Feeding Strategies and Nutritional Quality of Animal Products

A special issue of Agriculture (ISSN 2077-0472). This special issue belongs to the section "Farm Animal Production".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 April 2023) | Viewed by 16694

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Feed and Food Quality Department, National Research and Development Institute for Biology and Animal Nutrition, Calea Bucuresti, No. 1, 077015 Balotesti, Romania
Interests: oxidative stability of foods; food design; natural antioxidants and mechanisms of action; lipid peroxidation; food shelf life; in vivo and in vitro methods for antioxidant activity and bioavailability assessment; extraction methods; isolation of plant active compounds; waste valorization
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National Research and Development Institute for Animal Biology and Nutrition Balotești, 077015 Ilfov, Romania
Interests: monogastric animals; phytoadditives; by-products; gut microbiota; heat stress; hydrophilic antioxidants; oxidative stress, meat quality
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The production of food enriched with bioactive compounds, through natural ways, represents a concept desired by nutritionists, doctors and consumers. Animal products with high nutritional quality can be designed using innovative feeding strategies. Animals are known to be able to ‘‘bio-convert’’ health-promoting components from their diet into their eggs, milk or meat, and these products enriched with various nutrients align with the increasing concern for human health and health-conscious consumers. The nutritional quality of animal products depends on genetic, physiological and environmental conditions but also on diets. Lately, various feed additives have been shown to increase the nutritional quality of animal-origin food, which in turn promotes a healthy human diet. Some of them have proven effects on productive parameters or on sensory attributes of animal products or modify the nutrient composition of products. The quality of animal products is closely related to the quality of animal feeds. Nutritional evaluations of animal products and feeds are necessary for establishing the bioconversion yield of nutrients from feeds to animal-origin food.

This Special Issue focuses on, but is not limited to, the development of new feeding formulas which lead to improved animal production or enhanced nutritional profiles of conventional or ecological animal products. Feed additives that have beneficial effects on the production and quality of animal products as well as natural feeding solutions that are environmentally friendly are also welcome.  The proposed Special Issue is addressed to specialists from the domains of animal nutrition, food quality, chemistry and biology.

Dr. Arabela Elena Untea
Dr. Mihaela Saracila
Dr. Petru Alexandru Vlaicu
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • feeds
  • bioactive compounds
  • product quality
  • meat, eggs, milk
  • nutritional evaluation methods
  • animal production
  • functional food
  • ecological animal products

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 196 KiB  
Editorial
Feeding Strategies and Nutritional Quality of Animal Products
by Arabela Elena Untea, Mihaela Saracila and Petru Alexandru Vlaicu
Agriculture 2023, 13(9), 1788; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13091788 - 09 Sep 2023
Viewed by 710
Abstract
Feeding strategies play a crucial role in determining the nutritional quality of animal products [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feeding Strategies and Nutritional Quality of Animal Products)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

12 pages, 322 KiB  
Article
Extra Virgin Olive Oil: Does It Modify Milk Composition of Hair Sheep?
