.7% dry weight basis. The combustion period and moisture content of para wood have a direct effect on the change of temperature data above the base of the fire and the TPMC and MMAD values. For predicting TPMC and MMAD values by the para wood moisture contents in each combustion period, the results found that the second-degree model was a better plot than the first-degree model, confirmed by higher values of the coefficient of determination (R2). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pollution Control Chemistry)
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15 pages, 1222 KiB  
Article
Brilliant Red HE-3B Dye Biosorption by Immobilized Residual Consortium Bacillus sp. Biomass: Fixed-Bed Column Studies
by Luiza Ioana Horciu, Carmen Zaharia, Alexandra Cristina Blaga, Lacramioara Rusu and Daniela Suteu
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(10), 4498; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11104498 - 14 May 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1496
Abstract
Residual biomass from various industries represents an important source of valuable compounds, used as raw materials for the production of a wide range of new products and also in various treatment and valorization processes or/and sanitation services, thus responding to the principles of [...] Read more.
Residual biomass from various industries represents an important source of valuable compounds, used as raw materials for the production of a wide range of new products and also in various treatment and valorization processes or/and sanitation services, thus responding to the principles of sustainable development, waste recovery, and a green and circular economy. The aim of this work is to make use of residual Bacillus sp. biomass (resulting from a process of removing fatty acids from municipal wastewater) immobilized in alginate that, although it results in large quantities from biotechnological processes, is not reported to be valorized in dye biosorption processes, except in few specific applications. The biosorption potential of residual Bacillus sp. biomass in the reactive Brilliant Red HE-3B textile dye removal from aqueous systems was studied in a fixed-bed column. The effects of various experimental operating parameters, such as bed depth (h), flow rate (Fv), were investigated, and the modeling of experimental data based on Thomas and Yoon–Nelson kinetic models was satisfactorily achieved. The obtained results reconfirm that the studied residual biomass can be also considered as a good biosorbent in dynamic operating system, and can be beneficially used in the treatment of wastewater containing small quantities of organic dyes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pollution Control Chemistry)
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15 pages, 3375 KiB  
Article
Synthesis and Characterization of ZnBi2O4 Nanoparticles: Photocatalytic Performance for Antibiotic Removal under Different Light Sources
by Oussama Baaloudj, Achraf Amir Assadi, Mohamed Azizi, Hamza Kenfoud, Mohamed Trari, Abdeltif Amrane, Aymen Amine Assadi and Noureddine Nasrallah
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(9), 3975; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11093975 - 27 Apr 2021
Cited by 40 | Viewed by 3653
Abstract
This work aims to synthesize a photocatalyst with high photocatalytic performances and explore the possibility of using it for antibiotic removal from wastewater. For that, the spinel ZnBi2O4 (ZBO) was produced with the co-precipitation method and its optical, dielectric, and [...] Read more.
This work aims to synthesize a photocatalyst with high photocatalytic performances and explore the possibility of using it for antibiotic removal from wastewater. For that, the spinel ZnBi2O4 (ZBO) was produced with the co-precipitation method and its optical, dielectric, and electrochemical characteristics were studied. The phase has been determined and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). For the ZBO morphology, a Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) has been used. Then, the optical and dielectric properties of ZBO have been evaluated by calculating refractive index n (λ), extinction coefficient (k), dissipation factor (tan δ), relaxation time (τ), and optical conductivity (σopt) using the spectral distribution of T(λ) and R(λ). An optical gap band of 2.8 eV was determined and confirmed. The electrochemical performance of ZBO was investigated and an n-type semiconductor with a flat band potential of 0.54 V_SCE was found. The photocatalytic efficiency of ZBO was investigated in order to degrade the antibiotic Cefixime (CFX) under different light source irradiations to exploit the optical properties. A high CFX degradation of approximately 89% was obtained under solar light (98 mW cm−2) only after 30 min, while 88% of CFX degradation efficiency has been reached after 2 h under UV irradiation (20 mW cm−2); this is in line with the finding of the optical characterizations. According to the obtained data, solar light assisted nanoparticle ZBO can be used successfully in wastewater to remove pharmaceutical products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pollution Control Chemistry)
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15 pages, 3389 KiB  
Article
Design and Preliminary Testing of an In-Field Passive Treatment System for Removing Phosphorus from Surface Water
by George Carleton, Jessica Glowczewski and Teresa J. Cutright
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(9), 3743; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11093743 - 21 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1360
Abstract
It is well documented that excess phosphorus in source waters is a major contributor to harmful algal bloom formation. While there are many approaches to controlling algal populations in reservoirs, including a variety of phosphorus reduction approaches (e.g., sequestration of legacy phosphorus with [...] Read more.
