New Application of Chitosan in Wine, Beer and Fruit Juices Process

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Science and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 August 2021) | Viewed by 13047

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Agricultural and Food Sciences, University of Bologna, Viale G. Fanin, 40 - 40127 Bologna, BO, Italy
Interests: wine; volatiles; phenolics; vinegars; fruit juices
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Guest Editor
Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Alimentari per una filiera agro-alimentare Sostenibile – DiSTAS, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Via Emilia Parmense 84, 29122 Piacenza, Italy
Interests: wine; stability; proteins; colloids

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Guest Editor
Department of Agricultural and Food Sciences, University of Bologna,Viale Fanin 40, 40127 Bologna, Italy
Interests: wine; quality; sulfites; chitosan

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Chitosan is a versatile natural polymer that has been the subject of a vast number of studies over the last few decades. Its biodegradability, biocompatibility, and the possibility to be prepared in different forms, such as films, gels, beads, or nano/ microparticles make chitosan a multifaceted compound with substantial applicability in many fields, including, medicine, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical sciences.

Food and beverage production are two further sectors where chitosan has recently demonstrated promising applications, exploiting its antimicrobial or chelating activity. In wine, beer, or fruit juice processing, for instance, chitosan may help to control microbial spoilage, improve clarification, and reduce heavy metal contents.

Chitosan can be prepared from chitin-containing raw materials (crustacean shells, fungi, mollusks, and insects) which may imply differences in elemental composition, structure, and suitability for use in food.

New or unconventional applications in beverages are expected in the future, as much remains to be discovered about the interactions of this diversified polyelectrolyte with natural constituents or processes applied for their production.

This Special Issue will collect the most relevant advances in the use of chitosan as a technical adjuvant or additive in the production of wine, beer, and fruit juice discussing, among others, subjects such as the following: comparative performances of chitosan from distinct sources; modification of chitosan for improved (and safe) microbial and chelating ability in beverages; technical solutions to exploit chitosan as active packaging material in wine, beer, or fruit juice; the role of chitosan as an antioxidant/radical scavenger in vegetal-derived beverages; unconventional utilization of chitosan to modulate the physicochemical or volatile composition of beverages. Both research and review papers are welcome.

Dr. Fabio Chinnici
Dr. Donato Colangelo
Dr. Antonio Castro Marín
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Beverages
  • Microbial stability
  • Natural polymer
  • Food adjuvant from by-products
  • Antioxidant activity

