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Flow and Heat Transfer in Micro and Millifluidic Devices

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemical and Molecular Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 December 2021) | Viewed by 8815

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias s/n, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
Interests: lab-on-a-chip devices; biomimetic particles; droplet microfluidics; blood analogues; CFD
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Mechanical Engineering Department, Minho University, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães, Portugal
Interests: biomicrofluidics; microcirculation; biofluid mechanics; blood-on-chips; conventional and confocal micro-PIV; nanofluids; energy and environment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Mechanical Engineering Department, Minho University, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães, Portugal
Interests: heat transfer; nanofluids; thermal conductivity; pool boiling; two-phase flows; metal foams; micropillars; nanocoating techniques; renewable energy

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias s/n, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
Interests: heat and mass transfer; computational fluid dynamics; biofouling; microscale flow; thermoregulation modeling; textile materials; product optimization

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Small-scale fluidic devices are currently being applied in multiple fields. Their applications include lab-on-chips, microreactors, heat sinks, ink jet printing, microrheometers for fluids, cell and particle analysis, and organs-on-chips. These devices are portable, minimize reactant consumption and waste production and can be used in flexible, on-demand production of small batches.

Micro- and millidevices have high surface/volume ratio, which enables efficient heat and mass transport. However, the design of these devices still needs to account for heat and mass transport limitations, and solutions to optimize transport phenomena need to be developed. For example, mixing is a limiting factor in lab-on-chips, microreactors and crystallization. Interestingly, solutions, such as acoustic streaming promoted by piezoelectric actuators, have been proposed to enhance mixing and reduce heat and mass transport limitations. Heat transport limitations are a reason for concern in the microprocessor industry, and the development of heat sinks is a hot topic of research. In this context, new nanofluids have been proposed to improve the thermal conductivity of liquids. Boiling in microchannels is a common phenomenon in heat dissipation, and modified surfaces are usually used to improve bubble formation and release. In medicine, new nanoparticles have been proposed for application in cancer thermotherapies.

In a microfluidic device, heating elements, sensors, actuators, micropumps and other elements can be integrated to control, with a high spatial and temporal resolution, the heat and mass flow rates, temperature and solute concentrations. High-precision temperature control, temperature gradients and temperature cycles can be implemented. Reactions can be controlled with high precision, minimizing the production of secondary products and improving the purity of the desired products and selectivity of sensors.

Microdevices present new modeling challenges for the computational fluid dynamics community since phenomena usually negligible at the macroscale become relevant at the microscale level. At the microscale level, matter (particles and fluids) can be manipulated by sound waves, electrical interactions, light, temperature gradients, which opens up new possibilities for new separation processes and manufacturing processes. On the other hand, particles and cells comprise a significant fraction of the channels’ size, and the continuum hypothesis can no longer be applied; therefore, new methods need to be developed to incorporate electrical and acoustic interactions and surface tension effects into the conventional flow, heat and mass transport modeling and simulation. New nanoparticles and phase change materials can be applied in innovative ways to improve heat transport and storage. The complex dynamics of these materials, when suspended in liquids and subject to magnetic and electric fields, represent novel modelling and computational challenges.

In this Special Issue on “Flow and Heat Transfer in Micro and Millifluidic Devices”, we welcome review articles and original research, fundamental or applied, theoretical, numerical or experimental works on microscale flow and heat transport. Topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Heat sinks;
  • Heat dissipation enhancement of nanofluids;
  • Methods to predict nanofluid properties;
  • Numerical simulation of flow and heat transport in microdevices;
  • Heat transport enhancement by microbubbles and microdroplets;
  • Safe devices for reactions involving highly explosive, toxic or flammable reactants;
  • Milliscale heat transport applications;
  • Phase change materials;
  • Thermal devices for biomedical applications;
  • Nanoparticles and microparticles for cell level thermotherapies;
  • Boiling numerical simulations;
  • Thermophoretic transport;
  • Thermoregulation modeling;
  • Temperature control in PCR devices;
  • 3D-printed devices;
  • Mixing;
  • Microreactors;
  • Droplet reactors;
  • Crystallization;
  • Acoustic streaming;
  • Electrowetting;
  • Cell and particle transport in microfluidics;
  • Inkjet printing;
  • Jet 3D printing.

