Advances in Biomaterials and Drug Technology

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Biosciences and Bioengineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 September 2024 | Viewed by 26384

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Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences in Sosnowiec, Medical University of Silesia, 41-200 Katowice, Poland
Interests: biomaterials; biomedical engineering; drug technology; surface sciences
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1. 3B's Research Group, I3Bs – Research Institute on Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, University of Minho, 4805-017 Guimarães, Portugal
2. ICVS/3B’s – PT Government Associate Laboratory, 4806-909 Guimarães, Portugal
Interests: marine biomaterials; tissue engineering; bone regeneration; cartilage; collagen; biopolymers; silica-based materials and 3D Bioprinting
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is dedicated to advances in biomaterials and drug technology, taking into account the aspects of design, manufacturing, and functioning, with a wide range of physical, biological, and chemical characteristics. This Issue also focuses on the current state of research on the characterization of materials and excipients for biomaterials and parenteral drug delivery systems.

The topics of interest include the following areas:

  • Application of novel materials and excipients in biomedical engineering and drug technology;
  • Advances in biomaterials and drug delivery systems based on both synthetic polymers and biopolymers at different scales, e.g., nanoparticles, macroparticles, micelles, exosomes, liposomes, and implants;
  • The role of biodegradable and nonbiodegradable biomaterials and drug formulations in improving therapeutic efficiency;
  • The mechanisms of biodegradation, drug release patterns, and kinetics tested in vivo or in vitro;
  • The effect of manufacturing and formulating methods on features of biomaterials and active pharmaceutical ingredients;
  • Characterization of natural drug delivery systems, e.g., exosomes or albumins.

We hope that this Special Issue will provide a roadmap for all scientists and practitioners in the areas of biomedical engineering and drug technology.

Dr. Artur Turek
Dr. Eva Martins
Guest Editors

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • biomaterials
  • drug delivery systems
  • tissue engineering
  • biopolymers
  • polymers