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 1370 KiB  
Article
Effect of Chitosan on the Removal of Different Types of Tannins from Red Wines
by Luigi Picariello, Francesco Errichiello, Francesca Coppola, Alessandra Rinaldi, Luigi Moio and Angelita Gambuti
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(24), 11743; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112411743 - 10 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2014
Abstract
(1) Background: most premium red wines are rich in tannins but the effect of chitosan on these macromolecules is unknown. In this work, the effect of a treatment with 0.5 g/L of chitosan on red wines, W, enriched with condensed tannins, CT, ellagitannins, [...] Read more.
(1) Background: most premium red wines are rich in tannins but the effect of chitosan on these macromolecules is unknown. In this work, the effect of a treatment with 0.5 g/L of chitosan on red wines, W, enriched with condensed tannins, CT, ellagitannins, ET, and gallotannins, GT, was evaluated. In addition, to understand if the effect of C was stable during wine evolution, treated wines underwent an oxidative stress simulating an exposure to 18 mg/L of oxygen. (2) Methods: parameters describing the reactivity of phenolic compounds were determined: iron reactive phenolics, BSA reactive tannins, vanillin reactive tannins, and the saliva precipitation index. Individual anthocyanins, total and polymeric pigments and chromatic characteristics were evaluated to determine the influence of each treatment on colour parameters. (3) Results: a decrease in BSA reactive tannins after the addition of C was detected for all wines and the effect persisted after oxidation. W and CT wines previously treated with C and oxidized showed a significant decrease in the reactivity towards salivary proteins. C caused a lower formation of polymeric pigments in all wines. (4) Conclusion: these results suggest a possible use of C to treat wines very rich in condensed tannins and excessively astringent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Application of Chitosan in Wine, Beer and Fruit Juices Process)
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15 pages, 28654 KiB  
Article
Impact of Chitosan-Genipin Films on Volatile Profile of Wine along Storage
by M. Angélica M. Rocha, Manuel A. Coimbra, Sílvia M. Rocha and Cláudia Nunes
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(14), 6294; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11146294 - 07 Jul 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1898
Abstract
Chitosan-genipin films have been proposed for preservation of white wine, maintaining their varietal key odorants and organoleptic characteristics of sulfur dioxide treated wines. Nevertheless, these wines showed aroma notes that slightly distinguish them. It is possible that during the contact of films with [...] Read more.
Chitosan-genipin films have been proposed for preservation of white wine, maintaining their varietal key odorants and organoleptic characteristics of sulfur dioxide treated wines. Nevertheless, these wines showed aroma notes that slightly distinguish them. It is possible that during the contact of films with wine for at least 2 months, after fermentation and prior to bottling, interactions or chemical reactions are promoted. In this work, wine model solutions with volatile compounds in contact with chitosan-genipin films were performed to evaluate their evolution along time. To complement these analyses, the volatile compounds of white and red wines kept in contact with chitosan-genipin films during 2 and 8 months were also studied. The results obtained allowed us to conclude that the contact of chitosan-genipin films with both white and red wines tend to retain long carbon chain volatile compounds, such as ethyl hexanoate and octan-3-one. It also promoted the formation of Maillard reaction products, such as furfural by dehydration of pentoses and Strecker aldehydes, such as 3-methylbutanal and phenylacetaldehyde, by degradation of amino acids. This study reveals that the use of chitosan-genipin films for wine preservation is also able to promote the formation of compounds that can modulate the wines aroma, maintaining the varietal notes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Application of Chitosan in Wine, Beer and Fruit Juices Process)
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13 pages, 2643 KiB  
Article
Shellfish Chitosan Potential in Wine Clarification
by Veronica Vendramin, Gaia Spinato and Simone Vincenzi
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(10), 4417; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11104417 - 13 May 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2136
Abstract
Chitosan is a chitin-derived fiber, extracted from the shellfish shells, a by-product of the fish industry, or from fungi grown in bioreactors. In oenology, it is used for the control of Brettanomyces spp., for the prevention of ferric, copper, and protein casse and [...] Read more.
Chitosan is a chitin-derived fiber, extracted from the shellfish shells, a by-product of the fish industry, or from fungi grown in bioreactors. In oenology, it is used for the control of Brettanomyces spp., for the prevention of ferric, copper, and protein casse and for clarification. The International Organisation of Vine and Wine established the exclusive utilization of fungal chitosan to avoid the eventuality of allergic reactions. This work focuses on the differences between two chitosan categories, fungal and animal chitosan, characterizing several samples in terms of chitin content and degree of deacetylation. In addition, different acids were used to dissolve chitosans, and their effect on viscosity and on the efficacy in wine clarification were observed. The results demonstrated that even if fungal and animal chitosans shared similar chemical properties (deacetylation degree and chitin content), they showed different viscosity depending on their molecular weight but also on the acid used to dissolve them. A significant difference was discovered on their fining properties, as animal chitosans showed a faster and greater sedimentation compared to the fungal ones, independently from the acid used for their dissolution. This suggests that physical–chemical differences in the molecular structure occur between the two chitosan categories and that this significantly affects their technologic (oenological) properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Application of Chitosan in Wine, Beer and Fruit Juices Process)
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15 pages, 1448 KiB  
Article
Physico-Chemical Features of Sangiovese Wine as Affected by a Post-Fermentative Treatment with Chitosan
by Antonio Castro Marin and Fabio Chinnici
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(19), 6877; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10196877 - 30 Sep 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1878
Abstract
Chitosan is a natural biopolymer, which is gaining interest in red winemaking thanks to its ability to inhibit the development of Brettanomyces spp. yeast, or other undesired wine microbial threats. However, little is known about potential side-effects of its addition on the physico-chemical [...] Read more.
Chitosan is a natural biopolymer, which is gaining interest in red winemaking thanks to its ability to inhibit the development of Brettanomyces spp. yeast, or other undesired wine microbial threats. However, little is known about potential side-effects of its addition on the physico-chemical parameters of red wines. To fill the gap on this aspect, this work focused on changes in color, phenolic and volatile composition of red wines treated for 7 days with 0.5 g/L of fungoid chitosan, added in both undissolved and dissolved form. When compared to untreated samples, minor changes in phenolic compounds were observed in chitosan added wines, mainly involving hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonols, with reductions of 3 mg/L and 1.5 mg/L respectively. Ellagic acid, however, was absorbed up to 2 mg/L, which reduced his content by 40%. Since some of these compounds actively participate to co-pigmentation with anthocyanins, the color of wines was influenced accordingly. Chitosan marginally absorbed some aroma compounds, including volatile phenols whose amounts were slightly but significantly decreased after treatment. Overall, at the dose adopted, chitosan appeared suited to be used in red winemaking for microbial or physical stability purposes, not severely impairing the quality parameters of the final wines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Application of Chitosan in Wine, Beer and Fruit Juices Process)
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Review

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18 pages, 1670 KiB  
Review
Chitin and Chitosan in the Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Beverage Industry: An Overview
by Fernanda Cosme and Alice Vilela
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(23), 11427; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112311427 - 02 Dec 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4125
Abstract
The natural biopolymer chitin and its deacetylated derivative chitosan are abundant in nature. They are obtained from different sources, including the crustacean shells and the cell wall of fungi. Chitin and chitosan have various applications in the beverage industry, such as a flocculent [...] Read more.
The natural biopolymer chitin and its deacetylated derivative chitosan are abundant in nature. They are obtained from different sources, including the crustacean shells and the cell wall of fungi. Chitin and chitosan have various applications in the beverage industry, such as a flocculent to improve the clarification process, for the reduction of metals and contaminates, and to extend shelf-life. They are also used as material for the immobilization of microorganisms and enzymes, which allows the development of bioprocesses that preserve the quality of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. Therefore, the main purpose of this overview is to consolidate some of the current practical applications of chitin and chitosan in the alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverage industry and to reveal new perspectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Application of Chitosan in Wine, Beer and Fruit Juices Process)
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