by Darwin N. Arcos-Álvarez, Edgar Aguilar-Urquizo, Julio Ramon-Ugalde, Emanuel Hernández-Núñez, Germán Giácoman-Vallejos, Avel Adolfo González-Sánchez, Carlos Juan Alvarado-Lopez, Manuel Gonzalez-Ronquillo, Alfonso J. Chay-Canul, Einar Vargas-Bello-Pérez and Angel T. Piñeiro-Vázquez
Agriculture 2023, 13(8), 1610; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13081610 - 15 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 985
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of olive oil addition on the production, chemical composition, and fatty acid profile of sheep’s milk. Twenty-four lactating ewes with a live weight of 34.6 ± 4.61 kg were used. The animals were [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of olive oil addition on the production, chemical composition, and fatty acid profile of sheep’s milk. Twenty-four lactating ewes with a live weight of 34.6 ± 4.61 kg were used. The animals were randomly distributed into four treatments (n = 6) with dietary addition of 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% (dry matter basis) olive oil for 45 days. Milk samples were taken every 7 days for fatty acid (FA) and chemical analyses. A decrease (p < 0.05) in dry matter and crude protein intake was observed with 4% oil inclusion. Milk production and milk components were similar between treatments. The kilograms of meat from weaned lambs linearly increased as the oil inclusion increased. Milk C4:0 to C17:0 decreased with 2% olive oil. The monounsaturated and polyunsaturated FA content in the milk increased with the oil inclusion. There was an increase in the milk’s linoleic acid, linolenic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid content with 2% olive oil. Overall, the addition of 2% extra virgin olive oil is recommended to improve milk’s FA profile without negative effects on animal performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feeding Strategies and Nutritional Quality of Animal Products)
19 pages, 4754 KiB  
Article
Effects and Underlying Mechanisms of Zearalenone Mycotoxin at Concentrations Close to the EC Recommendation on the Colon of Piglets after Weaning
by Valeria Cristina Bulgaru, Ana Maria Pertea, Iulian Alexandru Grosu, Andrei Cristian Anghel, Gina Cecilia Pistol, Daniela Eliza Marin, Anca Dinischiotu and Ionelia Taranu
Agriculture 2023, 13(7), 1372; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13071372 - 10 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1038
Abstract
Zearalenone (ZEN) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium fungi that contaminates food and feed, affecting both human and animal health. Among farm animals, the pig is a great consumer of grains and has a native sensitivity to mycotoxins. As the main route of [...] Read more.
Zearalenone (ZEN) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium fungi that contaminates food and feed, affecting both human and animal health. Among farm animals, the pig is a great consumer of grains and has a native sensitivity to mycotoxins. As the main route of contamination is oral, the intestine is the first defense barrier that plays an important role in the immune response being able to secrete effector molecules (cytokines). At the European level, there are no regulations regarding the amount of ZEN that can be present in the feed of piglets, only recommendations for piglets 0.100 mg ZEN/kg feed (100 ppb). In this study, the effects of ZEN in concentrations below (75 ppb) and above (290 ppb) EU recommendation on the level of some key markers involved in the oxidative and inflammatory response, as well as the mechanisms and signaling pathways through which ZEN could produce its toxicity, were monitored in the colon of weaned piglets. The exposure of the piglets to the lower concentration of ZEN (75 ppb) did not lead to changes in stress and inflammation markers or in the signaling pathways associated with these processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feeding Strategies and Nutritional Quality of Animal Products)
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14 pages, 1553 KiB  
Article
The Strategic Use of an Immunomodulatory Feed Additive in Supplements for Grazing Young Nellore Bulls Transported after Weaning: Performance, Physiological, and Stress Parameters
by Luis Henrique Curcino Batista, Ivanna Morais Oliveira, Laura Franco Prados, Laylles Costa Araújo, Igor Machado Ferreira, Mateus José Inácio de Abreu, Saulo Teixeira Rodrigues de Almeida, César Aparecido de Araújo Borges, Gustavo Rezende Siqueira and Flávio Dutra de Resende
Agriculture 2023, 13(5), 1027; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13051027 - 08 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1351
