Sensory Characteristics and Consumers Acceptance of Food Products

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Science and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 February 2024) | Viewed by 14948

Special Issue Editors

Department of Functional and Ecological Food, Chair of Functional Food and Sensory Research, Warsaw University of Life Sciences—SGGW, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: sensory analysis; static and dynamic methods in sensory and consumer research; measurement of emotions; electronic devices (eye, nose, tongue); functional food
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Functional and Ecological Food, Chair of Functional Food and Sensory Research, Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: sensory profiling; emotions; rapid sensory techniques in product development; functional foods; context in food choice; food acceptance; electronic nose; electronic tongue
Department of Food Market and Consumer Research, Institute of Human Nutrition Sciences, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW-WULS), 159C Nowoursynowska Street, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: consumer behavior; acceptance; novel research methods in consumer and sensory science; food values and attitudes; organic food; local food; food innovations; food trends
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sensory and consumer science play a key role in product optimization, new product development, and the identification of sensory quality critical control points, and make it possible to determine the trends in food production, processing and consumption. Research in new methodologies for sensory characterization in consumer research, multidisciplinary approaches with psychological and physiological measurements, as well as the influence of contextual effects within the physical environment will enable us to better understand the perception of products by consumers, as well as consumer expectations, beliefs and attitudes.

This Special Issue invites researchers to submit original research articles or reviews related to:

  • Sensory and instrumental analysis (e.g., electronic nose, electronic tongue) in food product development and optimization;
  • Sensory and non-sensory factors affecting consumer choice and consumption of food products;
  • Classic methods and novel techniques of profiling in consumer studies;
  • Psychological and physiological measurements in consumer research;
  • Emotions and their role in the acceptance of food products;
  • Consumer perception and purchase behavior.

Dr. Eliza Kostyra
Dr. Anna Piotrowska
Dr. Sylwia Żakowska-Biemans
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • sensory characteristics
  • sensory interaction
  • novel techniques in sensory profiling
  • temporal methods
  • sensory and instrumental analysis (e.g., electronic nose, electronic tongue)
  • eye tracking
  • consumer choice
  • local and organic food
  • functional food
  • novel food

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 1848 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Sensory Characteristics of the Soybean Spreads Enhanced with Vegetables and Spices
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(3), 1096; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14031096 - 27 Jan 2024
Viewed by 774
Abstract
Transitioning to a plant-based diet presents a number of complex ethical, environmental, and health-related considerations. This trend is not only reshaping consumer diets, but also steering the food industry towards the development of new plant-based products. The primary aim of this study was [...] Read more.
Transitioning to a plant-based diet presents a number of complex ethical, environmental, and health-related considerations. This trend is not only reshaping consumer diets, but also steering the food industry towards the development of new plant-based products. The primary aim of this study was to examine and identify the sensory similarities and differences in soybean spreads consisting of vegetable purées—specifically, beetroot, pumpkin, broccoli, and carrot—with the addition of spices such as marjoram and cumin. The sensory assessment was conducted using the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA). Twenty-three descriptors were selected and defined following the profiling procedure. The sensory properties of soy-based spreads have been significantly altered by the addition of vegetable purées and spices. Adding vegetable purées reduced the intensity of soybean odour and flavour, lowered fatty notes, and resulted in a less dense texture, while enhancing vegetable odour and flavour. This also improved the moisture content and overall sensory quality of the spreads. Although spices did not notably enhance these sensory attributes, soy-based vegetable spreads remain an attractive option for unique vegetarian finger foods and lunch dishes, catering to diverse consumer preferences. The addition of vegetable purées and spices to spreads creates opportunities for innovative and flavourful plant-based options. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory Characteristics and Consumers Acceptance of Food Products)
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18 pages, 2134 KiB  
Article
Labeled Hedonic Scale for the Evaluation of Sensory Perception and Acceptance of an Aromatic Myrtle Bitter Liqueur in Consumers with Chemosensory Deficits
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(24), 13083; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132413083 - 07 Dec 2023
Viewed by 624
Abstract
Spices and herbs improve sensory perception and acceptance of foods in subjects with chemosensory deficits. Our study demonstrated that aromatic spices/herbs greatly influenced the sensory perception of an aromatic myrtle bitter liqueur (Mirtamaro) in consumers with olfactory and gustatory deficits. Mirtamaro was obtained [...] Read more.
