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Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy in Food Science and Processing

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Science and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 November 2020) | Viewed by 15454

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Magnetic Resonance Laboratory “Annalaura Segre,” Istituto per i Sistemi Biologici , CNR Area Della Ricerca di Roma1, Via Salaria Km 29,300, 00015 Monterotondo, Rome, Italy
Interests: food science; food processing; TD NMR; portable NMR; relaxation times; water mobility, self-diffusion coefficient; quality control process

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Guest Editor
Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie del Farmaco, Sapienza Università di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, Rome, Italy
Interests: food chemistry; advanced food analysis; NMR-based metabolomics; high resolution NMR; chemometrics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Magnetic Resonance Laboratory “Annalaura Segre,” Istituto per i Sistemi Biologici, CNR Area Della Ricerca di Roma1, Via Salaria Km 29,300, 00015 Monterotondo, Rome, Italy
Interests: food chemistry; metabolomics; high resolution NMR; HR-MAS NMR; food traceability; chemometrics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We invite you to contribute to a Special Issue of the journal Applied Sciences, titled “Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy in Food Science and Processing,” which aims to present recent developments in the use of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in food science and food processing

The family of nuclear magnetic resonance techniques (NMR spectrocopy in liquid state, HRMAS NMR spectroscopy, MRI and TDNMR) offers a wide range of applications of this technique in food science. Although originating from the same physical phenomenon, these techniques have very different characteristics. While MRI is a technique that obtains images, both the NMR in solution and TDNMR are spectroscopic techniques that provide information "in bulk." In addition, work done on samples in solution or in a semi-solid state makes these NMR techniques in turn very different from both theoretical and practical points of view. Moreover, the relatively low cost of time domain instrument operation, ease of operation, and ability to provide quantitative information on product structure and composition within a short turnaround time makes this technique very suitable for food quality process control. Recently, the development of portable NMR sensors allowed an attractive option for non-invasive quality and process control.

We invite you to submit your research on these topics in the form of original research papers, mini-reviews, and perspective articles.

Dr. Noemi Proietti
Prof. Dr. Luisa Mannina
Dr. Anatoly P. Sobolev
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • High Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  • HR-MAS NMR
  • MRI
  • Time domain NMR
  • Food Chemistry
  • Metabolomics
  • Food Traceability
  • Chemometrics
  • Quality control
  • On-line inspection
  • Portable NMR sensor
  • Food processing

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Editorial

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2 pages, 170 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue “Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy in Food Science and Processing”
by Noemi Proietti, Luisa Mannina and Anatoly P. Sobolev
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(18), 9223; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12189223 - 14 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1386
Abstract
The application of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in food science has grown exponentially over the past few decades [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