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate four different feeding strategies using an immunomodulatory feed additive for newly weaned Nellore cattle, before and after road transport, on their physiological parameters and performances during the growing phase of pastures. In total, eighty-four young [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to evaluate four different feeding strategies using an immunomodulatory feed additive for newly weaned Nellore cattle, before and after road transport, on their physiological parameters and performances during the growing phase of pastures. In total, eighty-four young Nellore bulls (initial BW = 174 ± 11 kg; 7 ± 1 months of age) were blocked by their initial body weights 42 days before road transport (d −42) and randomly assigned to one of the four supplementation strategies. The treatments were: (1) Control (CON): no immunomodulatory feed additive (NUTRA) supplementation; (2) NUTRA pre: the inclusion of NUTRA only in the pre-transport period (d −42 to d 0); (3) NUTRA post: the inclusion of NUTRA for 42 days, only in the post-transport period (d 0 to d 42); and (4) NUTRA growth: the inclusion of NUTRA during the whole experimental period (d −42 to d 210). On d 0, the calves were transported on dirty roads in a commercial livestock trailer for 200 km (8 h). There was no effect of the treatments on the animal performance or the physiological parameters in their plasma. However, there were effects on the day of the blood sampling for all the parameters. The highest concentration of cortisol was observed on d 3 post-transport (129 ng/mL) and this decreased over time (22.4 ng/mL; d 210). On the other hand, their glucose peaked at unloading, with lower concentrations on d 7 and d 14. Their total protein concentrations increased from d 0 to d 7. The immunomodulatory feed additive supplementation at 10 g/100 kg BW/day did not modulate the physiological responses in their plasma and did not influence the performance of the Nellore bulls during the growing phase of their pastures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feeding Strategies and Nutritional Quality of Animal Products)
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25 pages, 4419 KiB  
Article
Bioactive Feed Additive for the Prevention of Clostridial Disease in High-Yielding Dairy Cattle
by Roman V. Nekrasov, Michail I. Lozovanu, Georgy Y. Laptev, Larisa A. Ilina, Elena A. Yildirim, Daria G. Tyurina, Veronika Ch. Melikidi, Elena P. Gorfunkel, Valentina A. Filippova, Ivan G. Malahov, Magomed G. Chabaev, Nadezhda V. Bogolyubova, Daria A. Nikanova, Ekaterina S. Ponomareva and Konstantin S. Ostrenko
Agriculture 2023, 13(4), 786; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13040786 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1895
Abstract
The purpose of this research is to develop and test a new approach to prevent clostridial disease in cattle, based on the use of a new compound biologically active feed additive (BFA). Some properties of the separate components of BFA are characterized. The [...] Read more.
The purpose of this research is to develop and test a new approach to prevent clostridial disease in cattle, based on the use of a new compound biologically active feed additive (BFA). Some properties of the separate components of BFA are characterized. The research showed that a strain of the bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens159 has an expressed antagonism to toxin-producing strains of C. perfringens. When using the test strains of C. perfringens from the ATCC collection (13,124 as type A, 10,543 as type C, 12,916 as type F), the anticlostridial activity of the tested strains varied, with size range of 14.0 ± 0.95–15.0 ± 1.28 mm of delayed growth zones. The bactericidal properties of lauric acid and the sorption properties of diatomaceous earth, included in BFA, were confirmed. The experiment was conducted on Holstein cows at the beginning of lactation (control, C (n = 15) vs. experimental E48 (n = 15), E80 (n = 15) and E112 (n = 15), 48, 80 and 112 g/head/day BFA, respectively. All cows were vaccinated with “Coglavax” (vaccine against bovine and sheep clostridial disease, Ceva-Phylaxia VeterinaryBiologicals, Hungary), reinjected two weeks before the experiment. At the end of the experiment (3.5 months after the vaccination and 3 months after the start of BFA feeding according to the scheme of the experiment), the immune response in the control and Group E48 to C. perfringens β-toxin remained at the initial level, while the response in Group E80 and Group E112 became higher under the influence of BFA feeding. Cows fed BFA saw a guaranteed improvement in non-specific resistance. The increase in serum lysozyme concentration in cows of Groups E was 1.01–2.91 mkg/mL vs. control (p < 0.001). TP, GLB, ALB/GLB vs. Groups C and E48 (p < 0.001); this stabilized and normalized while feeding Group E80 and E112 animals with BFA. They also had improved nitrogen, fat, mineral metabolism, as indicated by significant increase in ALB (p < 0.05), UREA (p < 0.01), CHOL (p < 0.01), and CHL (p < 0.01) vs. Groups C and E48. Consumption of BFA increased the amount of anti-oxidants in the blood (highest TAWSA values in Group E80 14.45 mg/g, p = 0.002). Serum TBA–AP/ CP ratio was directly related to TBA–AP (r = 0.87, p < 0.001), and decreased in Group E80. The milk productivity increased under the action of BFA; the average daily milk yield of the cows from the experimental groups for the period of the experiment (d0–d98) was 1.24–1.66 kg higher than that of the control. At the same time, Group E112 cows had a significant increase in milk yield (by 5.1%, p = 0.03 vs. Control). Thus, feeding BFA to dairy cows was found to improve resistance, prevent toxicoses and increase milk production of cattle, which can serve as an additional strategy for bioprotection of cattle against infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feeding Strategies and Nutritional Quality of Animal Products)