Spices and herbs improve sensory perception and acceptance of foods in subjects with chemosensory deficits. Our study demonstrated that aromatic spices/herbs greatly influenced the sensory perception of an aromatic myrtle bitter liqueur (Mirtamaro) in consumers with olfactory and gustatory deficits. Mirtamaro was obtained by infusion of myrtle leaves/berries and a blend of Mediterranean herbs/plants. We initially evaluated differences in gustatory and olfactory perception of pure stimuli in controls (n = 158), subjects with hyposmia (n = 111 participants), and hypogeusia (n = 34). Subjects with hyposmia and hypogeusia showed a marked reduction in odor threshold, discrimination, and identification, while a noticeable compromise in the perception of basic taste modalities (bitter, salty, sour, and sweet) was detected in participants with hypogeusia. Then, in a subpopulation (n = 111) we evaluated differences in the perception of odor and taste pleasantness, intensity, and familiarity of Mirtoamaro. No significant differences emerged, by a labeled hedonic Likert-type scale, in the perception of Mirtamaro odor and taste in subjects with hyposmia and hypogeusia compared to controls. All groups described similar bitter liqueur sensory attributes, qualifying the use of aromatic herbs/plants as a strategy to enhance sensory perception and acceptance of foods in subjects with chemosensory deficits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory Characteristics and Consumers Acceptance of Food Products)
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11 pages, 615 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Addition of Brewers’ Spent Grain (BSG) on the Physicochemical and Consumer Liking Attributes of Croatian Indigenous Cooked Sausage “Bijela Krvavica”
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(24), 13049; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132413049 - 07 Dec 2023
Viewed by 512
Abstract
This research aimed to investigate the effect of the addition of wet brewers’ spent grains (BSG) on the microbiological safety, and physicochemical and sensory attributes of “bijela krvavica” during seven-day storage at 4 °C. The addition of BSG to the samples of “bijela [...] Read more.
This research aimed to investigate the effect of the addition of wet brewers’ spent grains (BSG) on the microbiological safety, and physicochemical and sensory attributes of “bijela krvavica” during seven-day storage at 4 °C. The addition of BSG to the samples of “bijela krvavica” statistically significantly (p < 0.05) affected the mass share of proteins and fat and increased the mass share of water. Increasing the mass share of BSG in “bijela krvavica” did not have a statistically significant (p < 0.05) effect on the mass share of collagen, or on the pH value and aw. Instrumentally determined lightness (L*), redness (a*), and yellowness (b*) showed a decrease with the increase in mass share of wet BSG. Texture profile analysis (TPA) parameters hardness and chewiness also showed a decrease with the increase in BSG share (w = 0–9%) with statistical significance (p < 0.05). The overall liking of “bijela krvavica” samples showed the highest scores for the control sample, while 3% added BSG was rated as second best with no significant difference (p < 0.05). According to the consumer-generated sensory attributes (CATA) scoring, samples with 6 and 9% addition of BSG were described with attributes considered undesirable for meat products, such as “wheaty”, “pale color”, and “poor mouthfeel”. Also, the LogCFUg−1 of enterobacteria, sulfite-reducing clostridia, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes were not affected. The data obtained in this research indicate the possibility of producing safe “bijela krvavica” sausages with wet brewers’ spent grains without major changes in the physicochemical and sensory properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory Characteristics and Consumers Acceptance of Food Products)
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14 pages, 863 KiB  
Article
Development of Emotion Lexicons to Describe Sugar-Free Chocolate According to Consumers’ PROP Taster Status
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(24), 12994; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132412994 - 05 Dec 2023
Viewed by 527
Abstract
Taste sensitivity can have a significant impact on consumers’ food choices. Consumers’ taster status and emotions can be guided by sensory information of sugared products. This paper aimed to develop emotional lexicons for sugar-free chocolates based on consumers’ taster status applying the check-all-that-apply [...] Read more.
