Plant Anthracnose: Etiology and Current Management Options

A special issue of Agronomy (ISSN 2073-4395). This special issue belongs to the section "Pest and Disease Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 February 2024) | Viewed by 10918

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Plant Pathology, Zhejiang Agriculture & Forest University, Lin’an 311300, China
Interests: plant etiology; plant anthracnose; pathogenesis; control technologies; fungicide resistance

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Plant anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum spp. is a fungal disease devastating farmers and causing huge economic losses around the world. The occurrence and effects of anthracnose disease are very common in tropical and subtropical areas where the climatic conditions are warm and humid, but recent research has shown some high-profile species of Colletotrichum surviving in the temperate regions, and thus, affecting the temperate crops. The increasing studies of occurrence, pathogenesis, and control technologies of plant anthracnose and ethnographic data can provide crucial information on this issue and enhance our understanding of the etiology, diversity and management of plant anthracnose on a global scale. Recently, the mechanisms of interactions in plant anthracnose and applying genetic engineering strategies for the control of anthracnose are the hot and cutting-edge research topics.

For this Special Issue of Agronomy, we seek integrative studies focusing on the etiology and control strategies of plant anthracnose, as well as reviews that offer original perspectives on pathogenic mechanisms and the control of anthracnose in major crops.

Prof. Dr. Chuanqing Zhang
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • plant anthracnose
  • Colletotrichum spp.
  • species diversity
  • pathogenesis
  • adaptation
  • control technologies

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 1961 KiB  
Article
Diversity and Characterization of Resistance to Pyraclostrobin in Colletotrichum spp. from Strawberry
by Shuodan Hu, Shuhan Zhang, Wenfei Xiao, Yahui Liu, Hong Yu and Chuanqing Zhang
Agronomy 2023, 13(11), 2824; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13112824 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 839
Abstract
Strawberry crown rot poses a significant menace to strawberry production during the seedling stage, and the main pathogen is Colletotrichum spp. Pyraclostrobin is one of the main fungicides that have been registered to control anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum spp. The diversity of pathogens [...] Read more.
Strawberry crown rot poses a significant menace to strawberry production during the seedling stage, and the main pathogen is Colletotrichum spp. Pyraclostrobin is one of the main fungicides that have been registered to control anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum spp. The diversity of pathogens and the risk of fungicide resistance may change from year to year. In order to explore the diversity of pathogens causing crown rot and evaluate the resistance risk of pathogens to pyraclostrobin in different years, crown rot samples were collected in Jiande, Zhejiang Province in 2019 and 2021, and the pathogens were identified. Based on the morphological identification and phylogenetic analysis based on ACT, CAL, CHS, GAPDH, and ITS, all 55 strains were identified as C. gloeosporioides species complexes, including 23 C. siamense isolates and 2 C. fructicola isolates in 2019, and all isolates were identified as C. siamense in 2021. C. siamense was the dominant pathogen of strawberry crown rot in 2019 and 2021. The resistance frequencies of the isolates collected in 2019 and 2021 to pyraclostrobin were 69.57% and 100%, respectively. In general, compared to that in 2019, the resistance frequencies of the pathogen to pyraclostrobin increased in 2021. In terms of fitness, there was no significant difference between resistant strains and sensitive strains in the mycelium growth rate, sporulation and spore germination rate. In addition, the resistant mutants exhibited positive cross-resistance to kresoxim-methyl and azoxystrobin. A sequential analysis of cytochrome b gene showed that C. siamense resistance to pyraclostrobin is linked to the G143A point mutation. Our study indicated that the risk of resistance a fungicide gradually increases with the increase in use years, and in order to reduce the emergence and spread of resistant populations, we should choose fungicides of different mechanisms of action for rotation to reduce the risk of resistance development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Anthracnose: Etiology and Current Management Options)
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14 pages, 3273 KiB  
Article
A CRISPR/Cas9-Based Study of CgloRPCYG, a Gene That Regulates Pathogenicity, Conidial Yield, and Germination in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides
by He Zhang, Yu-Qi Xia, Yang Xia, Meng-Ting Zhang, Zi Ye, Rui-Qing Sun, Xiao-Mei Liu and Jin-Ji Pu
Agronomy 2023, 13(7), 1681; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13071681 - 22 Jun 2023
Viewed by 897
Abstract
The filamentous fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is the causative agent of one of the most serious diseases that damage plant fruit. In this study, we discovered and experimentally characterized a new gene in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides named CgloRPCYG. The CRISPR/Cas9 knockout mutant and complementary strain [...] Read more.