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9 pages, 305 KiB  
Communication
Bioactive Compounds of Barbatimão (Stryphnodendron sp.) as Dietary Additive in Lamb Diets
by Cristiane R. Barbosa, Jessica C. Pantoja, Tatiane Fernandes, Renata A. Chagas, Carla G. Souza, Aylpy R. D. Santos, Marcio R. Souza and Fernando M. Vargas Junior
Agriculture 2023, 13(3), 664; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13030664 - 13 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1018
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate barbatimão bark extracts as a feed additive and substitute for lasalocid sodium (LAS) for feedlot lambs. Lambs were distributed into three treatments: LAS (0.018 g of lasalocid sodium), DBB (1.500 g of dried and milled barbatimão bark), and [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate barbatimão bark extracts as a feed additive and substitute for lasalocid sodium (LAS) for feedlot lambs. Lambs were distributed into three treatments: LAS (0.018 g of lasalocid sodium), DBB (1.500 g of dried and milled barbatimão bark), and BHE (0.300 g of barbatimão hydroalcoholic extract). There was no effect (p = 0.32) of the inclusion of DBB and BHE extracts on the average daily gain. Inclusion of BHE in lamb diets reduced (p < 0.05) the fatness score compared to LAS, which was similar to DBB. The BHE decreased the yellowness intensity and hue angle (p < 0.05) of meat compared to the LAS. Animals that consumed DBB and BHE had a reduced (p = 0.04) total cholesterol level. Thus, the use of barbatimão bark extracts can replace lasalocid sodium in the diet of feedlot lambs, with no detrimental effects on performance or metabolic parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feeding Strategies and Nutritional Quality of Animal Products)
12 pages, 274 KiB  
Article
Meat Quality of Male Layer-Type Chickens Slaughtered at Different Ages
by Teodora Popova, Evgeni Petkov, Maya Ignatova, Desislava Vlahova-Vangelova, Desislav Balev, Stefan Dragoev, Nikolay Kolev and Krasimir Dimov
Agriculture 2023, 13(3), 624; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13030624 - 05 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1708
Abstract
An experiment with male layer-type chickens of the Lohmann Brown Classic breed was carried out at the Institute of Animal Science-Kostinbrod, Bulgaria, aiming to investigate the effect of age at slaughter on the meat quality. The birds were reared in a controlled microclimate, [...] Read more.
An experiment with male layer-type chickens of the Lohmann Brown Classic breed was carried out at the Institute of Animal Science-Kostinbrod, Bulgaria, aiming to investigate the effect of age at slaughter on the meat quality. The birds were reared in a controlled microclimate, with an initial stocking density of 22 birds/m2. At five weeks of age, fragmentation of the stocking density was applied, decreasing the number to seven birds/m2. Chickens were slaughtered at five and nine weeks of age at an average live weight of 329 g and 1096 g, respectively. After slaughter, 10 chickens from each age group were subjected to analysis to determine the quality of breast and thigh meat. The results of the study showed that the age affected the meat quality parameters of the male layer-type chickens and its effect differed between the breast and thigh. The chickens slaughtered at nine weeks of age displayed a lower pH but darker meat color (p < 0.001) than those slaughtered at five weeks. Furthermore, the older birds showed a significant decrease in the intramuscular fat content in thigh meat (p < 0.01) and a tendency for diminishing in breast meat. This decrease corresponded to the lower percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in the meat of the nine-week-old chickens (p < 0.01). On the other hand, the meat of the older chickens displayed a higher content (p < 0.01) of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), especially n-6, leading to a considerably higher n-6/n-3 ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feeding Strategies and Nutritional Quality of Animal Products)
17 pages, 665 KiB  
Article
Effects of a Blend of Live Yeast and Organic Minerals as an Alternative to Monensin on Intake, Digestibility, Performance and Beef Quality of Nellore Bulls Finished on Pasture with High Concentrate Supplementation
by Maxwelder Santos Soares, Luis Henrique Curcino Batista, Ivanna Moraes Oliveira, Hugo Aparecido Silveira Issa, Iorrano Andrade Cidrini, Igor Machado Ferreira, Luiz Fernando Costa e Silva, Anne Koontz, Vaughn Holder, Gustavo Rezende Siqueira and Flávio Dutra de Resende
Agriculture 2023, 13(3), 522; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13030522 - 22 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1827
Abstract
Effects of a blend of live yeast and organic minerals as an alternative to monensin and inorganic trace minerals for beef cattle finished on pasture with high concentrate supplementation, on growth performance, intake, digestibility, liver trace mineral and carcass characteristics were evaluated. Forty-eight [...] Read more.