It is well documented that excess phosphorus in source waters is a major contributor to harmful algal bloom formation. While there are many approaches to controlling algal populations in reservoirs, including a variety of phosphorus reduction approaches (e.g., sequestration of legacy phosphorus with alum or clay products), addressing physical phosphorus loading upstream is considered less often. Water treatment residuals (WTR) containing alum, a common waste product of conventional surface water treatment, have been shown to retain the ability to capture phosphorus even after the WTR ‘sludge’ is formed and removed from the sedimentation process. This research designed and tested a refillable, reusable in-stream phosphorus cartridge system which beneficially reutilizes WTR ‘sludge’ to sequester instream phosphorus and remove it from the water when spent media is replaced. This reduces in-stream phosphorus entering into the reservoir without permanently adding additional materials to the waterbody and provides measurable results as to the amount of phosphorus removed. The ten sampling events during the first year’s field assessment indicated that the gates removed a total of 556.31 g of reactive phosphorus (PO43−) and it is anticipated that the actual phosphorous removal was even greater. Other watershed managers can implement the same approach using their own WTR to capture in-stream phosphorus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pollution Control Chemistry)
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17 pages, 4815 KiB  
Article
The Influence of the Modernization of the City Sewage System on the External Load and Trophic State of the Kartuzy Lake Complex
by Jolanta Grochowska and Renata Tandyrak
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 974; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11030974 - 21 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1467
Abstract
A study was carried out in the Kartuzy lake complex, which has been a receiver of raw domestic sewage since the 1950s. In 2018, the city’s sewage system of Kartuzy was modernized. An analysis of the water quality prior to the modernization of [...] Read more.
A study was carried out in the Kartuzy lake complex, which has been a receiver of raw domestic sewage since the 1950s. In 2018, the city’s sewage system of Kartuzy was modernized. An analysis of the water quality prior to the modernization of the sewage system revealed that the total phosphorus (TP) load that was introduced to the individual lakes from external sources substantially exceeded the dangerous load concentration (defined by Vollenweider) that causes accelerated eutrophication. The annual TP load introduced to the analyzed lakes in 2017 exceeded the critical load by 200% (Mielenko) to 1000% (Klasztorne Duże). Protective measures reduced the external loading of nutrients. In the case of Mielenko Lake, a 37% decrease in the external TP load was noted, and also a 32% decrease in the external TP load in Karczemne Lake, a 66% decrease in Klasztorne Małe Lake and a 54% decrease in Klasztorne Duże Lake was noted. The protective measures resulted in a slight decrease in the concentrations of phosphorus and nitrogen in the water. However, these changes did not improve the environmental conditions in the lakes. In a situation where the internal fertilization process in the lakes has started, the improvement of water quality will only be possible through restoration efforts with methods adjusted to the individual characteristics of each lake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pollution Control Chemistry)
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18 pages, 3425 KiB  
Article
Textile Wastewater Treatment on a Spinning Disc Reactor: Characteristics, Performances, and Empirical Modeling
by Eugenia Teodora Iacob Tudose and Carmen Zaharia
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(23), 8687; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10238687 - 04 Dec 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1415
Abstract
Spinning disc (SD) technology has been successfully applied, for the first time, in real textile wastewater treatment with no other additional processing. The SD efficiency was investigated using real textile effluents to study the color and suspended solids removals at different effluent-supplying flowrates [...] Read more.
