Advance in Processing and Quality Control of Dairy Products

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Science and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 9074

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Porto Conte Ricerche s.r.l., S.P. 55 Porto Conte-Capo Caccia, 07041 Alghero, SS, Italy
Interests: NMR spectroscopy; food science; spectroscopy; proteins; materials chemistry; lipids; peptides; biochemistry; nuclear magnetic resonance; advanced materials

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Porto Conte Ricerche s.r.l., S.P. 55 Porto Conte-Capo Caccia, Km 8.400 Loc. Tramariglio, 07041 Alghero, SS, Italy
Interests: physico-chemical properties; 1H NMR relaxometry; MRI; bakery and dairy products
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Dairy production, especially for the most valued and well-known cheese products, is still often based on traditional processes. Various steps involved in the cheesemaking process often require careful control by expert cheesemakers, meaning that human intervention cannot be adequately replaced with more objective control systems. Quality control routines also generally rely on well-established analyses and instruments. However, advanced technologies are paving the way for the development of new products and the optimization of new dairy processes.

New analytical tools that are able to describe the key molecular, structural and textural features of dairy products are becoming increasingly available, but they have found only limited applications in the dairy industry so far. On one hand, the introduction of new analytical approaches for dairy processing and quality control offers the opportunity for a complete overhaul of the industry landscape. On the other hand, a switch to this new scenario will involve radically new ways of describing quality features that might not be welcomed by all. Therefore, a change of mindset is needed to urge dairy stakeholders to consider radically new languages and sets of analytical parameters based on more advanced analytical tools.

This Special Issue addresses the future challenges of modern analytical chemistry in the dairy sector. Papers that present applications of state-of-the-art analytical approaches to realistic issues of concern for dairy producers are particularly welcome. Studies on milk and derived dairy products will also be accepted.

Dr. Roberto Anedda
Dr. Elena Curti
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • dairy innovation
  • science towards technology
  • imaging
  • fraud
  • non-invasive analysis
  • in-line analysis
  • quality assurance
  • quality control