The filamentous fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is the causative agent of one of the most serious diseases that damage plant fruit. In this study, we discovered and experimentally characterized a new gene in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides named CgloRPCYG. The CRISPR/Cas9 knockout mutant and complementary strain of CgloRPCYG were then obtained by polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated protoplast transformation to determine the related phenotypes. Compared with the wild-type strain and complementary mutant, the pathogenicity of the CRISPR/Cas9 knockout mutant was significantly decreased, the conidial yield was significantly reduced, and conidial germination was significantly delayed. These data indicate that CgloRPCYG contributes to pathogenicity, conidial yield, and germination in C. gloeosporioides. The successful application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in C. gloeosporioides also confirms its utility in filamentous fungi for fundamental research and practical application. Furthermore, CgloRPCYG is a potential target gene for use in the development of plant protection technologies, such as spray-induced gene silencing, with the aim of controlling plant anthracnose disease caused by C. gloeosporioides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Anthracnose: Etiology and Current Management Options)
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12 pages, 3439 KiB  
Article
The CfAtg5 Regulates the Autophagy and Pathogenicity of Colletotrichum fructicola on Camellia oleifera
by Yan Chen, Juan Jin, Yiting Li, Han Jiao, Lan Luo, Qingtian Chen, He Li and Shengpei Zhang
Agronomy 2023, 13(5), 1237; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13051237 - 27 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1226
Abstract
Camellia oleifera is the native economic edible oil tree in China and anthracnose occurs commonly in its producing areas. We previously found that ubiquitin-like CfAtg8-related autophagy is essential for the pathogenicity of Colletotrichum fructicola, the major pathogen of anthracnose on C. oleifera [...] Read more.
Camellia oleifera is the native economic edible oil tree in China and anthracnose occurs commonly in its producing areas. We previously found that ubiquitin-like CfAtg8-related autophagy is essential for the pathogenicity of Colletotrichum fructicola, the major pathogen of anthracnose on C. oleifera. The aim of this study is to further elucidate the roles of autophagy in the pathogenesis of C. fructicola. Based on BLAST_P analysis and reverse genetics, we identified the central hub of another ubiquitin-like system, CfAtg5, and characterized its functions in C. fructicola. As suspected, we found that CfAtg5 is required for autophagy, both in MM-N and H2O2 induction conditions. Targeted gene deletion of CfATG5 revealed that CfAtg5 is involved in growth and conidiation. We further found that the ∆Cfatg5 mutant is defective in appressorium formation and in responses to cell wall integrity and oxidative stresses. The combined effects, together with the abolished autophagy, result in the pathogenicity defects of the ∆Cfatg5 mutant. Our study further illustrates the importance of normal autophagy in the physiology and pathogenicity of C. fructicola, and offers a potential target in the development of new anthracnose control strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Anthracnose: Etiology and Current Management Options)
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15 pages, 2996 KiB  
Article
Genetic Diversity of Colletotrichum spp. Causing Grape Anthracnose in Zhejiang, China
by Boyang Ye, Jingqun Zhang, Xiangyang Chen, Wenfei Xiao, Jianyan Wu, Hong Yu and Chuanqing Zhang
Agronomy 2023, 13(4), 952; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13040952 - 23 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1817
Abstract
Anthracnose is a fungal disease that seriously threatens grape production and quality. Multiple Colletotrichum species are detected in anthracnose grapes in vineyards. In this study, diseased grapes were collected in four counties in Zhejiang, and 43 Colletotrichum isolates were obtained. Multi-genes (ITS, TUB2 [...] Read more.
