Feature Reviews on Antibiotics Use and Antimicrobial Stewardship

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382). This special issue belongs to the section "Antibiotics Use and Antimicrobial Stewardship".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2024) | Viewed by 1749

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Microbiology, Medical School University of Athens, Athens, Greece
Interests: antimicrobial resistance; mechanisms of resistance; infection control; antimicrobial stewardship; investigation of microbial outbreaks
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
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Guest Editor
1. Consultant (Medicines Use, Safety and Policies), Barcelona, Spain
2. Former Professor at Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
Interests: antimicrobial use; rational use of medicines; pharmacovigilance; drug utilization studies
* Retired from Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Antimicrobial consumption is the primary cause of the antimicrobial resistance crisis affecting all regions of the World. Antimicrobial stewardship—a potential solution to this crisis—includes different activities seeking to improve antimicrobial use at different healthcare levels and in the community.

Studies to describe antimicrobial utilisation in different places, the role of the many actors involved in the value chain of antimicrobials, and the reasons prompting misuse constitute the optimal basis for designing tailored and effective change-making interventions.

Almost 80 years ago, Fleming first alerted humanity to the coming resistance crisis, and we are still trying to find the best way to identify the misuse of antimicrobials and establish why antimicrobials continue to be overprescribed and dispensed without a medical prescription almost everywhere.

This Special Issue of Antibiotics, entitled "Feature Reviews on Antibiotics Use and Antimicrobial Stewardship", will focus on reviewing the current research into antimicrobial consumption and use, as well as antimicrobial stewardship. This Special Issue welcomes review articles that discuss various aspects of antimicrobial use, including reviews of results in different settings, methods for analysis, and behavioural studies related to the topic. In addition, we welcome reviews of stewardship results, successful interventions and campaigns that can help to understand the current panorama. Ultimately, we seek to identify actions that can be mimicked and gaps that must be bridged.

Prof. Dr. Athanasios Tsakris
Prof. Dr. Albert Figueras
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antibiotics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • antibiotic use
  • antimicrobial stewardship
  • antimicrobial consumption
  • interventions
  • primary care

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Review

20 pages, 1249 KiB  
Review
Antimicrobial and Diagnostic Stewardship of the Novel β-Lactam/β-Lactamase Inhibitors for Infections Due to Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacterales Species and Pseudomonas aeruginosa
by Stefanos Ferous, Cleo Anastassopoulou, Vassiliki Pitiriga, Georgia Vrioni and Athanasios Tsakris
Antibiotics 2024, 13(3), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13030285 - 21 Mar 2024
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Abstract
Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections are a major public health threat due to the limited therapeutic options available. The introduction of the new β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitors (BL/BLIs) has, however, altered the treatment options for such pathogens. Thus, four new BL/BLI combinations—namely, ceftazidime/avibactam, meropenem/vaborbactam, imipenem/relebactam, and [...] Read more.
Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections are a major public health threat due to the limited therapeutic options available. The introduction of the new β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitors (BL/BLIs) has, however, altered the treatment options for such pathogens. Thus, four new BL/BLI combinations—namely, ceftazidime/avibactam, meropenem/vaborbactam, imipenem/relebactam, and ceftolozane/tazobactam—have been approved for infections attributed to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales species and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Nevertheless, although these antimicrobials are increasingly being used in place of other drugs such as polymyxins, their optimal clinical use is still challenging. Furthermore, there is evidence that resistance to these agents might be increasing, so urgent measures should be taken to ensure their continued effectiveness. Therefore, clinical laboratories play an important role in the judicious use of these new antimicrobial combinations by detecting and characterizing carbapenem resistance, resolving the presence and type of carbapenemase production, and accurately determining the minimum inhibitor concentrations (MICs) for BL/BLIs. These three targets must be met to ensure optimal BL/BLIs use and prevent unnecessary exposure that could lead to the development of resistance. At the same time, laboratories must ensure that results are interpreted in a timely manner to avoid delays in appropriate treatment that might be detrimental to patient safety. Thus, we herein present an overview of the indications and current applications of the new antimicrobial combinations and explore the diagnostic limitations regarding both carbapenem resistance detection and the interpretation of MIC results. Moreover, we suggest the use of alternative narrower-spectrum antibiotics based on susceptibility testing and present data regarding the effect of synergies between BL/BLIs and other antimicrobials. Finally, in order to address the absence of a standardized approach to using the novel BL/BLIs, we propose a diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm, which can be modified based on local epidemiological criteria. This framework could also be expanded to incorporate other new antimicrobials, such as cefiderocol, or currently unavailable BL/BLIs such as aztreonam/avibactam and cefepime/taniborbactam. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Reviews on Antibiotics Use and Antimicrobial Stewardship)
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