Dr. João Mário Miranda
Dr. Rui A. Lima
Dr. Reinaldo R. Souza
Dr. Soraia F. Neves
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • microfluidics
  • heat transport
  • nanofluids
  • computational fluid dynamics
  • mixing
  • microreactors
  • droplet microfluidics
  • heat sinks
  • milliscale applications
  • thermotherapy

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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22 pages, 8545 KiB  
Article
Numerical Optimization of a Microchannel Geometry for Nanofluid Flow and Heat Dissipation Assessment
by Inês M. Gonçalves, César Rocha, Reinaldo R. Souza, Gonçalo Coutinho, Jose E. Pereira, Ana S. Moita, António L. N. Moreira, Rui Lima and João M. Miranda
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(5), 2440; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11052440 - 9 Mar 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2763
Abstract
In this study, a numerical approach was carried out to analyze the effects of different geometries of microchannel heat sinks on the forced convective heat transfer in single-phase flow. The simulations were performed using the commercially available software COMSOLMultiphysics 5.6® (Burlington, MA, [...] Read more.
In this study, a numerical approach was carried out to analyze the effects of different geometries of microchannel heat sinks on the forced convective heat transfer in single-phase flow. The simulations were performed using the commercially available software COMSOLMultiphysics 5.6® (Burlington, MA, USA) and its results were compared with those obtained from experimental tests performed in microchannel heat sinks of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Distilled water was used as the working fluid under the laminar fluid flow regime, with a maximum Reynolds number of 293. Three sets of geometries were investigated: rectangular, triangular and circular. The different configurations were characterized based on the flow orientation, type of collector and number of parallel channels. The main results show that the rectangular shaped collector was the one that led to a greater uniformity in the distribution of the heat transfer in the microchannels. Similar results were also obtained for the circular shape. For the triangular geometry, however, a disturbance in the jet impingement was observed, leading to the least uniformity. The increase in the number of channels also enhanced the uniformity of the flow distribution and, consequently, improved the heat transfer performance, which must be considered to optimize new microchannel heat sink designs. The achieved optimized design for a heat sink, with microchannels for nanofluid flow and a higher heat dissipation rate, comprised a rectangular collector with eight microchannels and vertical placement of the inlet and outlet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flow and Heat Transfer in Micro and Millifluidic Devices)
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Review

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26 pages, 2497 KiB  
Review
Thermal Conductivity of Nanofluids: A Review on Prediction Models, Controversies and Challenges
by Inês Gonçalves, Reinaldo Souza, Gonçalo Coutinho, João Miranda, Ana Moita, José Eduardo Pereira, António Moreira and Rui Lima
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(6), 2525; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11062525 - 11 Mar 2021
Cited by 46 | Viewed by 5063
Abstract
In recent years, the nanofluids (NFs) have become the main candidates for improving or even replacing traditional heat transfer fluids. The possibility of NFs to be used in various technological applications, from renewable energies to nanomedicine, has made NFs and their thermal conductivity [...] Read more.
In recent years, the nanofluids (NFs) have become the main candidates for improving or even replacing traditional heat transfer fluids. The possibility of NFs to be used in various technological applications, from renewable energies to nanomedicine, has made NFs and their thermal conductivity one of the most studied topics nowadays. Hence, this review presents an overview of the most important advances and controversial results related to the NFs thermal conductivity. The different techniques used to measure the thermal conductivity of NFs are discussed. Moreover, the fundamental parameters that affect the NFs thermal conductivity are analyzed, and possible improvements are addressed, such as the increase of long-term stability of the nanoparticles (NPs).The most representative prediction classical models based on fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, and experimental fittings are presented. Also, the recent statistical machine learning-based prediction models are comprehensively addressed, and the comparison with the classical empirical ones is made, whenever possible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flow and Heat Transfer in Micro and Millifluidic Devices)
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