Polysaccharides: From Extraction to Applications 2nd Edition

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Science and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 June 2024 | Viewed by 14864

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, Faculty of Food Technology, University of Agriculture, ul. Balicka 122, 30-149 Kraków, Poland
Interests: composites; polysaccharide; biopolymers; nanomaterials; nanoparticles; organic synthesis; synthesis; materials chemistry; material characterization; nanomaterials synthesis; nanoparticle synthesis; nanoparticle preparation; quantum dots; carbohydrate chemistry; starch; carbon nanotubes; metal nanoparticles; nanosilver; nanogold
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Chemistry, Jan Długosz University, 42-200 Częstochowa, Poland
Interests: new ways of using starch and cereal in environmental engineering processes (collectors of heavy metal ions, soil stabilizers, drilling muds, biofuels); catalytic properties of ceramic materials containing Li ions and metal transition ions in the process of thermal decomposition of botanical-origin systems
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The increasing cost of petroleum and the prospect of a shortage of its natural deposits imply the necessity of searching for alternative sources of energy and industrial raw materials. Polysaccharides are a commonly available, cheap, sustainable and renewable group of organic compounds. They are considered as attractive raw materials, providing access to several novel biodegradable materials that are attractive for chemical, food and pharmaceutical industries. There is more interest than ever when it comes to natural polysaccharides and spreading the fields of their potential applications.

Due to their chemical structure, polysaccharides can be readily modified via physical, physicochemical, chemical and enzymatic methods. Numerous studies have confirmed the bioactivity of polysaccharides, providing their applications in clinical practice, nutrition and dietetics. Depending on their origin, polysaccharides exhibit antioxidative, immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, antiviral (e.g., HIV), antimutagenic, cancerostatic and anticlotting properties.

Polysaccharides offer a wide range of key parameters essential for their practical use, such as low, medium and high molecular weights; variable polydispersity; the formation of both linear and branched macrostructures; monofunctionality (compounds bearing solely hydroxyl groups) and polyfunctionality (compounds with hydroxyl, carboxylic and/or amino groups); high degrees of chirality; either low or high aqueous solubility; and low (if any) toxicity and immunogenicity. For these properties, polysaccharides have found wide application in nanotechnology.

Modified polysaccharides are manufactured to satisfy the demands of an industry of various branches—especially the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, pulp, textile, metallurgical and drilling industries. Among commercially available natural polysaccharides, starch, cellulose and pectin are the most common, but there is a wide area of potential applications waiting for easy access to other polysaccharides, such as carrageenan, xanthan gum, alginate, hyaluronan, chitosan, furcellaran, etc. Considerable attention is being paid to eliminating traditional processes of manufacturing and using natural polysaccharides, in favor of modern solutions satisfying ecology and consumer demands.

This new Special Issue is a continuation of the previous Special Issue, “Polysaccharides: From Extraction to Applications”, which was closed on 31 December 2022 including almost 16 valuable peer-reviewed papers. The new Special Issue continues to welcome novel polysaccharide-based materials, including their synthesis, characterization, and potential applications.

Dr. Gohar Khachatryan
Dr. Karen Khachatryan
Dr. Wojciech Ciesielski
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • polysaccharides
  • nanocrystals
  • nanocomposites
  • polysaccharide modification
  • bio-nanocomposites
  • nano-encapsulation
  • green chemistry

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (7 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

