Advances in Diagnostic and Therapeutic Radiology — 2nd Edition

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Physics General".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2024 | Viewed by 3460

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
1. Radiology and Physical Medicine Department, School of Medicine, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia, Spain
2. Instituto Murciano de Investigación Biosanitaria “Virgen de la Arrixaca” (IMIB-Arrixaca), 30100 Murcia, Spain
Interests: ionizing radiation; radiation effects; radiobiology; radiation protection; radiology; radiotherapy; radioprotectors; radiosensitizers; nonionizing radiation
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue focuses on the wide range of advances in the different clinical and technical aspects of medical imaging, both diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine, radiation oncology, radiation protection, and the biological effects produced by ionizing radiation.

This broad spectrum of topics includes articles on all aspects of clinical and/or basic research that describe original observations, techniques, instruments, new technologies, and meta-analyses.

Dr. Miguel Alcaraz
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • radiography
  • computed tomography
  • positron emission tomography
  • magnetic resonance imaging
  • ultrasonography
  • digital subtraction angiography
  • image-guided interventions
  • fluoroscopy
  • mammography
  • radiotherapy
  • nuclear medicine
  • radiation protection
  • radiation effects

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 845 KiB  
Article
Robotic Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Spine Metastasis Pain Relief
by Daniel Rivas, Alejandro de la Torre-Luque, Vladimir Suárez, Rafael García, Castalia Fernández, Daniela Gonsalves, Elena Moreno-Olmedo, María Isabel Núñez and Escarlata López
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(5), 1775; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14051775 - 22 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1181
Abstract
Spinal metastasis may occur in 40–70% of patients with cancer. Symptoms can vary from pain to spinal cord compression (SCC) and can affect their quality of life (QoL). Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) allows dose escalation of spinal tumor metastases, minimizing doses to organs [...] Read more.
Spinal metastasis may occur in 40–70% of patients with cancer. Symptoms can vary from pain to spinal cord compression (SCC) and can affect their quality of life (QoL). Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) allows dose escalation of spinal tumor metastases, minimizing doses to organs at risk and improving pain control. The aim of this study is to retrospectively describe our institution’s experience with robotic SBRT (CyberKnife®, Accuray Incorporated, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) for spinal metastases, in terms of feasibility, oncological results, toxicities, and pain relief observed. In total, 25 patients with 43 lesions were assessed, most of them with dorsal metastases (48.8%). The median total dose was 27 Gy (16–35 Gy), the median number of fractions administered was 3 (1–5), and the median dose per fraction was 9 Gy. Pain was evaluated using the visual analogue scale at baseline and at the end of treatment. The statistically significant reduction in pain (p < 0.01) was associated with the total dose of radiotherapy delivered (p < 0.01). Only one patient developed grade 3 dermatitis. Female gender, adenocarcinoma tumors, and lack of previous surgery were associated with better response to SBRT (p < 0.05). Robotic spine SBRT is feasible, well-tolerated, and improves patients’ QoL through a statistically significant reduction in pain, so it should be offered to patients at an early stage in their process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Diagnostic and Therapeutic Radiology — 2nd Edition)
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17 pages, 10725 KiB  
Article
Introduction of a Novel Technique in Density-Adjusted 3D Printing for the Manufacture of Soft-Tissue-Equivalent Radiological Phantoms
by Ismail Ozsoykal and Ayşegül Yurt
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(2), 509; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14020509 - 6 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 892
Abstract
The aim of this study is to introduce a new filament and novel 3D printing technique to adjust the density of a printing job in order to mimic the radiological properties of different tissues. We used a special filament, Light Weight PLA (LW-PLA), [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to introduce a new filament and novel 3D printing technique to adjust the density of a printing job in order to mimic the radiological properties of different tissues. We used a special filament, Light Weight PLA (LW-PLA), which utilizes foaming technology triggered by temperature. Cylindrical samples were printed at various temperatures, flow rates, print speeds, and diameters. A computed tomography (CT) scan was performed to identify their radiological properties in terms of the mean Hounsfield Unit (HU). The densities of the samples ranged from 0.36 g/cm3 to 1.21 g/cm3, corresponding to mean HU values between −702.7 ± 13.9 HU and +141.4 ± 7.1 HU. Strong linear correlations were observed between the flow rate and density as well as the flow rate and mean HU. The axial homogeneity of the samples was reported as being comparable to that of distilled water. A reduction in the mean HU was observed at a lower print speed and it changed slightly with respect to the sample size. Reproducibility assessments confirmed consistent results for identical printing jobs. Comparisons with regular PLA samples revealed a superior homogeneity in the LW-PLA samples. The findings of this study suggest a practical and accessible solution for mimicking all of the soft tissues, including the lungs, by using a single filament. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Diagnostic and Therapeutic Radiology — 2nd Edition)
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16 pages, 3666 KiB  
Article
Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy for Radiosurgery of Brain Metastases: A Single-Center Study
by José Manuel Sánchez-Villalobos, Alfredo Serna-Berna, Juan Salinas-Ramos, Pedro Pablo Escolar-Pérez, Marina Andreu-Gálvez, Emma Martínez-Alonso, José Antonio Pérez-Vicente and Miguel Alcaraz
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(18), 10097; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131810097 - 7 Sep 2023
Viewed by 968
Abstract
Whole-brain radiation therapy and stereotactic radiosurgery are two treatment modalities commonly utilized to treat brain metastases (BMs). The aim of this study is to retrospectively analyze the main radio-oncologic and clinical-demographic aspects of a cohort of BM patients treated with Volumetric Modulated Arc [...] Read more.
Whole-brain radiation therapy and stereotactic radiosurgery are two treatment modalities commonly utilized to treat brain metastases (BMs). The aim of this study is to retrospectively analyze the main radio-oncologic and clinical-demographic aspects of a cohort of BM patients treated with Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy for radiosurgery (VMAT-RS). This is a cross-sectional observational design study with a retrospective review of the medical records of patients with brain metastases treated with VMAT-RS between 2012 and 2018. Clinical and demographic data, with special attention to sex, age, primary tumor, brain tumor-related epilepsy (BTRE), number and brain location of BMs, Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS), the updated DS-GPA prognostic index, and the survival estimated according to the Kaplan–Meier model from the date of radiosurgery, were analyzed. One hundred and twenty-one patients with 229 BMs were treated with VMAT-RS. Patients presented 1–4 BMs, which were treated with five non-coplanar VMAT arcs. Sixty-eight percent of the patients had lung cancer, and 35% of the BMs were in the frontal lobe. The proportion of local control was 88.5%. BTRE prevalence was 30.6%. The median survival time (MST) was 7.7 months. In the multivariate analysis of the Cox regression model, KPS ≥ 70 (HRKPS < 70 = 2.59; p = 0.001) and higher DS-GPA (HRDS-GPAII = 0.55, p = 0.022; HRDS-GPAIII-IV = 0.38, p = 0.006) were associated with improved survival. In the univariate analysis, primary tumor, age, and the presence of metastases in the posterior fossa (PFBMs) were also significant. In conclusion, the VMAT-RS is a technique with an overall survival rate comparable to other radiosurgery techniques. The median survival is significantly longer for those with higher KPS and DS-GPA. Other variables, such as the type of primary tumor, age, and PFBMs, could also influence survival, although further studies are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Diagnostic and Therapeutic Radiology — 2nd Edition)
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