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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19 pages, 28673 KiB  
Article
Hot Melt Extrusion as a Formulation Method of Terpolymer Rods with Aripiprazole: A Preliminary Study
by Justyna Wilińska, Artur Turek, Jakub Rech, Henryk Janeczek, Małgorzata Pastusiak, Aleksandra Kordyka, Aleksandra Borecka, Magdalena Kobielarz and Janusz Kasperczyk
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(17), 9521; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13179521 - 23 Aug 2023
Viewed by 878
Abstract
Aripiprazole (ARP) is an atypical neuroleptic used in the therapy of mental diseases such as schizophrenia. The lack of optimal adherence to an oral therapy regime creates the basis for designing ARP long-acting injections. This study aimed to use 105 °C hot melt [...] Read more.
Aripiprazole (ARP) is an atypical neuroleptic used in the therapy of mental diseases such as schizophrenia. The lack of optimal adherence to an oral therapy regime creates the basis for designing ARP long-acting injections. This study aimed to use 105 °C hot melt extrusion (HME) as a formulation method for rods based on poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide-co-trimethylene carbonate) with a molecular weight (Mn) of 21 kDa (Td,l 21), poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide-co-trimethylene carbonate) with a Mn of 59 kDa (Tl 59), and with a Mn of 77 kDa (Tl 77). The following methods were involved in the research: NMR, DSC, XRD, HSM, FTIR, GPC, SEM, and mechanical tests. HME at 105 °C (i) ensured flow behavior for terpolymers, (ii) did not influence the terpolymers’ composition and (iii) the polymorph changes of ARP, and (iv) resulted in the changes in terpolymers’ Mn. For the rods with ARP based on Td,l 21 (Td,l 21 rod-ARP) and Tl 59 (Tl 59 rod-ARP), plasticization was noted. No drug–terpolymer interactions were revealed. No pores were observed on the surface. Due to its high flexibility and rubber character, Td,l 21 rod-ARP may be proposed for intramuscular administration, whereas Tl 59 rod-ARP, due to its higher strength and moderate stiffness, is proposed for subcutaneous administration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Biomaterials and Drug Technology)
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19 pages, 2491 KiB  
Article
Formulation and Evaluation of Hydrogels Based on Sodium Alginate and Cellulose Derivatives with Quercetin for Topical Application
by Beata Szulc-Musioł, Wioletta Siemiradzka and Barbara Dolińska
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(13), 7826; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13137826 - 3 Jul 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3653
Abstract
Topical drug delivery in skin diseases provides a non-invasive, direct application of treatments to the affected area and avoids systemic toxicity. Quercetin is a natural polyphenol with documented activity to alleviate the symptoms of many skin diseases. The objective of this study was [...] Read more.
Topical drug delivery in skin diseases provides a non-invasive, direct application of treatments to the affected area and avoids systemic toxicity. Quercetin is a natural polyphenol with documented activity to alleviate the symptoms of many skin diseases. The objective of this study was to prepare and assess the physicochemical properties of hydrogels made of sodium alginate (SA) and cellulose derivatives (methyl cellulose (MC) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)), containing different concentrations of quercetin (0.4 and 0.7%). The physicochemical evaluation of the obtained hydrogels included organoleptic evaluation, texture analysis, spreadability, rheological properties, pH, and stability. Among the prepared formulations, MC-based gels had the highest viscosity, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, and stickiness. The results of this study indicate that MC-based hydrogels were superior to CMC- or SA-based gels in their ability to effectively deliver quercetin to the porcine skin ex vivo. The amount of quercetin retained in the skin after application of MC-based preparations containing higher concentrations of quercetin was 2.04-fold higher for CMC-based hydrogels and 2.6-fold higher for SA-based hydrogels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Biomaterials and Drug Technology)
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16 pages, 20405 KiB  
Article
Development of the Latanoprost Solid Delivery System Based on Poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide-co-trimethylene carbonate) with Shape Memory for Glaucoma Treatment
by Aleksandra Borecka, Jakub Rech, Henryk Janeczek, Justyna Wilińska, Janusz Kasperczyk, Magdalena Kobielarz, Paweł Grieb and Artur Turek
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(13), 7562; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13137562 - 27 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1191 | Correction
Abstract
Latanoprost (LTP) is a prostaglandin F analog used to lower intraocular pressure in glaucoma treatment administered daily as eye drops. In this study, a universal model based on poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide-co-trimethylene carbonate) with shape memory was proposed for [...] Read more.
Latanoprost (LTP) is a prostaglandin F analog used to lower intraocular pressure in glaucoma treatment administered daily as eye drops. In this study, a universal model based on poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide-co-trimethylene carbonate) with shape memory was proposed for the development of a solid biodegradable formulation with prolonged release administered intraconjunctivally, intravitreally, subconjunctivally, and subcutaneously. Solution casting and electron beam (EB) irradiation were applied to the matrix formulation. The properties of the native matrix and matrices degraded in a PBS buffer (pH 7.4) were monitored by NMR, DSC, GPC, and SEM. Water uptake (WU) and weight loss (WL) were also analyzed. LTP was released over 113 days in a tri-phasic and sigmoidal pattern without a burst effect and with a relatively long second release phase, in which changes were observed in the glass transition temperature, molecular weight (Mn), WU, and WL. EB irradiation decreased the initial Mn, increased WU, and accelerated LTP release with a shortened lag phase. This provides the opportunity to partially eliminate the use of drops at the start of treatment. SEM observations indicated that surface erosion is the prevalent degradation mechanism. The proposed model is an interesting solution during a preliminary study to develop final medicinal products that provide high adherence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Biomaterials and Drug Technology)
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20 pages, 2250 KiB  
Article
Somatotropin Penetration Testing from Formulations Applied Topically to the Skin
by Wioletta Siemiradzka, Agata Franczyk, Lucyna Bułaś and Barbara Dolińska
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 2588; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13042588 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1791
Abstract
Growth hormone (somatotropin—STH) deficiency therapy requires daily injections of recombinant human growth hormone. The FDA approved treatment with STH with one dose per week for the first time in 2021. However, injectable drug application is accompanied by numerous inconveniences. Therefore, an attempt was [...] Read more.
