Evolution of Antimicrobial Resistance and Implications for Therapy in Respiratory Infections

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382). This special issue belongs to the section "Antibiotic Therapy in Infectious Diseases".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2024 | Viewed by 4771

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
1. Infectious Diseases and Infection Control Units, Hillel-Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel
2. The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion, Haifa, Israel
Interests: healthcare acquired infections; zoonoses; respiratory tract infections; travel medicine

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Respiratory infections in humans, caused by viruses, bacteria and fungi, are amongst the most common burdens on human health, in both the community and healthcare settings. Over the last decades, we have witnessed the spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among community microorganisms such as community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we well as the overwhelming surge of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Enterobacterales and non-fermenters bacteria acquired in healthcare facilities, especially among critically ill patients.

Viral pandemics such as Influenzae A (H1N1pdm09) and the recent SARS-CoV-2 have amplified outbreaks of MDR bacterial cross-infections within facilities across the globe. MDR and pan-drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE), MRSA, as well as resistant fungi such as Candida auris and Aspergillus spp, are now commonly seen and pose great danger to human lives in intensive care units.

This Special Issue of Antibiotics invites researchers to submit work on the evolution and development of AMR among respiratory pathogens acquired in the community or in healthcare facilities, the epidemiology of acquired and inherent AMR among respiratory pathogens, as well new diagnostic tools and therapy implications designed to confront it, including the use of existing and new antimicrobial drugs.

Dr. Regev Cohen
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • antimicrobial resistance
  • multidrug-resistant organisms
  • respiratory infections
  • healthcare-associated infections
  • community-acquired infections
  • pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • acinetobacter baumannii
  • carbapenem-resistant enterobacterales
  • MRSA
  • fungal infection
  • candida auris
  • apergillus spp

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

10 pages, 230 KiB  
Article
High-Loading-Dose Colistin with Nebulized Administration for Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Pneumonia in Critically Ill Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Study
by Wasan Katip, Ajaree Rayanakorn, Chuleegone Sornsuvit, Purida Wientong, Peninnah Oberdorfer, Puntapong Taruangsri and Teerapong Nampuan
Antibiotics 2024, 13(3), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13030287 - 21 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1000
Abstract
Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) infections pose a serious threat, with high morbidity and mortality rates. This retrospective cohort study, conducted at Nakornping Hospital between January 2015 and October 2022, aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a high loading dose (LD) of [...] Read more.
Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) infections pose a serious threat, with high morbidity and mortality rates. This retrospective cohort study, conducted at Nakornping Hospital between January 2015 and October 2022, aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a high loading dose (LD) of colistin combined with nebulized colistin in critically ill patients with CRAB pneumonia. Of the 261 patients included, 95 received LD colistin, and 166 received LD colistin with nebulized colistin. Multivariate Cox regression analysis, adjusted for baseline covariates using inverse probability weighting, showed no significant difference in 30-day survival between patients who received LD colistin and those who received LD colistin with nebulized colistin (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 1.17, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.80–1.72, p = 0.418). Likewise, there were no significant differences in clinical response (aHR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.66–1.31, p = 0.688), microbiological response (aHR: 1.21, 95% CI: 0.85–1.73, p = 0.279), or nephrotoxicity (aHR: 1.14, 95% CI: 0.79–1.64, p = 0.492) between the two treatment groups. No significant adverse events related to nebulized colistin were reported. These findings suggest that the addition of nebulized colistin may not offer additional benefits in terms of 30-day survival, clinical or microbiological response, or nephrotoxicity in these patients. Full article
11 pages, 1514 KiB  
Article
Antibiotic Resistance of Haemophilus influenzae in Nasopharyngeal Carriage of Children with Acute Otitis Media and in Middle Ear Fluid from Otorrhea
by Zein Assad, Robert Cohen, Emmanuelle Varon, Corinne Levy, Stéphane Bechet, François Corrard, Andreas Werner, Naïm Ouldali, Stéphane Bonacorsi and Alexis Rybak
Antibiotics 2023, 12(11), 1605; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12111605 - 8 Nov 2023
Viewed by 3402
Abstract
Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) is one of the leading bacteria implicated in childhood acute otitis media (AOM). Recent concerns have been raised about the emergence of Hi-resistant strains. We aimed to analyze the evolution of β-lactam resistance to Hi among strains isolated from nasopharyngeal [...] Read more.
Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) is one of the leading bacteria implicated in childhood acute otitis media (AOM). Recent concerns have been raised about the emergence of Hi-resistant strains. We aimed to analyze the evolution of β-lactam resistance to Hi among strains isolated from nasopharyngeal carriage in children with AOM and in mild ear fluid (MEF) after the spontaneous perforation of the tympanic membrane (SPTM) in France. In this national ambulatory-based cohort study over 16 years, we analyzed the rate of Hi nasopharyngeal carriage and the proportion of β-lactam-resistant Hi strains over time using a segmented linear regression model. Among the 13,865 children (median [IQR] age, 12.7 [9.3–17.3] months; 7400 [53.4%] male) with AOM included from November 2006 to July 2022, Hi was isolated in 7311 (52.7%) children by nasopharyngeal sampling. The proportion of β-lactamase-producing and β-lactamase-negative, ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) Hi strains in nasopharyngeal carriage remained stable during the study period. Among the 783 children (median [IQR] age, 20 [12.3–37.8] months; 409 [52.2%] male) with SPTM included from October 2015 to July 2022, Hi was isolated in 177 (22.6%) cases by MEF sampling. The proportions of β-lactamase-producing and BLNAR Hi strains did not significantly differ between nasopharyngeal (17.6% and 8.8%, respectively) and MEF (12.6% and 7.4%) samples. Accordingly, amoxicillin remains a valid recommendation as the first-line drug for AOM in France. Full article
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