Food Processing and Preservation Technologies: Advances and Applications

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Science and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2024 | Viewed by 7330

Special Issue Editor

Department of Process Engineering, University of Food Technologies, BG-4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Interests: drying technologies; sorption characteristics; extrusion; membrane technologies

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, the demand for specialty products based on new ingredients, functional foods, alternative protein sources, gut health, and bioactive formulations increases continuously. The production of these products requires the application of advanced and innovative processes and technologies. 

This Special Issue is focused on the advances and applications of various processes used in the food industry and in preservation technologies. It concerns new research and information on the use of innovative and non-traditional processing and preservation technologies during food production, processing, and transportation.

Therefore, this Special Issue will search original scientific developments and new perspectives in the following areas: (i) applications of various processes and preservation technologies in food production, (ii), novel and non-traditional methods for the transformation of food products, (iii) innovation for the production of functional foods and their storage, (iv) new methods and knowledge for shelf life extension, food safety, and the valorization of food processing by-products as well as energy efficiency. These topics are indicative and research is not strictly limited to them.

We invite you to contribute to this Special Issue. Review articles, short communications, and full-size research papers are all welcome.

Dr. Nikolay D. Menkov
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • food processing
  • food preservation technologies
  • innovative foods
  • functional foods
  • shelf life extension
  • food safety
  • valorization of food processing by-products
  • energy efficiency