Growth hormone (somatotropin—STH) deficiency therapy requires daily injections of recombinant human growth hormone. The FDA approved treatment with STH with one dose per week for the first time in 2021. However, injectable drug application is accompanied by numerous inconveniences. Therefore, an attempt was made to formulate a less invasive STH formulation for topical application to the skin. A substrate was prepared based on a polymer, methylcellulose (MC), into which STH was introduced at a concentration of 1 mg/g. Simultaneously, formulations were made with STH, to which albumin (ALB) was added at different concentrations: 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.5%. A test of the degree of STH permeation was carried out, as well as the effect of ALB on STH permeation parameters. Selected rheological properties of the formulations obtained were investigated. A test of STH permeation in simulated in vivo conditions through porcine skin indicated a relatively good bioavailability of over 80% and confirmed the effectiveness of MC as a carrier for growth hormone. ALB prolonged the STH penetration rate and increased the penetration degree of STH to 93%. The hydrogels obtained were found to be typical shear-thinning, thixotropic fluids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Biomaterials and Drug Technology)
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16 pages, 1907 KiB  
Article
Influence of Technological Parameters on the Size of Benzocaine Particles in Ointments Formulated on Selected Bases
by Lucyna Bułaś, Beata Szulc-Musioł, Wioletta Siemiradzka and Barbara Dolińska
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 2052; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13042052 - 4 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2183
Abstract
Compounding formulations, including semi-solid medication forms, must meet criteria related to specific stability and quality, during a period of their use. In suspension-type ointments, one of the criteria for assessment of their correct manufacturing is particle size, which in the compounding preparation cannot [...] Read more.
Compounding formulations, including semi-solid medication forms, must meet criteria related to specific stability and quality, during a period of their use. In suspension-type ointments, one of the criteria for assessment of their correct manufacturing is particle size, which in the compounding preparation cannot exceed 90 µm. An appropriate level of particle disintegration can be achieved via a selection of technological parameters and qualitatively compatible excipients. In this study, benzocaine ointments were prepared using a levigation process. The time of its application on the particle size of API in suspension ointments was evaluated. In parallel, the effect of mixing parameters and the co-solvent used on the precipitation of active substance crystals in emulsion ointments during the storage of these formulations for 28 days was investigated. Forty suspension and emulsion ointments were prepared using selected ointment bases: Pentravan®, Lekobaza, Lekobaza LUX, Eucerin Ointment I, Nourivan™ Antiox, Fitalite™, containing 2% benzocaine. Based on the results of the stability test, four formulations were selected to study the release kinetics of benzocaine in vitro. These formulations were characterized by the rate of release consistent with the Higuchi model, and the fastest rate of release occurred from the Eucerin-based emulsion ointment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Biomaterials and Drug Technology)
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10 pages, 2164 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Native and Human Serum Albumin-Bound Lysophosphatidic Acid Species and Their Effect on the Viability of Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Vitro
by Aliz Majer, Julianna Pesthy, Balázs Besztercei, Adél Hinsenkamp, László Smeller, Zsombor Lacza, Zoltán Benyó, Éva Ruisanchez and István Hornyák
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(16), 8183; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12168183 - 16 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1328
Abstract
Scaffolds can provide a healthy environment for cell attachment, differentiation, proliferation, and migration in vitro and in vivo. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a naturally occurring bioactive phospholipid that is present in the serum mainly bound to albumin. The present study aims to investigate [...] Read more.
Scaffolds can provide a healthy environment for cell attachment, differentiation, proliferation, and migration in vitro and in vivo. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a naturally occurring bioactive phospholipid that is present in the serum mainly bound to albumin. The present study aims to investigate the biocompatibility of LPA. It also aims to determine the effect of different LPA species on the proliferation and migration of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-dMSCs) for LPA and human serum albumin (HSA) containing bone scaffold development. The HSA-LPA complex formation was assessed using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The effect of 18:1, 18:2, or 16:0 LPA alone, or in combination with 4% HSA, on cell viability and proliferation was determined by XTT. The cell migration was examined in a wound healing assay. The changes in the FTIR spectra of LPA-HSA compositions, compared with HSA alone, indicate the complex formation between the components. Our study showed that 18:1, 18:2, and 16:0 LPA species had no cytotoxic effects up to 10 µM concentration. The different LPA species increased the proliferation of hBM-dMSCs in a dose-dependent manner when administered in the presence of HSA, without an effect on the migration of this cell type. These findings make the in vivo application of LPA-HSA complex promising for bone regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Biomaterials and Drug Technology)
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13 pages, 1233 KiB  
Article
Chrysin-Loaded Microemulsion: Formulation Design, Evaluation and Antihyperalgesic Activity in Mice
by Ízola Morais de Medeiros Ramalho, Gabriela Suassuna Bezerra, Elissa Arantes Ostrosky, Márcio Ferrari, Verônica da Silva Oliveira, Alcides de Oliveira Wanderley Neto, Jullyana de Souza Siqueira Quintans, Fabiolla Rocha Santos Passos, Luana Heimfarth, Lucindo José Quintans-Júnior, Bolívar Ponciano Goulart de Lima Damasceno, Attilio Converti and Ádley Antonini Neves de Lima
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(1), 477; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12010477 - 4 Jan 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2230
Abstract
Chrysin is a bioactive flavonoid found in pollens, passion flowers, honey, royal jelly, and propolis, which is commonly used as an ingredient in natural food supplements and is primarily responsible for their pharmacological properties. A transparent chrysin-loaded microemulsion (CS-ME) prepared through a ternary [...] Read more.
Chrysin is a bioactive flavonoid found in pollens, passion flowers, honey, royal jelly, and propolis, which is commonly used as an ingredient in natural food supplements and is primarily responsible for their pharmacological properties. A transparent chrysin-loaded microemulsion (CS-ME) prepared through a ternary phase diagram was evaluated for use as an antihyperalgesic formulation. It was formulated with 40% Labrasol® (surfactant), 5% isopropyl myristate (oil phase) and 55% water (aqueous phase) and classified as an oil-in-water (O/W) microsized system (74.4 ± 15.8 nm). Its negative Zeta potential (−16.1 ± 1.9 mV) was confirmed by polarized light microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis. In vitro studies in Franz-type static diffusion cells showed that chrysin release from CS-ME followed zero-order kinetics. Oral administration of CS-ME in mice resulted in a statistically significantly reduction (p < 0.05) in carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia compared to the control group. Treatment with CS-ME also showed anti-inflammatory activity by significantly decreasing the TNF-α level (p < 0.01) and increasing that of IL-10 (p < 0.05) compared to the control group. These results suggest that the proposed microsystem is a promising vector for the release of chrysin, being able to improve its capacity to modulate inflammatory and nociceptive responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Biomaterials and Drug Technology)
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Review

