DSP for Next Generation Fibre Communication Systems

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Optics and Lasers".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2018) | Viewed by 25089

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Aston Institute of Photonic Technologies (AIPT), Aston University, Birmingham, UK
Interests: digital signal processing; machine learning; fibre optic signal transmission; optical networking; all-optical regeneration and signal processing
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Institute of Photonics Technologies, Aston University, Aston Express Way, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
Interests: all optical OFDM, optical and electrical signal processing; the mechanisms limiting capacity in optical communication systems; application of photonics to sensing

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Optical transmission systems form the backbone of global telecommunication infrastructure and serve as a key component of our information based society. Since their first deployment in the early 1970s, many technological innovations, such as erbium-doped fibre amplifiers (EDFAs), wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), forward error correction, Raman amplification and so on, have enabled an exponential growth of the data traffic. Currently, the so-called fifth generation of fibre-optic systems has been benefited by the advances in high-speed digital signal processing (DSP) and the global adoption of coherent detection, which enabled the transmission of multi-level and multi-carrier modulated signals at bitrates that exceed 400 Gbit/s. Key to this success has been the mitigation of linear impairments, such as, chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion by appropriate DSP algorithms, leaving fibre nonlinearity and amplified spontaneous emission as the next most important barrier. Even with multi-mode/multi-core fibre systems, which have been recently proposed as alternatives to increase spectral efficiency, the nonlinearity impact cannot be avoided. As a result, the development of advanced digital methods that can enable compensation of the nonlinear transmission impairment will be crucial for the capacity expansion of next generation fibre communication systems.

This Special Issue aims to explore recent advances and future trends of digital signal processing for non-linearity mitigation in high capacity fibre transmission systems. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to the following areas:

- Advanced Digital Back Propagation methods
- Volterra based nonlinear equalization
- Machine learning based nonlinear DSP methods
- MIMO non-linear equalizers for few mode/core transmission systems
- DSP for multi-carrier transmission systems (OFDM/Nyquist)
- Channel coding in the presence of non-Gaussian noise
- Mixed signal processing
- Autonomous transponder cooperation/transponder orchestration

Dr. Stylianos Sygletos
Prof. Dr. Andrew Ellis
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Optical Fibre Communications
  • Nonlinear Optics
  • Digital Signal Processing
  • Nonlinear impairment mitigation
  • Polarization Mode Dispersion
  • Chromatic Dispersion
  • Orthogonal Frequency-division multiplexing
  • Coherent Detection
  • Wavelength Division Multiplexing
  • Volterra Equalization
  • Digital Back Propagation
  • Machine Learning Equalization
  • Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
  • Intra/Inter- channel nonlinearity
  • Perturbation analysis
  • Adaptive Signal Processing