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 1311 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Properties of Bovine Livers and Hearts Hydrolysates
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(24), 13142; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132413142 - 11 Dec 2023
Viewed by 691
Abstract
Our previous research has indicated that bioactive protein hydrolysates derived from porcine by-products possess the potential to be utilized in the production of functional additives and food supplements. The objective of this investigation was to assess the antioxidant and antimicrobial characteristics and amino [...] Read more.
Our previous research has indicated that bioactive protein hydrolysates derived from porcine by-products possess the potential to be utilized in the production of functional additives and food supplements. The objective of this investigation was to assess the antioxidant and antimicrobial characteristics and amino acid changes in hydrolysates of lyophilized meat of bovine livers and hearts. The relevant enzymes, papain and pepsin, were used to hydrolyze the meat by-products over periods of 3, 6, and 24 h. The antimicrobial properties of all enzymatically digested samples were assessed against Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Typhimurium. Bacillus cereus, and Escherichia coli, S. aureus subsp. aureus. The assessment of antiradical activity involved the quantification of DPPH• and ABTS•+ absorbance in bovine by-product hydrolysates. The hydrolysates were subjected to amino acid analysis using AccQ Tag technology, which was performed by Waters Corporation in Milford, MA, USA. The bacteria L. monocytogenes had the highest antibacterial activity (inhibition zone) (20.00 ± 0.20 mm) and less against E. coli (10.00 ± 0.10 mm) of bovine heart hydrolysates and were prepared for 24 h with papain. The highest values of ABTS•+ (98.1 ± 0.30%) and of DPPH• scavenging activity (92.56 ± 0.56%) of cationic radicals were evaluated in the bovine liver hydrolysates after the effect of papain for 24 h. Longer hydrolysis time influenced the decrease in free hydrophobic amino acids (Ala, Val, Ile, Leu, Tyr, Phe, Pro, Met). The results confirmed the potential use of bovine liver and heart hydrolysates as functional or biologically active materials. Full article
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15 pages, 1597 KiB  
Article
Meat Analogues from Pea Protein: Effect of Different Oat Protein Concentrates and Post Treatment on Selected Technological Properties of High-Moisture Extrudates
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(22), 12354; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132212354 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 687
Abstract
The effect of using oat protein concentrates from different sources on the techno/functional properties of pea protein high-moisture extrudates (HME) have been investigated. The oat protein fractions were commercially produced by wet milling (OP) or produced by dry fractionation (OA) in our pilot [...] Read more.
The effect of using oat protein concentrates from different sources on the techno/functional properties of pea protein high-moisture extrudates (HME) have been investigated. The oat protein fractions were commercially produced by wet milling (OP) or produced by dry fractionation (OA) in our pilot plant facilities. The texture cutting force of HME was significantly increased by the inclusion of OP and had higher anisotropy, while addition of OA did not influence the texture. Addition of both oat sources to the pea mixture led to higher water and oil binding ability on both initial dry ingredients and extrudates. The color of the meat analogues was significantly affected by the type of oat added. CLSM image analysis of the extrudates showed that the type of oat used influenced fiber alignment and apparent porosity of the protein network. Post-extrusion treatment with water at 80 °C/20 min of the extrudates significantly reduced the cutting strength of the meat analogues and significantly caused a shift toward a lighter color. The reduction of texture strength of extrudates with OP rendered it similar to cooked chicken samples, while extrudates with OA showed a more resilient fiber strength to the hot water treatment. Full article
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12 pages, 1747 KiB  
Article
Light Can Induce Accumulation of Nutritional Antioxidants in Black Chokeberry Cell Suspension Culture
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(20), 11557; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132011557 - 22 Oct 2023
Viewed by 748
Abstract
Cultivation of plant cells under controlled conditions is a highly effective and fast developing technology that recently was considered as a branch of cellular agriculture. Cellular agriculture is a multidisciplinary approach for sustainable and renewable production of agricultural goods and raw materials at [...] Read more.
Cultivation of plant cells under controlled conditions is a highly effective and fast developing technology that recently was considered as a branch of cellular agriculture. Cellular agriculture is a multidisciplinary approach for sustainable and renewable production of agricultural goods and raw materials at cellular, rather than organismal, level. However, in contrast to the rapid advance in development of cultured meat and precision fermentation, the production of nutritional supplements from plant cells is still in its infancy. One of the limiting factors, striating commercialization of plant cells for food production, is the low yields of target bioactive metabolites. In this work, the changes in phenolics, anthocyanins and exopolysaccharides accumulation during cultivation of Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliott cell suspension cultures in darknessor under illumination (16 light and 8 dark) were investigated. The data showed that the highest contents of total phenolics (8.17 ± 0.39 mg GAE/g DW), total anthocyanins (0.011 ± 0.001 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents/g DW) and antioxidant activities (DPPH—21.36 ± 0.29 µM TE/g DW; TEAC—10.08 ± 0.07 µM TE/g DW; FRAP—34.85 ± 1.47 µM TE/g DW; and CUPRAC—126.74 ± 9.15 µM TE/g DW) were achieved when the cells were grown under illumination (16 light and 8 dark). In contrast, when the culture was grown indarkness, the highest amounts of accumulated dry biomass (8.68 ± 0.35 g/L) and exopolysaccharides production (2.10 ± 0.07 g/L) were reached. The results demonstrated that light can be used as an affordable and highly effective factor to control the production of valuable antioxidants by black chokeberry cell suspension culture. Full article