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21 pages, 4790 KiB  
Review
Origin and Composition of Exosomes as Crucial Factors in Designing Drug Delivery Systems
by Jakub Rech, Agnieszka Getinger-Panek, Sabina Gałka and Ilona Bednarek
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(23), 12259; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122312259 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3656
Abstract
Exosomes are a subpopulation of extravascular vesicles with a diameter of 30–150 nm. They are cellular-communication mediators, often reaching very distant organism tissues. Information is transferred by exosomal cargo, composed of a wide variety of macromolecules such as nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids. [...] Read more.
Exosomes are a subpopulation of extravascular vesicles with a diameter of 30–150 nm. They are cellular-communication mediators, often reaching very distant organism tissues. Information is transferred by exosomal cargo, composed of a wide variety of macromolecules such as nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids. Exosomes possess natural specific cell targeting properties that are desirable in designing targeted macromolecules (DNA and RNA) and drug delivery systems (doxorubicin, paclitaxel, and taxol). In this context, exosomes can be defined as bio-derived drug transporting and protecting devices for the treatment of bacterial (toxoplasmosis and salmonellosis), viral (AIDS and hepatitis B), and cancer (lung, pancreatic, colon, brain, and breast) diseases. Extensive research proves that exosomes’ natural cargo can double-act, both increasing and decreasing the disease severity. In this case, the exosomes need to be prepared, namely, their origin and their cargo need to be screened and known. Thus, appropriate methods for intact and price-effective exosome isolation are needed with further exosome properties description. Among many utilized isolation methods, the most common are ultracentrifugation, polymer-based precipitation, and affinity precipitation-isolation systems, but novel microfluidic methods compromising high efficacy and purity are being developed. In this review, we state the current knowledge and trends in exosome-based drug delivery systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Biomaterials and Drug Technology)
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21 pages, 2960 KiB  
Review
Polymeric Nanoparticles—Tools in a Drug Delivery System in Selected Cancer Therapies
by Marcel Madej, Natalia Kurowska and Barbara Strzalka-Mrozik
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(19), 9479; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12199479 - 21 Sep 2022
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 7055
Abstract
The increase in cancer cases is undoubtedly affecting the development of new therapeutic approaches. Polymeric nanoparticles are of great interest. Due to their relatively small size, the possibility of incorporating into them medicinal substances and the ease with which their physicochemical properties may [...] Read more.
The increase in cancer cases is undoubtedly affecting the development of new therapeutic approaches. Polymeric nanoparticles are of great interest. Due to their relatively small size, the possibility of incorporating into them medicinal substances and the ease with which their physicochemical properties may be manipulated, they are being used as anticancer drug delivery systems. The aim of this review is to focus on the use of nanoscale polymeric particles in the treatment of colorectal cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer and glioblastoma multiforme, and to consider their potential use in cancer gene therapy. According to several reports, the use of polymer nanoparticles as drug carriers is promising in solid tumors. With their application, it is possible to precisely deliver medicinal substances to the tumor structure, to overcome the blood–brain barrier in the case of brain tumors, to reduce the side effects of anticancer agents on normal cells and to achieve a therapeutic effect with a lower drug dose. Additionally, a number of reports indicate that they can also be used in combination with other methods of cancer treatment, mainly radiotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Biomaterials and Drug Technology)
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2 pages, 171 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Borecka et al. Development of the Latanoprost Solid Delivery System Based on Poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide-co-trimethylene carbonate) with Shape Memory for Glaucoma Treatment. Appl. Sci. 2023, 13, 7562
by Aleksandra Borecka, Jakub Rech, Henryk Janeczek, Justyna Wilińska, Janusz Kasperczyk, Magdalena Kobielarz, Paweł Grieb and Artur Turek
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(24), 13043; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132413043 - 7 Dec 2023
Viewed by 401
Abstract
In the original publication [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Biomaterials and Drug Technology)
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