Applications of Instrumental Methods for Food and Food By-Products Analysis: Volume II

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Science and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 December 2023) | Viewed by 7114

Special Issue Editor

Department of Chemistry, Institute of Food Sciences, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (WULS-SGGW), Nowoursynowska 159c, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: food chemistry; food byproduct analysis; protein chemistry; carbohydrate chemistry; fat chemistry; methods of bioactive component extraction from food and food byproducts; thermal analysis of food products
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Food and food byproduct analysis is a particularly important topic dealing with the development and application of various analytical procedures and methods determining the properties and safety of food and food constituents. It is an important tool not only for defining food quality but also for supporting the investigation of new food products and technologies. The continuous development of methodology and access to modern research equipment enable detailed research on the composition, structure, physicochemical properties, thermal characteristics, and stability of food products, and recently also byproducts of the food industry. Agro-industrial residues currently present little commercial value and are mostly disposed of as an industrial waste. Taking the aforementioned reasons into account, it is imperative to identify properties and potential applications of food by-products, which would fit in with current trends in circular ecology. The objective of this Special Issue is to present procedures and instrumental analytical techniques and methods commonly used to analyze food and food processing byproducts and to discuss their application in food research to detect and characterize specific food components of significance to food science and technology, such as lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates.

Suggested research problems include but are not limited to the following topics:

  • Analysis of composition and structure of food and food byproducts using instrumental methods;
  • Characteristics of physicochemical properties of food and food byproducts;
  • Application of modern thermal techniques to study properties of food, specific food components, and processing byproducts of the food industry;
  • Stability, including oxidative stability of food and food byproducts;
  • Analysis of food processing byproducts as a source of bioactive substances;
  • Application of various extraction techniques assisted by modern methods to isolate bioactive components from food processing byproducts.

Prof. Dr. Agata Górska
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • food by-products
  • composition and structure
  • instrumental methods
  • modern thermal techniques
  • oxidative stability
  • food processing