10 pages, 1621 KiB  
Article
Spotting Frozen Curd in PDO Buffalo Mozzarella Cheese Through Insights on Its Supramolecular Structure Acquired by 1H TD-NMR Relaxation Experiments
by Carlo Mengucci, Davide Rabiti, Eleonora Urbinati, Gianfranco Picone, Raffaele Romano, Alessandra Aiello, Pasquale Ferranti and Francesco Capozzi
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(4), 1466; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041466 - 5 Feb 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2076
Abstract
The addition of frozen curd (FC) during the production process of “Mozzarella di Bufala Campana”, an Italian cheese with Protected Designation of Origin (PDO), is a common fraud not involving modifications of the chemical composition in the final product. Its detection cannot thus [...] Read more.
The addition of frozen curd (FC) during the production process of “Mozzarella di Bufala Campana”, an Italian cheese with Protected Designation of Origin (PDO), is a common fraud not involving modifications of the chemical composition in the final product. Its detection cannot thus be easily obtained by common analytical methods, which are targeted at changes in concentrations of diagnostic chemical species. In this work, the possibility of spotting this fraud by focusing on the modifications of the supramolecular structure of the food matrix, detected by time domain nuclear magnetic resonance (TD-NMR) experiments, was investigated. Cheese samples were manufactured in triplicate, according to the PDO disciplinary of production, except for using variable amounts of FC (i.e., 0, 15, 30, and 50% w/w). Relaxation data were analysed through different approaches: (i) Discrete multi-exponential fitting, (ii) continuous Laplace inverse fitting, and (iii) chemometrics approach. The strategy that lead to best detection results was the chemometrics analysis of raw Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) decays, allowing to discriminate between compliant and adulterated samples, with as low as 15% of FC addition. The strategy is based on the use of machine learning for projection on latent structures of raw CPMG data and classification tasks for fraud detection, using quadratic discriminant analysis. By coupling TD-NMR raw decays with machine learning, this work opens the way to set up a system for detecting common food frauds modifying the matrix structure, for which no official authentication methods are yet available. Full article
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15 pages, 1815 KiB  
Article
Commercial Hemp Seed Oils: A Multimethodological Characterization
by Mattia Spano, Giacomo Di Matteo, Mattia Rapa, Salvatore Ciano, Cinzia Ingallina, Stefania Cesa, Luigi Menghini, Simone Carradori, Anna Maria Giusti, Antonella Di Sotto, Silvia Di Giacomo, Anatoly P. Sobolev, Giuliana Vinci and Luisa Mannina
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(19), 6933; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10196933 - 3 Oct 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3312
Abstract
Nine commercial hemp seed oils from different countries were studied using a multimethodological approach to obtain information about their quality and chemical composition. Due to the lack of a specific regulation for hemp seed oils, quality parameters used in the case of olive [...] Read more.
Nine commercial hemp seed oils from different countries were studied using a multimethodological approach to obtain information about their quality and chemical composition. Due to the lack of a specific regulation for hemp seed oils, quality parameters used in the case of olive oils (free acidity, peroxides number, spectrophotometer parameters) and anisidine number were measured and compared with those reported for extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). Free acidity and peroxides number showed a great variability, ranging from 0.4 to 17.24% and from 4.32 to 22.14 meqO2/kg, respectively, whereas the anisidine number ranged from 0.11 to 3.58. K232 value turned out to be generally below the limit reported for EVOO, whereas K270 and ΔK values were higher, with respect to EVOO limits, due to the high amount of tri-unsaturated fatty chains. Colorimetric analysis showed a peculiar curve trend that could represent the fingerprint of this product. Untargeted nuclear magnetic resonance methodology allowed to measure the amount of fatty chains, ω-6:ω-3 ratio, β-sitosterol, and aldehydes. The ω-6:ω-3 ratio turned out to be, in some cases, different from that reported on the bottle labels. Finally, lipoperoxidation assays were also carried out under different storage (light and temperature) and time exposure conditions, confirming that the exposure to direct light is the condition that interferes more with the product quality. Full article
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13 pages, 1766 KiB  
Article
Comprehensive Chemical Characterization of the Pistacia vera Fruits through Original NMR Quantification Methods
by Archimede Rotondo, Francesca Rigano and Luigi Mondello
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(16), 5523; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10165523 - 10 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1780
Abstract