Anthracnose is a fungal disease that seriously threatens grape production and quality. Multiple Colletotrichum species are detected in anthracnose grapes in vineyards. In this study, diseased grapes were collected in four counties in Zhejiang, and 43 Colletotrichum isolates were obtained. Multi-genes (ITS, TUB2, ACT, CHS-I, and GAPDH) and morphological characteristic analyses showed that C. fructicola (40 isolates, 93%), C. aenigma (two isolates, 4.7%), and C. pseudoacutatum (one isolate, 2.3%) were the cause of grape anthracnose in Zhejiang. Among the three Colletotrichum species, C. fructicola was the prevalent and dominant species in all sampled counties; C. pseudoacutatum was first identified as the pathogen responsible for grape anthracnose. There were significant differences in the sporulation among the three Colletotrichum species, as well as in the spore germination. Pathogenicity testing showed that all species can infect grapes, resulting in anthracnose. On the other hand, the virulence of species was varied and may be associated with their spore germination. This is the first study to characterize the Colletotrichum species causing grape anthracnose in Zhejiang Province and reveal that C. fructicola is the dominant species. The determination of Colletotrichum species associated with grape anthracnose may contribute to the study of epidemiology and development of an efficient strategy for controlling anthracnose in the vineyards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Anthracnose: Etiology and Current Management Options)
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12 pages, 3482 KiB  
Article
Involvement of CYP51A and CYP51B in Growth, Reproduction, Pathogenicity, and Sensitivity to Fungicides in Colletotrichum siamense
by Shuodan Hu, Jianyan Wu, Xiaoqi Yang, Wenfei Xiao, Hong Yu and Chuanqing Zhang
Agronomy 2023, 13(1), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13010239 - 13 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1535
Abstract
Strawberry crown rot is a serious fungal disease that poses a great threat to strawberry production in the growth cycle. The dominant pathogens of strawberry crown rot pathogens were different in different periods. The main pathogen of strawberry crown rot at the seedling [...] Read more.
Strawberry crown rot is a serious fungal disease that poses a great threat to strawberry production in the growth cycle. The dominant pathogens of strawberry crown rot pathogens were different in different periods. The main pathogen of strawberry crown rot at the seedling stage is unclear. In this study, 74 Colletotrichum spp. were isolated from 100 strawberry plants at the seedling stage. Based on the morphological observations and phylogenetic analysis of multiple genes (ACT, CAL, CHS, GAPDH, and ITS), all 74 tested isolates were identified as C. gloeosporioides species complex, including 69 isolates of C. siamense and 5 isolates of C. fructicola. Colletotrichum siamense is the main pathogen of strawberry crown rot at the seedling stage in Zhejiang, China. The sterol demethylation inhibitors (DMIs) were used to control strawberry crown rot, and their target was the CYP51 gene. The role of the homologous CYP51 gene in growth, reproduction, pathogenicity, and sensitivity to DMI fungicides in C. siamense has not been determined. Our study found that the pathogenicity of CsCYP51A deletion mutants to strawberry leaves and stems was weakened. The hyphae growth rate of CsCYP51B deletion mutants was significantly slower than that of the wild type, but the sporulation and appressorium production rates increased. CsCYP51B deletion mutants had significantly increased pathogenicity to the stem. Deletion of CsCYP51A led to increased sensitivity to prothioconazole, ipconazole, hexaconazole, triadimefon, prochloraz, tebuconazole, metconazole, propiconazole, and difenoconazole. CsCYP51B deletion mutants were more insensitive. Our results indicate that the effect of the homologous CsCYP51 gene on hyphae growth, pathogenicity, and sensitivity to DMI fungicides differs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Anthracnose: Etiology and Current Management Options)
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15 pages, 1947 KiB  
Article
Identification, Pathogenicity, and Sensitivity to Fungicide of Colletotrichum Species That Causes Walnut Anthracnose in Beijing
by Fuxin Li, Jiawen Chen, Qian Chen, Ziyi Liu, Junyuan Sun, Yitong Yan, Hanxing Zhang and Yang Bi
Agronomy 2023, 13(1), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13010214 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2202
Abstract
Walnuts (Juglans regia L.) are a major food crop in Beijing. Recently, walnut anthracnose has become a serious problem in walnut plantations of Beijing, and the diversity of pathogens that cause this disease is poorly understood, making targeted treatment difficult. This study [...] Read more.