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 665 KiB  
Article
Impact of Production Methods and Storage Time on the Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Confitures Made from Blue Honeysuckle Berry (Lonicera caerulea L.)
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(24), 12999; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132412999 - 05 Dec 2023
Viewed by 571
Abstract
The blue honeysuckle berry is a fruit known as a rich source of many bioactive substances with proven health-promoting effects. Due to its sour taste with a noticeable hint of bitterness, fruits of this plant are rarely consumed and the consumer prefers the [...] Read more.
The blue honeysuckle berry is a fruit known as a rich source of many bioactive substances with proven health-promoting effects. Due to its sour taste with a noticeable hint of bitterness, fruits of this plant are rarely consumed and the consumer prefers the processed form. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the cooking method on the biological quality of honeysuckle berry confiture. The selected recipe was used to make confiture in a vacuum evaporator using lowered pressure and in a thermomix vessel under atmospheric pressure. Then, the content of the chosen compounds and antioxidant activity of the two types of confitures were compared. The confitures were analyzed right after production and through 180 days of refrigerated storage. The pH, TA and TSS parameters remained unchanged regardless of the production process and storage time. Ascorbic acid, polyphenol and anthocyanin concentrations were greater in the confiture from vacuum cooking. Also, the same confiture showed a lower rate of degradation of bioactive substances during storage. The antioxidant activity of the two types of confiture was significantly different shortly after production, but equal at the end of 180-day storage. HMF content was four times higher in confitures cooked under atmospheric pressure than under vacuum. The confiture made from the honeysuckle berry was very rich in bioactive compounds, especially polyphenols. Vacuum cooking proved to be the best method for confiture production as a result of lower temperatures used and less aeration of the mass. Full article
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15 pages, 3608 KiB  
Article
Portable Protein and Fat Detector in Milk Based on Multi-Spectral Sensor and Machine Learning
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(22), 12320; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132212320 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 659
Abstract
To address the challenges of a long measurement period, high testing cost, and environmental pollution of traditional milk composition detection methods, a portable detection instrument was developed by combining multi-spectral sensors, machine learning algorithms, and an embedded system to rapidly detect the main [...] Read more.
To address the challenges of a long measurement period, high testing cost, and environmental pollution of traditional milk composition detection methods, a portable detection instrument was developed by combining multi-spectral sensors, machine learning algorithms, and an embedded system to rapidly detect the main components of milk. A broadband near-infrared (NIR) LED constant-current driver circuit and multi-spectral sensor module were designed to obtain six NIR features of milk samples. Based on a comparison of several machine learning algorithms, the XGBoost model was selected for training, and the trained model was ported to a Raspberry Pi unit for sample detection. The validation results showed that the coefficients of determination (R2) for the investigated protein and fat models were 0.9816 and 0.9978, respectively, and the corresponding mean absolute errors (MAE) were 0.0086 and 0.0079. Accurate measurement of protein and fat contents of milk can be facilitated in a short time interval by using the proposed low-cost portable instrument. Full article
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16 pages, 1963 KiB  
Article
Response Surface Methodology as a Tool for Optimization of Extraction Process of Bioactive Compounds from Spent Coffee Grounds
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(13), 7634; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13137634 - 28 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1002
Abstract
The main goal of this research was to model and optimize the extraction process of bioactive compounds from spent coffee grounds (SCG). This study utilized response surface methodology (RSM) to determine the significance of the effects of independently tested extraction process conditions and [...] Read more.
The main goal of this research was to model and optimize the extraction process of bioactive compounds from spent coffee grounds (SCG). This study utilized response surface methodology (RSM) to determine the significance of the effects of independently tested extraction process conditions and their interactions. The quality of the SCG extracts was evaluated by performing the following determinations: total polyphenols content (TPC), ABTS and FRAP assays, browning index (BI), and caffeine and chlorogenic acids contents by high-performance liquid chromatography. The resultant optimal extraction conditions, which maximized recovery of antioxidant bioactive compounds, were 65% hydroethanolic solution (v/v) in a solvent–matrix ratio of 51 mL/g CS, followed by ultrasound-assisted extraction carried out for 30 min at 60 °C. The SCG extract obtained by this extraction variant had values for TPC, ABTS, FRAP and BI of approximately 38 mg GAE (gallic acid equivalent) per g d.m. SCG, 73 mg Trolox/g d.m. SCG, 81 µmol Fe (II)/g d.m. SCG, and 0.22, respectively. The sample was also characterized by a high content of caffeine (5 mg/g d.m. SCG) and chlorogenic acids (8 mg/g d.m. SCG). Based on the obtained results, SCG may be recognized as a coffee by-product that has abundant components with antioxidant activity and broad possible applications in agri-food processing fields. Full article
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14 pages, 3343 KiB  
Article
A Fast Method for Determination of Ethylene Oxide Using Gas Chromatography Coupled with Mass Spectrometry GC-MS/MS
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(13), 7480; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13137480 - 25 Jun 2023
Viewed by 3036
Abstract
The ongoing influx of information regarding the presence of ethylene oxide in food requires the implementation of a simple and quick analytical procedure. This paper propounds one such effective procedure for the analysis of ethylene oxide (EtO) bactericides by GC-MS/MS in food. The [...] Read more.
The ongoing influx of information regarding the presence of ethylene oxide in food requires the implementation of a simple and quick analytical procedure. This paper propounds one such effective procedure for the analysis of ethylene oxide (EtO) bactericides by GC-MS/MS in food. The presented method is based on the derivatization of ethylene oxide to 2-chloroethanol, with both the number of extraction steps and the volume of extraction solvent having been minimized. The purification of the final extract through a syringe filter has proved to significantly reduce the amount of recovery obtained. Since the definition of residue pesticide ethylene oxide, according to the directive 868/2015, states that ethylene oxide is the sum of ethylene oxide and 2-chloroethanol expressed as ethylene oxide, the validated method allows for the determination of this definition. The presented method has turned out to be faster than other methods and it complies with the latest European guidelines for the analysis of pesticide residues outlined in the SANTE/11312/2021 document. Linearity, limits of detection and quantification, matrix effects, accuracy, and precision of the method have been assessed with respect to the above-mentioned document. Expanded uncertainty RSDr was less than or equal to 20%, while the recovery achieved oscillated within the range of 70–120%. The laboratory has been accredited for using the described procedure of the chromatographic method, the competence of which has been confirmed by numerous proficiency tests. Full article
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11 pages, 417 KiB  
Article
GC–MS Analysis of A Helichrysum italicum Hydrosol: Sensitivity, Repeatability and Reliability of Solvent Extraction versus Direct Hydrosol Analysis
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(19), 10040; https://doi.org/10.3390/app121910040 - 06 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1331
Abstract
Hydrosols have been increasingly used in the food industries as drinks and as ingredients for seasoning and flavoring. Research has shown they have antimicrobial, antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects and therefore have potential as food preservative agents and sanitizing agents for tools used in [...] Read more.
Hydrosols have been increasingly used in the food industries as drinks and as ingredients for seasoning and flavoring. Research has shown they have antimicrobial, antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects and therefore have potential as food preservative agents and sanitizing agents for tools used in the food industry. The composition analysis of hydrosols is commonly conducted using extraction with organic solvents. However, some hydrophilic compounds are lost with this procedure, leading to issues in identifying native composition and potential adulteration. In this paper, different methods for hydrosol analysis are studied. The methods differ in sample preparation, number of detected compounds, repeatability and reliability. Direct hydrosol analysis and 1:1 extraction with organic solvent were determined to be the most appropriate in our experiments. However, the method implementation depends on the application. Direct hydrosol analysis is simple and does not change ratios among compounds; its drawback is poor repeatability. Using 1:1 extraction has good repeatability; however, some hydrophilic compounds are lost, and adulterations with cosolvents and the addition of solubilizers cannot be discovered. Full article
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