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 3778 KiB  
Article
Exploring New Fruit- and Vegetable-Derived Rennet for Cheese Making
by Severina Pacifico, Emilia Caputo, Simona Piccolella and Luigi Mandrich
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 2257; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14062257 - 07 Mar 2024
Viewed by 512
Abstract
Cheese production is an ancient practice to preserve a perishable food, such as milk, for a long time. The first step of cheese processing involves the addition of rennet, which contains the enzymes necessary for the hydrolysis and coagulation of the caseins present [...] Read more.
Cheese production is an ancient practice to preserve a perishable food, such as milk, for a long time. The first step of cheese processing involves the addition of rennet, which contains the enzymes necessary for the hydrolysis and coagulation of the caseins present in milk. Typically, animal-derived rennet, such as calf rennet containing chymosin, are used as source of enzymes for cheese processing. Alternatively, microbial chymosin or recombinant chymosin is used. However, recently, plant-derived rennet such as the ones derived from thistle and bitter orange flowers and from artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus) have also been demonstrated to be valid sources of enzymes for cheese processing. Therefore, herein, different plant and fruit extracts were tested and compared for their ability to coagulate milk caseins. In particular, beyond artichoke and cardoon (Cynara cardunculus) extracts, those from pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.), papaya (Carica papaya L.), common fig (Ficus carica L.) milky sap, and oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) P. Kumm.) were investigated for their proteolytic, esterase, and milk-clotting activities. The extracts were then exploited as vegetable and fruit rennet for the experimental production of cheeses, which were examined, after 30 days of maturation, for their moisture, fat, protein, and free fatty acid (FFA) content. Interestingly, the artichoke, cardoon, and thistle mushroom extracts showed high proteolytic activity compared to calf rennet, while the level of esterase activity appeared to be similar for all the extracts. The papaya extract showed the lowest proteolytic and esterase activity. Although the pH, moisture, fat, and protein contents were very similar to those of cheese made with calf rennet, the medium- and long-chain FFAs broadly differed among produced cheeses, with variations in the lipid quality indices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Processing and Quality Control of Dairy Products)
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15 pages, 1895 KiB  
Article
Evolution of Qualitative and Quantitative Lipid Profiles of High-Pressure-Processed Serra da Estrela Cheese throughout Storage
by Rita S. Inácio, Luís M. Rodríguez-Alcalá, Lígia L. Pimentel, Jorge A. Saraiva and Ana M. P. Gomes
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(10), 5927; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13105927 - 11 May 2023
Viewed by 962
Abstract
High-pressure processing (HPP) can be used as a nonthermal pasteurization technique to overcome microbial safety issues of the raw ewes’ milk Serra da Estrela cheese without negatively influencing its quality, in particular, the lipid composition partly responsible for Serra da Estrela cheese’s sensorial [...] Read more.
High-pressure processing (HPP) can be used as a nonthermal pasteurization technique to overcome microbial safety issues of the raw ewes’ milk Serra da Estrela cheese without negatively influencing its quality, in particular, the lipid composition partly responsible for Serra da Estrela cheese’s sensorial and textural attributes. The aim of this work was to assess HPP’s effect (600 MPa/6 min and 450 MPa/6 and 9 min) on the qualitative and quantitative lipid profiles of Serra da Estrela cheese during 15 months of refrigerated storage. Total triglycerides content (65–66 g TG/100 g) was similarly determined for HPP-treated (450 MPa/6 min) and control cheeses. Similar total contents of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids were reported for all cheeses during storage. A high total conjugated linoleic acid content (1.29–1.65 g FA/100 g fat) was quantified in all cheeses during storage; all cheeses revealed similar atherogenic and thrombogenic indices (~2.3 and ~2.6, respectively). HPP can be used to process Serra da Estrela cheese at conditions that assure microbial safety without influencing cheese lipid profiles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Processing and Quality Control of Dairy Products)
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10 pages, 1544 KiB  
Article
Ion Mobility–Mass Spectrometry Approach for the Comparison of Sheep and Goat Milk Lipidomes
by Cristina Manis, Paola Scano, Viviana Garau, Margherita Addis, Ignazio Ibba and Pierluigi Caboni
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(6), 3535; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13063535 - 10 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1015
Abstract
In this work, we report an analytical procedure to investigate the lipid compositions of sheep and goat milk. This approach is based on an ion mobility–high-resolution mass spectrometric method to facilitate the identification of complex lipid species and their regiochemistry. A common triacylglycerol [...] Read more.
In this work, we report an analytical procedure to investigate the lipid compositions of sheep and goat milk. This approach is based on an ion mobility–high-resolution mass spectrometric method to facilitate the identification of complex lipid species and their regiochemistry. A common triacylglycerol profile was observed for sheep and goat milk samples, while a higher abundance of medium-chain fatty acids was observed at the sn-2 position for sheep milk. Furthermore, differences can be also observed in the levels of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids at the sn-2 position. In terms of lipid classes, goat milk showed higher levels of triacylglycerols, phosphatidylinositols and ether-linked phosphatidylethanolamines, while sheep milk showed higher levels of free fatty acids, lysophosphatidylethanolamines, lysophosphocholines and non-hydroxy fatty acid-dihydrosphingosine ceramides when compared with goat milk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Processing and Quality Control of Dairy Products)
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11 pages, 919 KiB  
Article
UHPLC-QTOF/MS Untargeted Lipidomics and Caffeine Carry-Over in Milk of Goats under Spent Coffee Ground Enriched Diet
by Mattia Casula, Paola Scano, Cristina Manis, Giulia Tolle, Anna Nudda, Silvia Carta, Giuseppe Pulina and Pierluigi Caboni
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 2477; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13042477 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1288
Abstract
Supplementing the diet of ruminants with agro-industrial by-products is a common practice. In this study, we applied an untargeted lipidomics approach to study the changes in the milk lipid metabolite profiles linked to the addition of different doses of spent coffee grounds (SCG) [...] Read more.