Taste sensitivity can have a significant impact on consumers’ food choices. Consumers’ taster status and emotions can be guided by sensory information of sugared products. This paper aimed to develop emotional lexicons for sugar-free chocolates based on consumers’ taster status applying the check-all-that-apply (CATA) methodology. South African respondents’ (n = 153) bitter perception was evaluated with n-propylthiouracil (PROP) paper strips. Respondents received one sugar-free dark chocolate and one sugar-free milk chocolate and completed an electronic questionnaire. Respondents mainly purchased chocolate for its flavour, and enjoyed the taste of the sugar-free dark chocolate more than sugar-free milk chocolate. The non-tasters (>50%) chose positive emotions for sugar-free milk chocolate, while the medium tasters, selected more positive emotions for dark chocolate. The supertasters selected the most negative emotions for the sugar-free dark chocolate. Practical significant associations were found between the non-tasters and the emotion guilty, as well as between the supertasters and the emotions, discontented and disgust. Each taster status requires the development of a distinctive lexicon to be emotionally satisfied by sugar-free products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory Characteristics and Consumers Acceptance of Food Products)
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19 pages, 5621 KiB  
Article
Sensory Acceptance and Characterisation of Turmeric- and Black-Pepper-Enriched Ice Cream
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(21), 11802; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132111802 - 28 Oct 2023
Viewed by 801
Abstract
This study investigated the sensory characteristics and overall acceptability of turmeric- and black-pepper-enriched ice creams. For this purpose, a control sample (C) and a series of flavoured ice creams were prepared as follows: samples with 0.5%, 1.0%, and 2.0% of turmeric powder (T0, [...] Read more.
This study investigated the sensory characteristics and overall acceptability of turmeric- and black-pepper-enriched ice creams. For this purpose, a control sample (C) and a series of flavoured ice creams were prepared as follows: samples with 0.5%, 1.0%, and 2.0% of turmeric powder (T0, T1, and T2), and samples with a mixture of turmeric (0.5%, 1.0%, and 2.0%), and 0.02% of black pepper (T0p, T1p, and T2p). Participants (n = 103) were asked to rate the acceptability of the ice creams using a nine-point hedonic scale, the liking of attributes by a five-point scale, the evaluation of attributes intensity by a just-about-right (JAR) scale, and attribute characterisation through a CATA test. They were also asked about their purchase and consumption intention of prepared ice cream samples. The addition of turmeric powder significantly (p < 0.05) affected the sensory properties of the ice cream, whereas no correlation was found between the addition of black pepper and consumers’ ratings of the evaluated samples. According to the results, besides the control sample, the ice cream with 0.5% of turmeric powder and 0.02% black pepper (T0p) had the most desired attributes and the highest score for overall liking (6.94). In conclusion, these valuable spices could be used in the production of ice cream with potential functional properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory Characteristics and Consumers Acceptance of Food Products)
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16 pages, 3918 KiB  
Article
Development of a Specific Lexicon to Describe Sensory and Textural Characteristics of Olive Paté
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(21), 11745; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132111745 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 768
Abstract
Olive paté is a traditional Italian food typical of the Mediterranean diet, derived from debittered, pitted, and crushed table olives. Currently, there is no sensory standard for the quality of the product. In this research, a specific lexicon and an innovative profile sheet [...] Read more.