Effects of a blend of live yeast and organic minerals as an alternative to monensin and inorganic trace minerals for beef cattle finished on pasture with high concentrate supplementation, on growth performance, intake, digestibility, liver trace mineral and carcass characteristics were evaluated. Forty-eight Nellore bulls were blocked by initial body weight and randomly assigned to one of the two experimental diets. The animals were raised in an experimental pasture divided into 12 paddocks equipped with an electronic system for monitoring individual feeding behavior and feed intake. Treatments were: (1) Monensin (MON), 30 mg/kg supplement dry matter of sodium monensin and trace minerals supplementation from inorganic sources; (2) AdvantageTM (ADV), 1.6 g/kg supplement DM of a blend of live yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains) and organic trace minerals. The use of ADV instead of MON led to greater supplement intake and greater intake of dietary components. Bulls fed ADV also had higher digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and non-fiber carbohydrates. Bulls fed MON had a greater number of visits to the feeder, however with a shorter time spent feeding per visit. The use of ADV resulted in higher average daily weight gain, and feed efficiency was similar between treatments. In the carcass, ADV tended toward greater Longissimus muscle area. Liver Zn concentration tended to be lower in the ADV treatment. The use of ADV generated higher meat lightness and redness. In summary, the blend of live yeast and organic minerals can be an alternative to monensin and inorganic sources of trace minerals for beef cattle finished on pasture with high concentrate supplementation, without negative effects on supplement feed efficiency and with benefits to animal growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feeding Strategies and Nutritional Quality of Animal Products)
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15 pages, 324 KiB  
Article
Combined Effects of Parsnip Fermented Juice and Hawthorn Extract Regarding Pork Mince Stability: Physico-Chemical and Microbiological Aspects
by Corina Nicoleta Predescu, Camelia Papuc, Georgeta Stefan, Bogdan Tașbac, Georgeta Temocico, Mihaela Sărăcilă and Arabela Elena Untea
Agriculture 2023, 13(2), 432; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13020432 - 12 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1372
Abstract
Parsnip fermented juice (PFJ) and hawthorn extract (HE) were identified as natural nitrite and antioxidant sources for pork mince. This study aimed to determine the effects of varying levels of HE added to a constant concentration of PFJ on lipids stability, heme pigment [...] Read more.
Parsnip fermented juice (PFJ) and hawthorn extract (HE) were identified as natural nitrite and antioxidant sources for pork mince. This study aimed to determine the effects of varying levels of HE added to a constant concentration of PFJ on lipids stability, heme pigment conversion degree, residual nitrite content, and spoilage bacteria growth, during refrigeration, compared with the combined effect of synthetic nitrite and sodium ascorbate (SA). Pork mince was formulated in six different ways with sterile distilled water (NC), 100 ppm synthetic nitrite and 50 ppm SA (PC), PFJ in the concentration of 100 ppm NO2 (T1), constant level of PFJ (100 ppm NO2), and increased level of HE, 50, 25 and 10 ppm GAE (T2, T3 and T4). During the experiment, pH increased for all the treatments, but the addition of PFJ alone or in combination with HE, it was maintained below the NC pH value. The lowest TBARS values and the highest PUFA concentrations were found in the T3, T4, and PC treatments. Of all the samples, the lowest residual nitrite values were found for T2. The highest NO-heme values were found for T2 and PC. After 9 days of storage, TVC results were higher than 5.69 logs CFU/g for all treatments. Overall, the obtained results showed that the combination of HE and PFJ could be a promising natural preservative for minced meat that could replace synthetic preservatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feeding Strategies and Nutritional Quality of Animal Products)
21 pages, 3636 KiB  
Article
Effects of Microencapsulated Probiotics on Performance, Organ Development, Diarrhoea Incidences, Blood Parameters, Intestinal Histomorphology and Microflora in Weaning Piglets
by Nicoleta Aurelia Lefter, Mihaela Hăbeanu, Anca Gheorghe, Mihaela Dumitru, Claudiu Gal and Petru Alexandru Vlaicu
Agriculture 2023, 13(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13010039 - 23 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1729
Abstract
The study aimed to assess the effects of the dietary supplementation of microencapsulated L. acidophilus and L. plantarum and their combination on the growth performance, organ development, diarrhoea incidences, blood profiles, intestinal histomorphology and microflora in weaned piglets. For that, 160 piglets with [...] Read more.