(1) Background: Pistacia vera is a dry fruit spread all over the world, commonly known as pistachio, and is very appreciated as a snack, as a precious ingredient for confectionery industries and also as a blessed touch for gourmet dishes; (2) Methods: The [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Pistacia vera is a dry fruit spread all over the world, commonly known as pistachio, and is very appreciated as a snack, as a precious ingredient for confectionery industries and also as a blessed touch for gourmet dishes; (2) Methods: The simultaneous NMR profiles concerning the hydrophilic and hydrophobic phases, enabled by a specific throughput over grinded pistachio seeds, led to the comprehensive chemical characterization of these nuts coming from different territories; (3) Results: The customized extraction method is described in detail as well as the employed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. The chemical quantification takes advantage from the innovative multi-assignment recovered analysis (MARA-NMR) technique able to provide experimentally robust panels for both hydrophobic and hydrophilic chemicals. Beyond the assessed repeatability and the interesting statistical discrimination, this paper adds information about the quantitative and qualitative composition of pistachio as inferred by NMR data. This updated background can pave the way toward the development of wider and wider chemical panels improving the knowledge about the pistachio’s composition. This approach can be easily extended to other matrices. Full article
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10 pages, 4558 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Maturity Changes of Cherry Tomato Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging
by Seunghoon Baek, Jongguk Lim, Jun Gu Lee, Michael J. McCarthy and Seong Min Kim
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(15), 5188; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10155188 - 28 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2309
Abstract
The maturity of tomato fruit is normally characterized by external color, and it is often difficult to know when fruit have achieved commercial maturity or become over-mature. The internal structure of tomato fruit changes during development and this study investigates the utility of [...] Read more.
The maturity of tomato fruit is normally characterized by external color, and it is often difficult to know when fruit have achieved commercial maturity or become over-mature. The internal structure of tomato fruit changes during development and this study investigates the utility of nondestructive measurement of tomato fruit structure as a function of maturity using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The objective of this work is to use analysis of internal tomato fruit structural measurements to characterize maturity. Intact cherry tomato fruit were harvested at six different maturity stages. At each stage of maturity, the internal structure of the fruit was measured using a series of two-dimensional (2D) magnetic resonance (MR) images. Qualitative and quantitative image analyses were performed to correlate internal fruit structure with maturity. Internal structural changes observed in the pericarp region of the tomato fruit are highly correlated with fruit maturity. MR image information combined with classical analysis techniques provides a more complete understanding of structure and physicochemical changes in tomato fruit during maturation. This study demonstrates that MRI is a useful analytical tool to characterize internal changes in agricultural produce as the produce matures. This technique can be applied to almost any agricultural produce to monitor internal physical changes due to external impact, maturity stage, variation in climate, storage time, and condition, or other factors impacting quality. Full article
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12 pages, 2086 KiB  
Article
New Hybrid Tomato Cultivars: An NMR-Based Chemical Characterization
by Cinzia Ingallina, Anatoly P. Sobolev, Simone Circi, Mattia Spano, Anna Maria Giusti and Luisa Mannina
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(5), 1887; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10051887 - 10 Mar 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3674
Abstract
Bamano, King Creole, Sugarland, and DulceMiel hybrid tomato cultivars have been recently introduced in the Lazio area (Central Italy) to expand and valorize the regional/national market. Tomatoes from these cultivars, together with tomatoes from the native Fiaschetta cultivar, were sampled at the proper [...] Read more.
Bamano, King Creole, Sugarland, and DulceMiel hybrid tomato cultivars have been recently introduced in the Lazio area (Central Italy) to expand and valorize the regional/national market. Tomatoes from these cultivars, together with tomatoes from the native Fiaschetta cultivar, were sampled at the proper ripening time for the fresh market and characterized to obtain and compare their metabolite profiles. The Bligh–Dyer extraction protocol was carried out, and the resulting organic and hydroalcoholic fractions were analyzed by high-field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. NMR data relative to quantified metabolites (sugars, amino acids, organic acids, sterols, and fatty acids) allowed to point out similarities and differences among cultivars. DulceMiel hybrid and Fiaschetta native cultivars showed some common aspects having the highest levels of the most abundant amino acids as well as comparable amounts of organic acids, amino acids, stigmasterol, and linoleic and linolenic acids. However, DulceMiel turned out to have higher levels of glucose, fructose, and galactose with respect to Fiaschetta, reflecting the particular taste of the DulceMiel product. King Creole, Bamano, and Sugarland hybrid cultivars were generally characterized by the lowest content of amino acids and organic acids. King Creole showed the highest content of malic acid, whereas Bamano was characterized by the highest levels of glucose and fructose. Full article
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