Olive paté is a traditional Italian food typical of the Mediterranean diet, derived from debittered, pitted, and crushed table olives. Currently, there is no sensory standard for the quality of the product. In this research, a specific lexicon and an innovative profile sheet for sensory analysis of olive paté have been developed and tested to fill the gap. The list of descriptors was set in terms of negative sensations, olfactory/gustatory sensations, and kinaesthetic attributes. The assessors of a professional panel were first trained with and then used the profile sheet to characterize 40 olive paté commercial samples from five different Olea europaea L. cultivars. From a sensorial point of view, Nocellara del Belice paté was perceived as the saltiest, Nocellara etnea as the bitterest, and Hojiblanca and Bella di Cerignola were the most balanced and characterized on the olfactory/gustatory level. In terms of texture, Hojiblanca paté is the most consistent and grainiest. To support and verify kinaesthetic descriptors, textural analysis by back extrusion was performed. Through the agglomerative hierarchical analysis, the various paté showed a clear clusterization into two clusters: Nocellara del Belice-Itrana and Hojblanca-Nocellara etnea-Bella di Cerignola. The results obtained showed the validity of the profile sheet to correctly assess the different products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory Characteristics and Consumers Acceptance of Food Products)
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17 pages, 2222 KiB  
Article
Optimizing Sensory Attributes: Exploring the Placement of the Ideal-Product Question in Check-All-That-Apply Methodology
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(21), 11686; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132111686 - 25 Oct 2023
Viewed by 826
Abstract
Consumer research has traditionally played a pivotal role in understanding consumers’ preferences for a product. The check-all-that-apply (CATA) methodology is used in consumer research to gather insights on product attributes. The placement of the ideal-product question within the CATA questionnaire, i.e., whether it [...] Read more.
Consumer research has traditionally played a pivotal role in understanding consumers’ preferences for a product. The check-all-that-apply (CATA) methodology is used in consumer research to gather insights on product attributes. The placement of the ideal-product question within the CATA questionnaire, i.e., whether it should be presented before or after actual product evaluation, has been a topic of debate among researchers. This study aims to investigate whether presenting the ideal-product question before or after evaluating food products using the CATA methodology interferes with identifying desired and unwanted attributes by consumers. Milk chocolate and grape juice were evaluated. Two CATA questionnaires were applied (n = 300 consumers): One was in the original format (n = 150 consumers), with the attributes of the “ideal” product asked about at the end of the monadic evaluation of the actual products. The second had modifications (n = 150 consumers), with attributes of the “ideal” product asked about before evaluating the actual products. There was variation in both CATA methods regarding the description of the “ideal” product. CATA-First asked for a more authentic and affective description of the ideal product, and CATA-Last had more specific results, illustrating that consumers tend to be more analytical during the evaluation process. The findings of this study show practical utility for consumer-based methodologies, focusing on the determination of ideal sensory attributes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory Characteristics and Consumers Acceptance of Food Products)
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15 pages, 4895 KiB  
Article
Influence of Heterogeneity of Salt Content in Food Structure on the Sensory Profile and Consumer Perception of Beef Burgers
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(20), 11373; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132011373 - 17 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 728
Abstract
Contrast stimuli created between high- and low-taste concentration zones have been shown to enhance the perception of sensory trait intensity. The objective of this study was to determine if layering beef formulations with contrasting salt contents in salt-heterogeneous burger patties could evoke a [...] Read more.
Contrast stimuli created between high- and low-taste concentration zones have been shown to enhance the perception of sensory trait intensity. The objective of this study was to determine if layering beef formulations with contrasting salt contents in salt-heterogeneous burger patties could evoke a more intense perception of sensory flavours compared to a burger matched in overall salt content but with a homogeneous salt distribution. The study material consisted of one patty batch with a homogeneous salt distribution (HM 0.7% NaCl) and six patty batches with an average NaCl content of 0.7% but distributed in six different heterogeneous (HT) salt structures. Sensory profiling and consumer tests in a group of 105 Irish residents were performed. The heterogeneity of salt in beef patties produced significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) among formulations in the intensity of salty taste, salty and beefy aftertaste, and taste uniformity. An analysis of the proximate composition of the burgers showed that the raw burgers did not differ in their moisture, protein, or fat contents, while the cooked ones did not differ in their salt contents. The results of a hedonic assessment of beef burgers with varied spatial distributions of salt did not show any significant differences in the liking of any sensory traits. Our data suggest an alternative approach involving preparing burgers with layers of varied salt concentrations with similar sensory experiences while potentially facilitating lower salt inclusion levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory Characteristics and Consumers Acceptance of Food Products)
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12 pages, 781 KiB  
Article
Sensory Profile, Consumers’ Perception and Liking of Wheat–Rye Bread Fortified with Dietary Fibre
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 694; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13020694 - 04 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1434
Abstract
Evidence of global dietary fibre (DF) deficits provides impetus for research to develop new food products and reformulate commonly consumed foods to enable the transition to more healthy diets. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the sensory properties and consumers’ [...] Read more.