17 pages, 11037 KiB  
Article
Alginate Silver Nanoparticles and Their Effect on Sperm Parameters of the Domestic Rabbit
by Miłosz Rutkowski, Anna Grzesiakowska, Marta Kuchta-Gładysz, Olga Jarnecka, Piotr Niedbała, Stanisław Sękara, Karen Khachatryan, Lidia Krzemińska-Fiedorowicz and Gohar Khachatryan
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 2230; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14062230 - 7 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1247
Abstract
Silver nanoparticles possess valuable physical, chemical, and biological properties, rendering them widely applied as bioactive agents in the industry. Nonetheless, their influence on the natural environment and on living organisms remains unclear. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the impact of polymer composites [...] Read more.
Silver nanoparticles possess valuable physical, chemical, and biological properties, rendering them widely applied as bioactive agents in the industry. Nonetheless, their influence on the natural environment and on living organisms remains unclear. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the impact of polymer composites containing silver nanoparticles on sperm cells. The nanosilver polymer composites were chemically synthesized, employing sodium alginate as the stabilizer. The reducing agents employed were solutions comprising sodium borohydride and xylose. The concentration of silver nanoparticles obtained after synthesis was 100 parts per million. The examined biological species were rabbit sperm cells. The impact of nanosilver on the sperm was assessed through the elucidation of the toxicity profile, comet test, and analysis of morphological characteristics of the animal cells. The results of the study demonstrate a twofold impact of polymer composites infused with silver nanoparticles on domestic rabbit sperm when obtained through chemical synthesis using two reducing agents (xylose and sodium borohydride) at a 10 ppm concentration. The comet test showed no harmful effect on the DNA integrity of rabbit sperm by the tested compounds. Twenty-four-hour exposure of rabbit spermatozoa to silver nanoparticles, obtained by reducing xylose and borohydride, induced significant secondary changes in the morphological structure of male reproductive cells. These findings indicate the potential reproductive toxicity of silver nanoparticles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides: From Extraction to Applications 2nd Edition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 2786 KiB  
Article
Production of Sustainable Postbiotics from Sugarcane Straw for Potential Food Applications
by Ana L. S. Oliveira, Marta Seara, Maria João Carvalho, Nelson Mota de Carvalho, Eduardo M. Costa, Sara Silva, Marco Duarte, Manuela Pintado, Carla Oliveira and Ana Raquel Madureira
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(6), 3391; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13063391 - 7 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2310
Abstract
The production of postbiotics for food applications has been growing in recent years owing to their biological potential and superior technological performance over probiotics. Their production involves the use of synthetic culture media, and in this work, we propose using sugarcane straw as [...] Read more.
The production of postbiotics for food applications has been growing in recent years owing to their biological potential and superior technological performance over probiotics. Their production involves the use of synthetic culture media, and in this work, we propose using sugarcane straw as a source of sugar and biological components and a sustainable alternative. Thus, this by-product was used as a substrate to produce a postbiotic extract using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a fermentative microorganism. Sugarcane straw underwent a precedent saccharification step to release the fermentable sugars. The final extracts were characterized for their total content of sugars, phenolic compounds, organic acids, and their respective chromatographic profiles. Seventeen different polyphenols were identified with the predominance of three classes, the hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavonoids, where ferulic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid were most prevalent. The current work evaluated the potential use of this postbiotic extract for food applications, its antioxidant activity, gut microbiota modulatory effect, and intestinal anti-inflammatory potential. The resultant extracts showed considerable antioxidant activity and the ability to lower the pro-inflammatory mediators (i.e., interleukin 6, 8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) in Caco-2 cells. During the fecal fermentability assay, no modulatory effect was observed on the main beneficial bacteria, such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Nevertheless, a significant increase in short-chain fatty acids, namely, acetate, propionate, butyrate, and valerate was observed. Moreover, the extract also demonstrated capacity to inhibit the proliferation of putrefactive bacteria such as Enterobacteriaceae. Finally, sustainable postbiotic extracts produced by S. cerevisiae fermentation using sugarcane straw as a substrate exhibited relevant biological properties with potential use as food and nutraceutical ingredients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides: From Extraction to Applications 2nd Edition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1559 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Bioactive Proteins and Peptides from Rhodomonas sp.
by Hana Derbel, Jihen Elleuch, Wael Mahfoudh, Philippe Michaud, Imen Fendri and Slim Abdelkafi
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 3202; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13053202 - 2 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3487
Abstract
Thanks to their various promising properties, bioactive peptides extracted from microalgae have recently attracted great attention from scientists. These compounds have been mostly obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis. In the present study, proteins from the marine microalga Rhodomonas sp. were hydrolysated into peptides using [...] Read more.
Thanks to their various promising properties, bioactive peptides extracted from microalgae have recently attracted great attention from scientists. These compounds have been mostly obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis. In the present study, proteins from the marine microalga Rhodomonas sp. were hydrolysated into peptides using alcalase and pepsin. After obtaining the peptides, we characterized them and the crude protein by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Then, the biological activities of all protein preparations were evaluated. Antioxidant activity was investigated using DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical-scavenging and ferric reducing power assays. The obtained results showed that crude protein presents higher antioxidant activity (74% at 1 mg/mL) compared to peptides obtained after hydrolysis by pepsin (56.5% at 1 mg/mL) and alcalase (47.5% at 1 mg/mL). The anti-inflammatory activity was also evaluated by inhibition of the denaturation of albumin assay. An interesting anti-inflammatory activity was obtained using protein extract. It was improved after enzymatic hydrolysis using pepsin to reach 89% of inhibition at 500 µg/mL. The obtained data showed that the marine microalga Rhodomonas sp. could be a potential source of valuable proteins and peptides for the pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides: From Extraction to Applications 2nd Edition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 2546 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of Hydrophobic Poly(γ-Glutamic Acid) Derivatives by Enzymatic Grafting of Partially 2-Deoxygenated Amyloses
by Tomoya Anai, Shogo Abe, Kousei Shobu and Jun-ichi Kadokawa
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 489; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13010489 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1432
Abstract
We have previously found that a partially 2-deoxygenated (P2D)-amylose, produced by glucan phosphorylase (GP)-catalyzed enzymatic copolymerization, shows hydrophobic nature. Based on this finding, the present study demonstrates hydrophobization of a strong hydrophilic polypeptide, i.e., poly(γ-glutamic acid) (PGA), by grafting of the [...] Read more.
We have previously found that a partially 2-deoxygenated (P2D)-amylose, produced by glucan phosphorylase (GP)-catalyzed enzymatic copolymerization, shows hydrophobic nature. Based on this finding, the present study demonstrates hydrophobization of a strong hydrophilic polypeptide, i.e., poly(γ-glutamic acid) (PGA), by grafting of the P2D-amylose chains via GP-catalyzed enzymatic approach. After maltooligosaccharide primers for the enzymatic reaction were modified on the PGA chain, we performed GP-catalyzed copolymerization of d-glucan with α-d-glucose 1-phosphate as comonomers in different feed ratios from the primers to produce P2D-amylose-grafted PGAs. We analyzed the structures (chemical and crystalline) of the products, precipitated from reaction mixtures, by 1H NMR and powder X-ray diffraction measurements, respectively. The values of the water contact angle of the cast films, prepared from DMSO solutions of the products with different 2-deoxyglucose/glucose unit ratios, were greater than 100°, indicating efficient hydrophobization of the hydrophilic polypeptide by the present approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides: From Extraction to Applications 2nd Edition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2096 KiB  
Article
Testing Clean-Up Methods for the Quantification of Monosaccharides and Uronic Acids
by Irene Bargagli, Francesca Sabatini, Francesca Modugno and Jeannette Jacqueline Łucejko
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(24), 12781; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122412781 - 13 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1422
Abstract
The determination of carbohydrate composition is extremely important for quality control in food and beverages, in material science, in pharmaceutics, and in the field of cultural heritage. Considering the complexity and the heterogeneity of the matrices, the optimization of extraction and purification steps [...] Read more.
The determination of carbohydrate composition is extremely important for quality control in food and beverages, in material science, in pharmaceutics, and in the field of cultural heritage. Considering the complexity and the heterogeneity of the matrices, the optimization of extraction and purification steps aiming at maximizing the saccharide recovery from the matrix and effectively removing interferences is mandatory. The presence of inorganic components, besides being detrimental to the analytical instrumentation, can catalyze the isomerization of some sugars causing an alteration to their quantitative and qualitative profiles. In the present paper, protocols for suppressing the interference of inorganic ions in the quantification of monosaccharides and uronic acids by Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) are proposed. Two clean-up methods based on ion exchange resins (Amberlite MB-6113 and Amberlite IRN-150) and one making use of solid-phase extraction with a polypropylene Solid-Phase Extraction (SPE) column were tested on a standard carbohydrate solution, and the elution conditions optimized. The best purification conditions, in terms of higher recovery yield values for seven monosaccharides and two uronic acids, were obtained using SPE. Furthermore, the optimized SPE method was validated on a sample of mural painting rich in saccharides and inorganic material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides: From Extraction to Applications 2nd Edition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 542 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum L.) Fortification, Rich in Dietary Fibre and Antioxidants, on Structure and Physicochemical Properties of Biscuits
by Magdalena Krystyjan, Dorota Gumul and Greta Adamczyk
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(23), 12501; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122312501 - 6 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2011
Abstract
In the present study, an attempt was made to enrich cookies with ground seeds of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.) and to determine the effect of this addition on the quality of cookies. The content of nutrients, fibre, and calorific value, as [...] Read more.
In the present study, an attempt was made to enrich cookies with ground seeds of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.) and to determine the effect of this addition on the quality of cookies. The content of nutrients, fibre, and calorific value, as well as, texture, spreadability factor, volume, colour and sensory parameters were tested. The biscuits were characterized by lower caloric value, hardness and volume, but higher spreadability. The cookies with 5% of milk thistle gained high consumer acceptance, but greater than 20% addition caused a worsening quality of the product. The biscuit fortification with ground milk thistle seeds seems to be justified, through enrichment of the products with fibre and the antioxidant compounds having health-promoting properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides: From Extraction to Applications 2nd Edition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