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 852 KiB  
Article
Numerical Investigation of the Equalization Enhanced Phase Noise Penalty for M-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Formats in Short-Haul Few-Mode Fiber Transmission Systems with Time-Domain Equalization
by José Manuel Delgado Mendinueta, Werner Klaus, Jun Sakaguchi, Satoshi Shinada, Hideaki Furukawa, Yoshinari Awaji and Naoya Wada
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(11), 2182; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8112182 - 07 Nov 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2786
Abstract
The equalization enhanced phase noise (EEPN), caused by the interaction of the chromatic dispersion (CD) with the phase noise of the local oscillator (LO), has been extensively studied for single-mode optical communication systems. Few-mode fiber (FMF) transmission systems introduce a new channel impairment, [...] Read more.
The equalization enhanced phase noise (EEPN), caused by the interaction of the chromatic dispersion (CD) with the phase noise of the local oscillator (LO), has been extensively studied for single-mode optical communication systems. Few-mode fiber (FMF) transmission systems introduce a new channel impairment, the differential mode delay (DMD), which also creates EEPN and hence limits the maximum transmission distance of those systems. In this work, we numerically investigate the optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) penalties caused by the EEPN in a 3-mode FMF transmission system at 25 GBd for quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK), 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), 32-QAM and 64-QAM modulation formats when using the blind phase search (BPS) carrier phase recovery (CPR) algorithm, which has been demonstrated to be both robust and suitable for optical communication systems. Our numerical study assumes a short-span of FMF, modeled in the weakly-coupled regime, and includes two cases; the use of ideal mode-selective de/multiplexers at both ends of the FMF span (model A), and the use of ideal non-mode-selective de/multiplexers (model B). The results show that the EEPN has almost no effect in model A. However, EEPN produces a severe penalty in model B with the onset of the OSNR degradation starting for a DMD spread of the impulse response of about 100 symbols for all modulation formats investigated. The distribution ratio of the amount of phase noise between the transmitter and receiver lasers is also assessed for model B and we confirm that the degradation is mainly due to the phase noise of the LO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DSP for Next Generation Fibre Communication Systems)
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17 pages, 833 KiB  
Article
Information-Bottleneck Decoding of High-Rate Irregular LDPC Codes for Optical Communication Using Message Alignment
by Maximilian Stark, Jan Lewandowsky and Gerhard Bauch
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(10), 1884; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8101884 - 11 Oct 2018
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4097
Abstract
In high-throughput applications, low-complexity and low-latency channel decoders are inevitable. Hence, for low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, message passing decoding has to be implemented with coarse quantization—that is, the exchanged beliefs are quantized with a small number of bits. This can result in a [...] Read more.
In high-throughput applications, low-complexity and low-latency channel decoders are inevitable. Hence, for low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, message passing decoding has to be implemented with coarse quantization—that is, the exchanged beliefs are quantized with a small number of bits. This can result in a significant performance degradation with respect to decoding with high-precision messages. Recently, so-called information-bottleneck decoders were proposed which leverage a machine learning framework (i.e., the information bottleneck method) to design coarse-precision decoders with error-correction performance close to high-precision belief-propagation decoding. In these decoders, all conventional arithmetic operations are replaced by look-up operations. Irregular LDPC codes for next-generation fiber optical communication systems are characterized by high code rates and large maximum node degrees. Consequently, the implementation complexity is mainly influenced by the memory required to store the look-up tables. In this paper, we show that the complexity of information-bottleneck decoders remains manageable for irregular LDPC codes if our proposed construction approach is deployed. Furthermore, we reveal that in order to design information bottleneck decoders for arbitrary degree distributions, an intermediate construction step which we call message alignment has to be included. Exemplary numerical simulations show that incorporating message alignment in the construction yields a 4-bit information bottleneck decoder which performs only 0.15 dB worse than a double-precision belief propagation decoder and outperforms a min-sum decoder. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DSP for Next Generation Fibre Communication Systems)
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10 pages, 1539 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Split Transmitter-Receiver Digital Nonlinearity Compensation in Bi-Directional Raman Unrepeatered System
by Qiang Zheng, Zhilin Yuan, Yuan Li and Wei Li
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 972; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8060972 - 13 Jun 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2517
Abstract
A theoretical model of the nonlinear signal-to-noise interaction (NSNI) in a bi-directional Raman amplified system with receiver-side digital back-propagation (DBP) or split-DBP is given, which is helpful for the design of such a system. In the proposed model, the distributed Raman gain and [...] Read more.
A theoretical model of the nonlinear signal-to-noise interaction (NSNI) in a bi-directional Raman amplified system with receiver-side digital back-propagation (DBP) or split-DBP is given, which is helpful for the design of such a system. In the proposed model, the distributed Raman gain and the spontaneous Raman scattering are taken into account. The results of the theoretical calculation are compared with the results of transmission simulations, which indicates that the theoretical model matches well with the results of simulations when the pre-compensation length is less than 100 km. For the cases of pre-compensation lengths more than 100 km, the theoretical model has an error of less than 0.1 dB compared with the simulations. By using the theoretical model, the efficiency of the split-DBP is analyzed, and the results are compared with transmission simulations. Both the results of theoretical calculation and simulations show that the split-DBP can effectively mitigate the NSNI in such a system. By adopting split-DBP, with an appropriate pre-compensation length, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the signal increases by about 1 dB. In addition, the impact of the double Rayleigh scattering (DRB) is also analyzed using the proposed model, and the results show that DRB has little impact on the system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DSP for Next Generation Fibre Communication Systems)
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14 pages, 2543 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Nonlinear Compensation Techniques for 400-Gb/s Coherent Multi-Band OFDM Super-Channels
by Vasiliki Vgenopoulou, Mengdi Song, Erwan Pincemin, Yves Jaouën, Stylianos Sygletos and Ioannis Roudas
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(3), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8030447 - 15 Mar 2018
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4095
Abstract
The last few years, many studies have been published on the 3rd-order inverse Volterra series transfer function nonlinear equalizer (IVSTF-NLE) in long-haul optical communication systems. Nonetheless, no experimental work has been published on investigating the potential of the 3rd-order IVSTF-NLE for the compensation [...] Read more.
The last few years, many studies have been published on the 3rd-order inverse Volterra series transfer function nonlinear equalizer (IVSTF-NLE) in long-haul optical communication systems. Nonetheless, no experimental work has been published on investigating the potential of the 3rd-order IVSTF-NLE for the compensation of Kerr nonlinearities in a long-haul wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) system consisting of high-bit rate super-channels, as high as 400 Gb/s. In this paper, we study experimentally the performance of a 3rd-order IVSTF-NLE in a coherent optical WDM system, with a central, 400-Gb/s, 4-band, dual-polarization (DP), 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) super-channel. We compare its performance against the performance of the digital back-propagation split-step Fourier (DBP-SSF) method for the compensation of nonlinearities after 10 × 100 km of ITU-T G.652 standard single mode fiber (SSMF). In the second part of this paper, we compare, via Monte Carlo simulations, the performance of the 3rd-order IVSTF-NLE and the DBP-SSF method, in terms of reach extension and computational complexity, after propagation through ITU-T G.652 SSMF and a ITU-T G.655 large effective area fiber (LEAF). By means of both experimental evaluation and simulations, we show that, in the presence of strong nonlinear effects, the 3rd-order IVSTF-NLE, which uses a single step per span, performs similarly with the two-steps-per-span DBP-SSF, whereas the eight-steps-per-span DBP-SSF is only marginally better but at the vast expense of computational complexity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DSP for Next Generation Fibre Communication Systems)
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10 pages, 853 KiB  
Article
Capacity Enhancement of Few-Mode Fiber Transmission Systems Impaired by Mode-Dependent Loss
by El-Mehdi Amhoud, Ghaya Rekaya-Ben Othman and Yves Jaouën
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(3), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8030326 - 26 Feb 2018
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2950
Abstract
Space-division multiplexing over few-mode fibers is a promising solution to increase the capacity of the future generation of optical transmission systems. Mode-dependent loss (MDL) is known to have a detrimental impact on the capacity of few-mode fiber systems. In the presence of MDL, [...] Read more.
Space-division multiplexing over few-mode fibers is a promising solution to increase the capacity of the future generation of optical transmission systems. Mode-dependent loss (MDL) is known to have a detrimental impact on the capacity of few-mode fiber systems. In the presence of MDL, spatial modes experience different attenuations which results in capacity reduction. In this work, we propose a digital signal processing solution and an optical solution to mitigate the impact of MDL and improve the channel capacity. First, we show that statistical channel state information can be used for a better power allocation for spatial modes instead of equal launch power to increase the system capacity. Afterwards, we propose a deterministic mode scrambling strategy to efficiently reduces the impact of MDL and improves few-mode fiber systems capacity. This scrambling strategy can be efficiently combined with the optimal power allocation to further enhance the capacity. Through numerical simulations of the average and outage capacities, we show that the proposed techniques bring significant capacity gains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DSP for Next Generation Fibre Communication Systems)
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Review