Evidence of global dietary fibre (DF) deficits provides impetus for research to develop new food products and reformulate commonly consumed foods to enable the transition to more healthy diets. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the sensory properties and consumers’ perception, liking, and willingness to buy wheat–rye bread fortified with DF. The study combined expert sensory profiling with consumers evaluation of DF fortified bread in blind and informed conditions. A sensory-trained panel evaluated six samples of bread with flour replaced by 0%, 4%, 8%, 12%, 16%, and 20% with oat DF using 29 pre-identified attributes. A consumer panel (n = 300) evaluated bread samples in blind condition for liking and perception of healthiness, naturalness, and attractiveness and willingness to buy (WTB). Consumers were also asked to indicate the maximum price they were willing to pay for a standard bread of 700 g. In the informed condition, consumers evaluated the 0%, 8%, 12% oat DF samples labelled with either nutritional or health related claims using the same attributes as in blind condition including visual liking. The results of profiling revealed that replacement of flour with oat DF influenced intensity of several attributes related to different modalities. Results of the consumer studies showed that replacement of flour up to 20% with oat DF did not adversely affect consumers’ acceptance and willingness to buy wheat–rye breads. The mean values for bread samples labelled with information related to positive health outcomes of DF consumption were not significantly different from those with nutritional claims only. Combining sensory profiling with consumers acceptance studies gives valuable insights for consumer led new product development. The fortification of staple foods like bread with dietary fibre seems like a promising avenue, but other sources of fibre should also be considered in bread fortification to enhance health-related properties and prevent food waste. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory Characteristics and Consumers Acceptance of Food Products)
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13 pages, 585 KiB  
Article
Dairy Product Consumption and Preferences of Polish and Taiwanese Students—NPD Case Study
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(19), 10138; https://doi.org/10.3390/app121910138 - 09 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2217
Abstract
The present study determined the consumption and preferences of dairy products, especially fermented products, in respect of Polish and Taiwanese students, through their answers to seven research questions (RQs) as part of the design process. The research for the study was conducted in [...] Read more.
The present study determined the consumption and preferences of dairy products, especially fermented products, in respect of Polish and Taiwanese students, through their answers to seven research questions (RQs) as part of the design process. The research for the study was conducted in two countries: in Poland at WULS and in Taiwan at NCHU. Two-hundred students in total (19–25 years old) were selected for the study. Responses to the research questions were collected using Paper & Pen Personal Interview (PAPI). The results indicate that Taiwanese students were less likely to declare consuming dairy products daily compared to Polish students (p < 0.0001). Poles declared consuming dairy products every day, or once or several times a week, while Taiwanese declared several times a week or several times a month. A total of 89% of Polish students indicated milk as their most commonly consumed dairy product, followed by yoghurts (80%) and ripened cheeses (69%). A total of 95% of Taiwanese students also mentioned milk as their most consumed dairy product, then yoghurt (especially drinking yoghurt) (81%), milk desserts (70%) and Yakult (69%). In the case of fat content preference in yoghurt, Poles significantly preferred yoghurts with regular fat content, while Taiwanese significantly preferred fatty yoghurts (p < 0.0001). The most common characteristic of yoghurt that influenced Polish students’ purchase decisions was its composition, followed by its consistency, appearance and its sour taste. However, for Taiwanese, the most important factors were the consistency, price and sweetness of the yoghurt. Polish students were significantly more willing to pay a higher price for a dairy functional product than Taiwanese students (p = 0.0009). The responses obtained show differences and similarities in the preferences and consumption of these products between Polish and Taiwanese students. The results of this study were used to direct the next stage of the project’s development research, the goal of which was to develop a functional dairy product that meets the preferences of consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory Characteristics and Consumers Acceptance of Food Products)
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12 pages, 689 KiB  
Article
Functional and Sensory Properties of Gingerbread Enriched with the Addition of Vegetables
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(18), 9267; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12189267 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1282
Abstract