Spinning disc (SD) technology has been successfully applied, for the first time, in real textile wastewater treatment with no other additional processing. The SD efficiency was investigated using real textile effluents to study the color and suspended solids removals at different effluent-supplying flowrates (10–30 L/h) and different disc rotational speeds (100–1500 rpm) with good experimental results; thus, it can minimize the polluting loads within a short time period. Furthermore, within this study, process modeling and its classical optimization were applied to SD technology for wastewater treatment. The experiments were organized according to an active central composite rotatable 23 order design, considering as independent variables the wastewater flowrate, rotational speed, and operating time and, as optimization criteria, the suspended solids removal and discoloration degree. Overall, this novel study proved that the SD technology applied in textile effluent treatment is a suitable alternative to a primary mechanical step. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pollution Control Chemistry)
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Review

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21 pages, 802 KiB  
Review
Challenge of Utilization Vegetal Extracts as Natural Plant Protection Products
by Daniela Suteu, Lacramioara Rusu, Carmen Zaharia, Marinela Badeanu and Gabriel Mihaita Daraban
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(24), 8913; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10248913 - 14 Dec 2020
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 3831
Abstract
Natural plant protection products (known as biopesticides), derived from natural materials (plants, bacterial strains, and certain minerals) that can be used to control pests, are an alternative to plant protection chemicals (known as pesticides) due to certain advantages: less toxic to humans and [...] Read more.
Natural plant protection products (known as biopesticides), derived from natural materials (plants, bacterial strains, and certain minerals) that can be used to control pests, are an alternative to plant protection chemicals (known as pesticides) due to certain advantages: less toxic to humans and the environment, no release/leaching of harmful residues, and usually much specific to the target pests. This review focuses on the systematization of information highlighting the main advantages related to the natural plant protection products used, the extractive methods of obtaining them, their physical-chemical analysis methodology, the specific constituents responsible for their pesticide effects, the mechanisms of action, and methods for direct application on vegetable crops or on seeds stored in warehouses, in order to eliminate the adverse effects occurred in the case of plant protection chemicals use. Special attention has been accorded to natural plant protection products from the spontaneous flora of Moldova (Romania’s macroeconomic region NE), which can be considered a resource of valuable secondary metabolites, especially in the form of vegetable essential oils, with biological effects and biopesticide routes of action. All presented information concludes that biopesticides can successfully replace the chemical plant protection products on small farms and especially in silos (seeds and cereals). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pollution Control Chemistry)
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20 pages, 2618 KiB  
Review
Sampling Rate of Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS): Influence Factors and Calibration Methods
by Liyang Wang, Ruixia Liu, Xiaoling Liu and Hongjie Gao
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(16), 5548; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10165548 - 11 Aug 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3175
Abstract
As a passive sampling device, the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) has the characteristics of simple operation, safety, and reliability for assessing the occurrence and risk of persistent and emerging trace organic pollutants. The POCIS, allowing for the determination of time-weighted average [...] Read more.
As a passive sampling device, the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) has the characteristics of simple operation, safety, and reliability for assessing the occurrence and risk of persistent and emerging trace organic pollutants. The POCIS, allowing for the determination of time-weighted average (TWA) concentration of polar organic chemicals, exhibits good application prospects in aquatic environments. Before deploying the device in water, the sampling rate (Rs), which is a key parameter for characterizing pollutant enrichment, should be determined and calibrated accurately. However, the Rs values strongly depend on experimental hydrodynamic conditions. This paper provides an overview of the current situation of the POCIS for environmental monitoring of organic pollutants in an aquatic system. The principle and theory of the POCIS are outlined. In particular, the effect factors such as the ambient conditions, pollutant properties, and device features on the Rs are analyzed in detail from aspects of impact dependence and mechanisms. The calibration methods of the Rs under laboratory and in situ conditions are summarized. This review offers supplementary information on comprehensive understanding of mechanism and application of the POCIS. Nevertheless, the Rs were impacted by a combined effect of solute–sorbent–membrane–solution, and the influence extent of each variable was still unclear. On this basis, the ongoing challenges are proposed for the future application of the POCIS in the actual environment, for instance, the need for this device to be improved in terms of quantitative methods for more accurate measurement of the Rs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pollution Control Chemistry)
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