24 pages, 448 KiB  
Review
Properties and Functionality of Cereal Non-Starch Polysaccharides in Breadmaking
by Angelika Bieniek and Krzysztof Buksa
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 2282; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13042282 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2086
Abstract
Non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) are biopolymers included in the fiber of cereal grains and seeds. Among NSPs, arabinoxylans and β-glucans are considered to play the most important role in breadmaking. In the literature to date, there is a lack of studies that summarize the [...] Read more.
Non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) are biopolymers included in the fiber of cereal grains and seeds. Among NSPs, arabinoxylans and β-glucans are considered to play the most important role in breadmaking. In the literature to date, there is a lack of studies that summarize the current information on the properties and role of NSPs in this process. This review summarizes the up-to-date knowledge concerning the properties and functionality of the most common cereal NSPs in bread baking. In studies conducted to date, it has been shown that the addition of both arabinoxylans and β-glucans in amounts up to about 6% causes an increase in the water absorption of flour, and as a consequence, it forces the use of a larger addition of water to achieve the desired consistency of the dough. Even a small addition of NSPs can have a positive effect on the dough yield; making more bread from the same amount of flour and such bread is less caloric since neither NSPs nor water contributes to additional calories. Moreover, it has been shown that even a small addition of arabinoxylans or β-glucans has a positive effect on bread volume, moisture, and texture of the bread crumb as well as the preservation of bread freshness. The knowledge concerning cereal NSPs, especially modified ones and of defined structure, is incomplete and further research is needed to characterize their functionality in breadmaking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides: From Extraction to Applications 2nd Edition)
Back to TopTop