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14 pages, 3076 KiB  
Article
Modeling and Optimization of Processes for Craft Beer Production: Malt Mixture Modeling and Mashing Optimization for Lager Beer Production
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(20), 11554; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132011554 - 22 Oct 2023
Viewed by 790
Abstract
Beer ranks third in terms of consumption worldwide, and its technology is constantly being improved and perfected. The boom in craft brewing has led to the production of thousands of new types of beer, but most often without scientific justification of the technological [...] Read more.
Beer ranks third in terms of consumption worldwide, and its technology is constantly being improved and perfected. The boom in craft brewing has led to the production of thousands of new types of beer, but most often without scientific justification of the technological decisions made. This paper discusses the approaches to the modeling of the composition of the malt mixture and the mode of lager beer production. A special cubic simplex-lattice design with two replications was used to model the mixture with three malt types: Pilsner, Caramel Pils and Caramel Munich type 2. Models for the main brewing characteristics, i.e., wort extract and color, as well as models for the biological parameters of the mash, i.e., phenolic compound content and antioxidant potential, were developed using different methods. Multi-objective optimization was carried out and a specific mixture was developed for the production of lager beer. The influence of acidulated malt, lactic acid and CaCl2 additions on the extract yield and malt mash filtration time were established through one-factor experiments. The extract and fermentable sugar yield during individual pauses in the mashing mode was studied with a view to its optimization. Full article
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20 pages, 4826 KiB  
Article
Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.), Raspberry Seed (Rubus idaeus L.), and Ylang-Ylang (Cananga odorata (Lam.) Essential Oils—Towards Hurdle Technologies in the Production of Chocolate Mousse
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(20), 11281; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132011281 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 844
Abstract
The growing consumer demand for the development of functional foods with a number of benefits for the consumer has led to a considerable increase in the studies focused on examining different natural agents to be included in the composition of newly developed functional [...] Read more.
The growing consumer demand for the development of functional foods with a number of benefits for the consumer has led to a considerable increase in the studies focused on examining different natural agents to be included in the composition of newly developed functional foods. The chemical compositions of the essential oils (EOs) of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), peppermint (Mentha piperita L.), raspberry seed (Rubus idaeus L.), and ylang-ylang (Cananga odorata (Lam.)) were determined using gas chromatography with a mass selective detector (GC-MS). The antibacterial and antifungal activities of these EOs were examined using a high-throughput 96-well microplate bioassay procedure and the MICs of each EO against each test microorganism were determined. The results indicated significant antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Salmonella abony NTCC 6017, Pseudomonas aeruginosa NBIMCC 1390, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 19659, Penicillium chrysogenum ATCC 28089, Fusarium moniliforme ATCC 38932, Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015, and Aspergillus flavus ATCC 9643. To explore their potential applications in food preservation, model chocolate mousse food emulsions were prepared that incorporated EOs and/or selected probiotic lactobacilli strains in both free and encapsulated forms. The inclusion of EOs and/or probiotic lactobacilli resulted in enhanced microbial safety and an extended shelf life. Furthermore, the chocolate mousse variants that were biopreserved with the inclusion of probiotic lactobacilli maintained a high viable lactobacillus cell concentration throughout the storage period. As a result, these products would not only be suitable as functional probiotic foods but also as effective delivery vehicles for probiotic lactobacilli. Full article
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12 pages, 1490 KiB  
Article
Lipid Composition and Physicochemical Parameters of Flaxseed Oil (Linum usitatissimum L.) from Bulgaria
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(18), 10141; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131810141 - 08 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 588
Abstract
Flaxseed oil is a prevalent food supplement. On one hand, vegetable oil is used in the food industry and pharmacy due to its health benefits; on the other hand, it has an application as a lubricant oil. The fatty acid composition of the [...] Read more.
Flaxseed oil is a prevalent food supplement. On one hand, vegetable oil is used in the food industry and pharmacy due to its health benefits; on the other hand, it has an application as a lubricant oil. The fatty acid composition of the investigated oil was determined as follows: the main fatty acids were α-linolenic (57.5%), oleic (17.5%), linoleic (12.5%), palmitic (6.0%), and stearic acid (4.3%). The content of unsaponifiable matter was 1.4%. The total sterol content was determined (0.5%), with identified β-sitosterol (79.7%) as a main component, followed by stigmasterol. The content of tocopherols was found to be 243 mg/kg. The compound γ-tocopherol predominated (68%) in the tocopherol fraction, followed by γ-tocotrienol (32%). Some physicochemical indicators were also determined—density, surface tension, and dynamic and kinematic viscosity—at the following temperatures: 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 °C. The increase in temperature led to a decrease in all indexes and good linear dependence was observed. The determined physicochemical indicators provided information about the stability of flaxseed oil, which is very important considering its use in food and technical products. Full article