The aim of the study was to evaluate the sensory quality and bioactive phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of gingerbread cake with the addition of different vegetables, which was separately prepared as studied samples. The research material consisted of three gingerbread banana cakes [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the sensory quality and bioactive phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of gingerbread cake with the addition of different vegetables, which was separately prepared as studied samples. The research material consisted of three gingerbread banana cakes and various vegetable ingredients: pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.). Blended roasted pumpkin, blended roasted beetroots, and baked tomatoes were used in the experiment. The evaluation of sensory quality was conducted using the QDP (Quantitative Descriptive Profiling) method and a hedonic evaluation by consumers was also performed. In the experiment, colour parameters were measured in the CIE L*a*b* system, and the total polyphenol content and the total antioxidant capacity were established. The test results showed that a vegetable addition of a level of up to 25% of different vegetables such as pumpkin, tomato, and beetroot to gingerbread provides an adequate effect on the sensory quality of the product while still being acceptable to consumers. Moreover, it increases the functional properties of the finished product (p < 0.01). The gingerbread dough with the addition of tomato (25%) contained the highest amount of polyphenols −40 mg GAE/100 g, and the gingerbread dough with the pumpkin addition was characterized by the highest total antioxidant activity at a mean value of 0.475 μM TEAC/g of product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory Characteristics and Consumers Acceptance of Food Products)
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18 pages, 313 KiB  
Article
Linking the Sensory Taste Properties of Chocolate-Based Biscuits to Consumers’ Emotions: A Cross-Cultural Study
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(16), 8038; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12168038 - 11 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1835
Abstract
This research measured consumers’ emotions and change in emotion to the specific sensory taste properties and attitudes of chocolate-based biscuits. The sample size involved 216 respondents from South Africa (n = 106) and Switzerland (n = 110). Respondents tasted chocolate-based biscuits and completed [...] Read more.
This research measured consumers’ emotions and change in emotion to the specific sensory taste properties and attitudes of chocolate-based biscuits. The sample size involved 216 respondents from South Africa (n = 106) and Switzerland (n = 110). Respondents tasted chocolate-based biscuits and completed an online questionnaire. The increase in consumers’ levels of guilt after chocolate-based biscuit consumption and the contribution of a chocolate taste and craving attitude to consumers’ subsequent positive emotions and change in positive emotions could help food and consumer scientists to understand the link between emotions and the sensory descriptors of chocolate-based biscuits. Investigating the association between the emotional responses and sensory attributes of sweet baked products could benefit product developers when formulating food products for specific target markets and aid in the understanding of the emotional profile of food products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory Characteristics and Consumers Acceptance of Food Products)
16 pages, 1621 KiB  
Article
Effect of Scents on Gazing Behavior and Choice
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(14), 6899; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12146899 - 07 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1345
Abstract
Environmental stimuli can have a significant impact on our decisions. Elements of the store atmosphere, such as music, lights and smells, all have effects on choices, but these have been only vaguely investigated. In the present study, we aim to uncover the effect [...] Read more.
Environmental stimuli can have a significant impact on our decisions. Elements of the store atmosphere, such as music, lights and smells, all have effects on choices, but these have been only vaguely investigated. In the present study, we aim to uncover the effect of strawberry scent on the gazing behavior and choices of the 62 recruited participants. A static eye-tracker was used to study the effect of scent, released by a diffuser. In total, 31 participants completed the study under odorless conditions, while another 31 participants had strawberry fragrance sprayed into the air. The objectives of the study were (1) to determine whether the most gazed-upon product in each of the four categories (chocolate, tea, muesli bar, yoghurt) was chosen, (2) whether the presence of the strawberry scent influenced consumer decision making, i.e., whether the strawberry scent influenced more people to choose strawberry-flavored products, and (3) to introduce the application of a fast and easy-to-use technique for the qualitative analysis of strawberry aroma present in the air during eye-tracking measurements. The results show that (1) participants chose the product they had studied the longest, for all four categories, and (2) the presence or absence of the scent had no significant effect on choice, with the same frequencies of choosing each product in the two conditions regardless of the flavor of the products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory Characteristics and Consumers Acceptance of Food Products)
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