The study aimed to assess the effects of the dietary supplementation of microencapsulated L. acidophilus and L. plantarum and their combination on the growth performance, organ development, diarrhoea incidences, blood profiles, intestinal histomorphology and microflora in weaned piglets. For that, 160 piglets with an average body weight (BW) of 8.52 ± 0.15 kg were divided into four groups (40 piglets/group) and allotted to one of the four dietary treatments as follows: a basal diet (C diet) or a basal diet containing 1 × 108 CFU/g of L. acidophilus (LA diet), or a diet containing 3 × 108 CFU/g of L. plantarum (LP diet) and a diet with the combination of both bacterial strains (LA + LP diet) for 21 days. On day 14, probiotics significantly increased ADFI, while FCR was higher in the LA and LP groups than the C and LA + LP groups. No effects (p > 0.05) on visceral organs weight, intestinal pH and biochemical parameters among treatments were noticed. Treatments significantly lowered diarrhoea incidence compared to control. Villus width was greater (p < 0.05) in all small intestinal segments in piglets fed probiotics. In the jejunum and ileum villus length, crypt length, and total villi length were higher (p < 0.05), particularly in the LA + LP group. The probiotics, particularly the LA + LP group, modulated the cecal, jejunum and ileum microbial community structure and increased (p < 0.05) the amount of Lactobacillus spp. while decreasing the populations of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus. Our results indicated that dietary supplementation of microencapsulated probiotics, particularly the combination of L. plantarum and L acidophilus strains, maintained growth performance, lowered diarrhoea incidence and beneficially altered the intestinal architecture and microbial populations of weaned piglets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feeding Strategies and Nutritional Quality of Animal Products)
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Review

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21 pages, 5276 KiB  
Review
Transforming Rhodotorula sp. Biomass to Active Biologic Compounds for Poultry Nutrition
by Daniela-Mihaela Grigore, Mădălina Ungureanu-Iuga, Elena Narcisa Pogurschi and Narcisa Elena Băbeanu
Agriculture 2023, 13(6), 1159; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13061159 - 30 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1822
Abstract
In broiler chick-rearing, the color is usually acquired by synthetic carotenoids in addition to broiler diets (25–80 mg/kg feed), often represented by β-apo-8′-carotenal. In the past fifteen years, the demand for organic food products originating from free-range reared chicks started to grow, with [...] Read more.
In broiler chick-rearing, the color is usually acquired by synthetic carotenoids in addition to broiler diets (25–80 mg/kg feed), often represented by β-apo-8′-carotenal. In the past fifteen years, the demand for organic food products originating from free-range reared chicks started to grow, with a more directed awareness of the quality of meat and egg. Various investigations have been reporting microorganisms, such as the oleaginous red yeasts genus Rhodotorula sp., as fast-growing unicellular eukaryotes able to synthesize natural pigments. Rhodotorula sp. represents a perfect choice as a natural resource due to the capacity to adapt easily to the environment valuing low-cost sources of nutrients for their metabolism and growth. The biodiversity and the ecology effects establish novel boundaries regarding Rhodotorula sp. productivity enhancement and control of biological risks. It is, therefore, necessary to review the current knowledge on the carotenoid synthesis of Rhodotorula sp. In this paper, we aimed to address the pathways of obtaining valuable yeast carotenoids in different conditions, discussing yeast biosynthesis, bioengineering fermentative evaluation, carotenoid extraction, and the techno-economic implication of valuable pigment additives on poultry nutrition. Finally, the pro-existent gaps in research are highlighted, which may clear the air on future studies for bio-carotenoid engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feeding Strategies and Nutritional Quality of Animal Products)
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