Characterization of Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidants in Natural Products

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Science and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 May 2024 | Viewed by 2979

Special Issue Editor

Department of Technology Fundamentals, University of Life Sciences, Głęboka 28, 20-612 Lublin, Poland
Interests: ultrasonic; microwaves and subcritical extraction; mathematical modeling of food and chemical processes; rheological properties of food materials; quantitative and qualitative determination of food ingredients; UV-VIS spectrophotometry; HPLC

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the bioactive substances naturally occurring in plant materials. These compounds have beneficial effects on metabolic processes and human health. They protect the body against the harmful effects of free radicals, having strong antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and even anti-cancer effect. Along the wide spectrum of their effects, we should also mention their ability to lower cholesterol levels, regulate blood sugar levels, improve the functioning of the immune system and reduce the risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease.

Among the most numerous groups of bioactive compounds are phytochemicals, which include flavonoids, carotenoids, lignans and plant sterols. These are found in natural products such as fruits and vegetables, as well as in medicinal plants and herbs.

At present, the community is returning to plants that were used in folk medicine, and whose composition and antioxidant properties are still not fully known. At the same time, research is underway on unusual plant organs, such as bark or young plant shoots, which have valuable health-promoting properties and can be successfully used for the production of natural medicinal products.

A large number of species, as well as the diversity of plant organs, pose new challenges related to the selection of methods for obtaining and processing bioactive compounds from plant raw materials. A comprehensive assessment of bioactive compounds and their antioxidant properties also depends on the choice of appropriate analytical methods.

The purpose of the Special Issue is to publish original scientific articles and review articles devoted to the characteristics of bioactive compounds and antioxidants derived from plant materials. We also welcome articles related to the methods of obtaining bioactive substances and to modern methods of identifying these compounds.

Prof. Dr. Zbigniew Kobus
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • bioactive compounds
  • antioxidant activity
  • polyphenols
  • anthocyanins
  • flavonoids
  • carotenoids
  • lignans
  • plant sterols
  • health properties of food
  • extraction techniques