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17 pages, 4814 KiB  
Article
Combined Effect of Bioactive Compound Enrichment Using Rosa damascena Distillation Side Streams and an Optimized Osmotic Treatment on the Stability of Frozen Oyster Mushrooms
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(17), 9734; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13179734 - 28 Aug 2023
Viewed by 556
Abstract
Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) is the second most widely cultivated mushroom worldwide but has a short shelf-life due to its high moisture content. Osmodehydrofreezing, including a step of osmotic dehydration (OD) prior to freezing, can be applied to extend product shelf [...] Read more.
Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) is the second most widely cultivated mushroom worldwide but has a short shelf-life due to its high moisture content. Osmodehydrofreezing, including a step of osmotic dehydration (OD) prior to freezing, can be applied to extend product shelf life and preserve its quality characteristics. In this study, the effect of glycerol concentration (30–50%), temperature (30–50 °C), and immersion time (20–190 min) on mass transfer properties (WL, SG, aw, %moisture content, salt intake) and important quality indices (color and texture) was investigated. Experiments were conducted using a Box–Behnken Design with three factors at three levels, second order equations were used to describe all measured parameters (following the Response Surface Methodology principles), and preselected desirability functions were used to set the acceptability criteria for optimization. The optimized conditions were found to be 38.7 °C, 30% glycerol, and 130 min of immersion time. To maximize OD effect, an initial step was investigated, using the side streams of rose flowers distillation (ODR samples), aiming at enriching samples with bioactive compounds. Frozen OD and ODR samples demonstrated a significant improvement in color and texture retention, and suffered from a reduced drip loss after thawing, compared to their untreated counterparts. Full article
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15 pages, 3960 KiB  
Article
Nutritional Quality and Overall Acceptability Optimization of Ultra-Fast Air-Superchilled Golden Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Stevanovski) Using the Response Surface Methodology
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(17), 9504; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13179504 - 22 Aug 2023
Viewed by 543
Abstract
Temperatures below the cryoscopic point help to partially freeze most of the water in the fish muscle tissue. This reduces water activity and makes the remaining free water hardly accessible to microorganisms. The objective of this study was to determine the best process [...] Read more.
Temperatures below the cryoscopic point help to partially freeze most of the water in the fish muscle tissue. This reduces water activity and makes the remaining free water hardly accessible to microorganisms. The objective of this study was to determine the best process regime of ultra-fast air-superchilling, giving us the optimal quality of golden rainbow trout. Two hundred and thirty-four live golden rainbow trout (Oncorchynchus mykiss, Stevanovski) (18 groups of 13 fish in a group) were caught and immediately stunned by an electric current (P = 42 W). The stunned fish was placed in styrofoam cans and covered with flaked ice. The sensory analysis, total nitrogen volatile bases (TVB-N), total number of microorganisms (TVC), and presence of biogenic amines were determined. According to the optimized values for TVB-N, TVC, and sensory scores, giving us a better quality of ultra-fast air-superchilled golden rainbow, the process regime has been found at the following parameters: air temperature T = −11.3 °C; airflow velocity υ = 6.5 m s−1; and packaging layer thickness D = 79.2 μ. The superchilled golden rainbow trout processed by this regime has the lowest degree of proteolytic degradation, delayed development of the microflora, and retains the best possible sensory properties and freshness. Full article
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15 pages, 2483 KiB  
Article
Microbiological, Physicochemical, Organoleptic, and Rheological Properties of Bulgarian Probiotic Yoghurts Produced by Ultrafiltered Goat’s Milk
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(13), 7986; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13137986 - 07 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 975
Abstract
In this experimental work, the microbiological, physicochemical, organoleptic, and rheological properties of yoghurts produced by ultrafiltered goat’s milk using two volume-reduction ratios and three probiotic starters were studied. It was established that the dry matter, fats, proteins, count of lactic acid bacteria, titratable [...] Read more.
In this experimental work, the microbiological, physicochemical, organoleptic, and rheological properties of yoghurts produced by ultrafiltered goat’s milk using two volume-reduction ratios and three probiotic starters were studied. It was established that the dry matter, fats, proteins, count of lactic acid bacteria, titratable acidity, and dynamic viscosity increased and the pH decreased with the rise of the volume-reduction ratio during ultrafiltration. All yoghurts exhibited Bingham plastic flow behaviour. We recommend using a volume-reduction ratio of 3 and MZ2f + Bifidobacterium bifidum BB-87 to produce probiotic Bulgarian yoghurts with the highest dry matter contents (23.02%), protein contents (10.20%), fat contents (9.80%), number of viable lactic acid cells (9.34 logN), viscosity (4.99 Pa·s at shear rate of 1.22 s−1), and organoleptic properties and the highest score (15) in the range of this experiment. Full article
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