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25 pages, 5535 KiB  
Review
Frequency Comb-Based WDM Transmission Systems Enabling Joint Signal Processing
by Lars Lundberg, Magnus Karlsson, Abel Lorences-Riesgo, Mikael Mazur, Victor Torres-Company, Jochen Schröder and Peter A. Andrekson
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(5), 718; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8050718 - 04 May 2018
Cited by 72 | Viewed by 7842
Abstract
We review the use of optical frequency combs in wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) fiber optic communication systems. In particular, we focus on the unique possibilities that are opened up by the stability of the comb-line spacing and the phase coherence between the lines. We [...] Read more.
We review the use of optical frequency combs in wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) fiber optic communication systems. In particular, we focus on the unique possibilities that are opened up by the stability of the comb-line spacing and the phase coherence between the lines. We give an overview of different techniques for the generation of optical frequency combs and review their use in WDM systems. We discuss the benefits of the stable line spacing of frequency combs for creating densely-packed optical superchannels with high spectral efficiency. Additionally, we discuss practical considerations when implementing frequency-comb-based transmitters. Furthermore, we describe several techniques for comb-based superchannel receivers that enables the phase coherence between the lines to be used to simplify or increase the performance of the digital carrier recovery. The first set of receiver techniques is based on comb-regeneration from optical pilot tones, enabling low-overhead self-homodyne detection. The second set of techniques takes advantage of the phase coherence by sharing phase information between the channels through joint digital signal processing (DSP) schemes. This enables a lower DSP complexity or a higher phase-noise tolerance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DSP for Next Generation Fibre Communication Systems)
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