Published Papers (4 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

15 pages, 1248 KiB  
Article
Comparative Study on Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant, and Anti-HSV-2 Activities of Sambucus nigra L. and Sambucus ebulus L. Extracts
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(23), 12593; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132312593 - 22 Nov 2023
Viewed by 633
Abstract
Sambucus nigra (SN) and Sambucus ebulus (SE) are widely used in folk medicine, primarily as antiviral agents for colds and influenza. In the current study, the antiviral activity of extracts of SN and SE fruits, flowers, and leaves were tested against herpes simplex [...] Read more.
Sambucus nigra (SN) and Sambucus ebulus (SE) are widely used in folk medicine, primarily as antiviral agents for colds and influenza. In the current study, the antiviral activity of extracts of SN and SE fruits, flowers, and leaves were tested against herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2). The HPLC analysis of the investigated extracts revealed the presence of phenolic acids, flavonoids, and anthocyanins. Rutin and chlorogenic acid were the main polyphenol constituents in flower and leaf extracts, whereas anthocyanins were predominant in fruit extracts. The flower extract of SN was characterized by the highest content of rutin and chlorogenic acid—14,232.1 mg/100 g dry weight (DW) and 7086.7 mg/100 g DW, respectively. SN fruit extract revealed the highest antioxidant activity measured using ORAC and HORAC methods—11,443.1 μmol TE/g and 8198.9 μmol GAE/g, respectively. To evaluate cytotoxicity, antiviral, and virucidal activities against HSV-2, the MTT assay and method of Reed and Muench were used. The least toxic extracts were PSNFrE and PSEFrE. The maximum tolerable concentration (MTC) of PSNFrE was 2000 μg/mL and the calculated CC50 value for that extract was 3570 μg/mL. The inhibitory activity against virus replication was established for three of the extracts—PSNFlE, PSNLE, and PSNFrE. PSEFrE showed neither activity against virus replication, nor virucidal activity. The data suggest a significant inactivation of more than 98% after 60 min of contact of HSV-2 virions with the PSNFrE applied in MTC. The current study provides evidence that Sambucus nigra reveals anti-HSV-2 activity; however, the most active parts of the species were fruits. Therefore, SN fruits and their extracts can be used as an attendant therapy for HSV-2 viral infections. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 1583 KiB  
Article
Changes in the Biological Activities of Gracilaria verrucosa Extracted Using Different Extraction Solvents
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(22), 12314; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132212314 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 774
Abstract
This study investigated the antioxidant, antiaging, and antibacterial properties of Gracilaria verrucosa (GV) based on 95% methanol (GVM), ethanol (GVE), and hot water (GVW) extractions. Antioxidant activity assays revealed the total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were highest in GVM and GVE. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate [...] Read more.
This study investigated the antioxidant, antiaging, and antibacterial properties of Gracilaria verrucosa (GV) based on 95% methanol (GVM), ethanol (GVE), and hot water (GVW) extractions. Antioxidant activity assays revealed the total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were highest in GVM and GVE. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) and 2,2′-Azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) activities were highest in GVE and GVM. Furthermore, GVE exhibited the highest ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) value. In comparison, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were highest in GVM. Collectively, GVE and GVM had stronger antioxidant activities than GVW. Additionally, collagenase, elastase, and tyrosinase inhibition assays showed that GVM exhibited the strongest anti-wrinkle and skin-whitening activities. Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometer (LC–MS/MS) revealed that GVW had the highest 4-hydroxy benzoic acid content, whereas GVE had the highest naringenin and naringin contents. Additionally, GVE exhibited the strongest antimicrobial activity against six foodborne bacteria, with minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations of 0.06–0.3 and 0.1–0.5 μg/μL. Correlation analysis of the GV extracts indicated a strong positive relationship between TPC and ABTS, SOD, and CAT activities (r = 0.760–0.982, p = 0–0.018). Overall, GVE and GVM can be applied to the development of functional agents across diverse industries. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 862 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Shape of Ultrasonic Vessels on the Chemical Properties of Extracts from the Fruit of Sorbus aucuparia
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(13), 7805; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13137805 - 02 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 688
Abstract
The goal of this study was to analyse the effect of sonoreactor dimensions on the effectiveness of the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of bioactive substances from rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.). Sonication was carried out with a VC750 Sonics processor at the following amplitudes [...] Read more.
The goal of this study was to analyse the effect of sonoreactor dimensions on the effectiveness of the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of bioactive substances from rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.). Sonication was carried out with a VC750 Sonics processor at the following amplitudes of ultrasound: 12, 24, and 36 µm. The frequency of the ultrasound was 20 kHz. Extraction was conducted in a 2 s on–4 s off pulse system. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were determined using a spectrophotometric method. The pH value of the extracts was measured using a combined pH metric electrode, type EPS-1 (Elmetron). Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimise the investigated variables. On the basis of the developed model, the following variable values were obtained: TPC—12.48 gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g, 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) values—126.54 μmol Trolox (TE)/g, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) values—79.58 μmol TE/g, ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) values—120.65 μmol TE/g for an extraction vessel with a diameter of 35 mm and TPC—11.68 mg GAE/g, ABTS values—120.49 μmol TE/g, DPPH values—75.90 μmol TE/g, FRAP values—155.54 μmol TE/g for an extraction vessel with a diameter of 25 mm. Significant influences of time, ultrasound amplitude, and alcohol concentration on the course of the extraction process in the tested extraction vessels were found. The optimum extraction conditions for an extraction vessel with a diameter of 35 mm were obtained for an ethyl alcohol concentration of about 60%, and for an extraction vessel with a diameter of 25 mm the optimum conditions were for an alcohol concentration in the range of 30–50%. A very strong positive linear correlation was found between the concentration of ethyl alcohol and the pH value of the obtained extracts for both extraction reactors. The developed models of pulsed ultrasound-assisted extraction were characterised by a good predictive capacity (77.49–91.39%) and can be used for obtaining polyphenols from rowan. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

48 pages, 584 KiB  
Review
Edible Oils from Selected Unconventional Sources—A Comprehensive Review of Fatty Acid Composition and Phytochemicals Content
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(23), 12829; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132312829 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 501
Abstract
In recent years, there was an increase in the commercial offer of vegetable oils from unconventional sources, such as fruit, vegetable, and herb seeds. The paper presents a synthesis of available scientific information on 27 oils obtained from the seeds of 14 fruit [...] Read more.
In recent years, there was an increase in the commercial offer of vegetable oils from unconventional sources, such as fruit, vegetable, and herb seeds. The paper presents a synthesis of available scientific information on 27 oils obtained from the seeds of 14 fruit species (apple, apricot, chokeberry, black berry, blackcurrant, blue berry, cherry, Japanese quince, pear, plum, quince, raspberry, rosehip, and strawberry), 8 vegetable species (broccoli, cabbage, carrot, cucumber, onion, parsley, radish, and tomato), and 5 herb species (basil, coriander, fennel, fenugreek, and perilla). A review of the literature showed that oil content in these seeds ranges from ca. 5% for fenugreek to over 55% for apricot kernels. A recommended n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio below 4-5/1 was noted in 11 species. Japanese quince, blackcurrant, and fenugreek seed oils seem to be good sources of phytosterols. Radish seed oil was mostly abundant in tocols, Japanese quince seed oil in squalene, and blackcurrant seed oil in carotenoids. Unfortunately, actual data on the composition of these seed oils are highly variable, making it difficult to precisely identify the most nutritionally valuable oils. Full article
Back to TopTop