Supplementing the diet of ruminants with agro-industrial by-products is a common practice. In this study, we applied an untargeted lipidomics approach to study the changes in the milk lipid metabolite profiles linked to the addition of different doses of spent coffee grounds (SCG) to the diet of lactating goats. The carryover of caffeine from feed to milk was also studied. Compared to controls, the milk of goats on the SCG diet showed higher levels of cholesteryl esters, sphingomyelins, and phospholipids, while nonesterified fatty acids were downregulated. After 12 h from the last SCG dose, the carry-over of caffeine was, on average, 3%. Collectively, our results establish that SCG supplementation induces changes in the milk levels of complex lipid molecules and causes the transfer of caffeine and caffeine metabolites from feed to milk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Processing and Quality Control of Dairy Products)
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14 pages, 472 KiB  
Article
Development and Chemico-Physical Characterization of Ovine Milk-Based Ingredients for Infant Formulae
by Giacomo Lai, Pierluigi Caboni, Cristina Piras, Massimo Pes, Maria Sitzia, Margherita Addis, Antonio Pirisi and Paola Scano
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 653; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13010653 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1576
Abstract
The great majority of infant formula (FM) for neonate’s nutrition are produced using ingredients from cow milk. Recently, some countries, such as China and New Zealand, are turning their attention to the use of ovine milk ingredients for FM production. In this study, [...] Read more.
The great majority of infant formula (FM) for neonate’s nutrition are produced using ingredients from cow milk. Recently, some countries, such as China and New Zealand, are turning their attention to the use of ovine milk ingredients for FM production. In this study, a pilot plant process has been set up to produce infant formula ingredients from Sarda sheep milk. To meet the nutritional needs of neonates (0–6 and 6–12 months of age) two different liquid milk-derived formulations (IF1 and IF2, respectively) obtained mixing whole milk, skimmed milk, and whey milk ultrafiltration concentrate (retentate) were produced. Compositional analysis of milk, retentate, and the final IFs showed that the two formulations contain elements of nutritional interest, such as well-balanced content of high biological value proteins (casein:whey proteins ratio of 30:70 and 60:40 for IF1 and IF2, respectively), vitamin A, E and B5, cholesterol, minerals, nucleotides, free amino acids and essential fatty acids (n–6:n–3 ~1), compatible with the growth and development needs of neonates. Therefore, the obtained IF1 and IF2 can be proposed as valuable ovine dairy ingredients for FM manufacturing. Further studies will be necessary to verify the adaptability of the developed process from laboratory to industrial scale application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Processing and Quality Control of Dairy Products)
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17 pages, 5052 KiB  
Article
Influence of Spray Drying on Encapsulation Efficiencies and Structure of Casein Micelles Loaded with Anthraquinones Extracted from Aloe vera Plant
by Uzma Sadiq, Harsharn Gill, Jayani Chandrapala and Fatima Shahid
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13010110 - 22 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1482
Abstract
The encapsulation efficiency (EE%) and structural changes within the Anthraquinones-encapsulated casein micelles (CM) powders were evaluated in this study. For this purpose, the anthraquinone powder extracted from Aloevera, its freeze-dried powder (FDP) and whole leaf Aloe vera gel (WLAG) has been encapsulated in [...] Read more.
The encapsulation efficiency (EE%) and structural changes within the Anthraquinones-encapsulated casein micelles (CM) powders were evaluated in this study. For this purpose, the anthraquinone powder extracted from Aloevera, its freeze-dried powder (FDP) and whole leaf Aloe vera gel (WLAG) has been encapsulated in CM through ultrasonication prior to spray dying to produce nanocapsules: CM encapsulated anthraquinone powder (CMAQP), CM encapsulated freeze-dried powder (CMFDP) and CM encapsulated Whole leaf aloe vera gel (CMWLAG). Based on the pH of the solution before drying, CMAQP had the highest EE% following spray drying. However, due to air-interface-related dehydration stresses, SD resulted in a slight decrease in the EE% of anthraquinones (aloin, aloe-emodin, and rhein) in CMAQP. Meanwhile, a significant increase in EE% of CMFDP was observed compared to the aqueous state. According to SEM findings, the particle size of CMAQP was 2.39 µm and ξ-potential of ~−17mV. The CMFDP had a rough fractal surface with large particle sizes and potential of 3.49 µm and ~−11mV respectively. CM deformed, having the least EE% and lowest ξ-potential (−4.5 mV). Spray drying enhances melanoidin formation in CMWLAG, as evidenced by the highest chroma values. The results suggested that EE%, stability, and degree of Maillard reaction are closely linked to the type of anthraquinone encapsulated, the pH of the solution, and the nanostructure of casein micelles during spray drying. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Processing and Quality Control of Dairy Products)
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12 pages, 1290 KiB  
Article
Determining the Behavior of Water in Buttermilk Cheese with Polymerized Whey Protein Using Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis
by Dorota Cais-Sokolińska, Paulina Bielska, Hanna M. Baranowska and Jolanta Tomaszewska-Gras
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(22), 11528; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122211528 - 13 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1362
Abstract
In this research, the behavior of water in buttermilk cheese with the addition of polymerized whey proteins was determined. Various parameters of the produced cheese, such as texture, color, water activity, and unbound protein fraction, were examined. Four different samples of buttermilk cheese [...] Read more.
In this research, the behavior of water in buttermilk cheese with the addition of polymerized whey proteins was determined. Various parameters of the produced cheese, such as texture, color, water activity, and unbound protein fraction, were examined. Four different samples of buttermilk cheese were prepared, including no addition of whey protein concentrate (BMC); addition of whey protein concentrate (BMC/WPC; 5.62%, w/v), single-heated polymerized whey protein (BMC/SPWP; 28%, w/v), and double-heated polymerized whey protein (BMC/DPWP; 28%, w/v). Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analysis showed that the highest percentage of freezable water in the water fraction and the lowest of unfreezable water was found in buttermilk cheese with WPC and buttermilk cheese with DPWP. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis showed that the relaxation times were longer in buttermilk cheese with WPC, compared to buttermilk cheese with SPWP and DPWP. Single heat treatment of whey proteins increased stickiness almost 3-fold, and double heat treatment had almost a 2-fold increase in work of shear of cheese samples. The calculated total color difference (ΔE) of the cheese samples suggested that those with polymerized whey protein may increase consumer acceptability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Processing and Quality Control of Dairy Products)
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