Walnuts (Juglans regia L.) are a major food crop in Beijing. Recently, walnut anthracnose has become a serious problem in walnut plantations of Beijing, and the diversity of pathogens that cause this disease is poorly understood, making targeted treatment difficult. This study investigated incidences of walnut anthracnose in seven districts of Beijing (Changping, Fangshan, Haidian, Huairou, Mentougou, Miyun and Pinggu). A total of 377 isolates of Colletotrichum spp. were obtained from walnut anthracnose infected leaves and fruits. Morphological observation and multigene phylogenetic analysis of the genes ACT, CAL, CHS-1, GAPDH, ITS and TUB2 revealed that the isolates consisted of six species, C. aenigma, C. fructicola, C. gloeosporioides, C. siamense, C. liaoningense and C. sojae. Among these, C. gloeosporioides was the dominant species, and, for the first time, C. liaoningense and C. sojae were found to cause anthracnose in walnuts. Sensitivity tests showed that prochloraz and SYP-14288 had the strongest inhibitory effect on mycelial growth. These findings have clarified the species that cause walnut anthracnose in these seven districts of Beijing, which provides a scientific basis for diagnosis and control of walnut anthracnose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Anthracnose: Etiology and Current Management Options)
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13 pages, 2070 KiB  
Article
Diversity and Resistance to Thiophanate-Methyl of Colletotrichum spp. in Strawberry Nursery and the Development of Rapid Detection Using LAMP Method
by Jianyan Wu, Shuodan Hu, Boyang Ye, Xiaoran Hu, Wenfei Xiao, Hong Yu and Chuanqing Zhang
Agronomy 2022, 12(11), 2815; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12112815 - 11 Nov 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1741
Abstract
Anthracnose is a devastating fungal disease in strawberry nurseries. Multiple Colletotrichum species are responsible for strawberry anthracnose. In this study, 105 Colletotrichum isolates were obtained from strawberry seedlings with anthracnose symptoms in fifteen nurseries located in Zhejiang province, China, and were classified based [...] Read more.
Anthracnose is a devastating fungal disease in strawberry nurseries. Multiple Colletotrichum species are responsible for strawberry anthracnose. In this study, 105 Colletotrichum isolates were obtained from strawberry seedlings with anthracnose symptoms in fifteen nurseries located in Zhejiang province, China, and were classified based on multilocus sequence and morphological characteristic analyses. Analysis of ITS, ACT, CAL, CHS-1, and GAPDH revealed that four species within C. gloeosporioides species complex, including C. siamense (56 isolates, 53.3%), C. fructicola (37 isolates, 35.2%), C. gloeosporioides (7 isolates, 6.7%), and C. aenigma (5 isolates, 4.8%), were detected in diseased seedlings. Thiophanate-methyl is one of the benzimidazole fungicides, and has long been used to control strawberry anthracnose in China. Here, thiophanate-methyl resistance of Colletotrichum isolates was determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. Our results indicated that the resistance frequency was up to 96.2%, containing 94.3% of highly resistant isolates. Only four sensitive isolates (two C. fructicola, one C. gloeosporioides, and one C. siamense isolates) and two moderately resistant isolates (one C. aenigma isolate and one C. siamense isolate) were detected. Our data indicated that the high resistance was mainly caused by the E198A mutation in the β-tubulin protein. In addition, F200Y (TTC→TAC) in the β-tubulin protein were detected in two moderately resistant isolates. Based on the point mutation at codon 198 (GAG→GCG) in the β-tubulin gene of Colletotrichum isolates, we developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay to rapidly detect the E198A mutants. Collectively, our study indicated that four species within the C. gloeosporioides species complex were associated with anthracnose symptoms in strawberry nurseries in Zhejiang province, and serious resistance was widespread in each Colletotrichum species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Anthracnose: Etiology and Current Management Options)
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