Power Electronics and Actuators

A special issue of Actuators (ISSN 2076-0825). This special issue belongs to the section "High Torque/Power Density Actuators".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2024 | Viewed by 11399

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China
Interests: power electronics; motor drives

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Electromagnetic actuators have been widely used in many areas including aerospace, machine tools, transportation, and so on. The power electronics converter is the main drive for the actuators, with control capability for the motion of the actuator through electromagnetic force. The efficiency, power density, dynamic response, and reliability are the major pursuits of the power electronics drive for the actuator. The control method also presents challenges. With next-generation wide-band-gap power electronics devices, there are new opportunities for the performance of power electronics drive for actuators. This Special Issue is for the progress of power electronics converters for the actuator drive in different applications. Original papers and survey papers are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Dong Jiang
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • power electronics
  • actuator
  • drive
  • dynamic
  • power density

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 9375 KiB  
Article
Model Predictive Control Strategy Based on Loss Equalization for Three-Level ANPC Inverters
by Shaoqi Wan, Bo Wang, Jingbo Chen, Haiying Dong and Congxin Lv
Actuators 2024, 13(3), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13030111 - 12 Mar 2024
Viewed by 703
Abstract
Targeting the issue of high losses of individual switching tubes in Neutral-Point Clamped (NPC) three-level inverters, an Active Neutral-Point Clamped (ANPC) three-level inverter is used, and a model predictive control strategy using the loss equalization of the inverter is proposed. This method organizes [...] Read more.
Targeting the issue of high losses of individual switching tubes in Neutral-Point Clamped (NPC) three-level inverters, an Active Neutral-Point Clamped (ANPC) three-level inverter is used, and a model predictive control strategy using the loss equalization of the inverter is proposed. This method organizes and analyzes multiple zero-state current pathway commutation modes and adds mode three under the original two commonly used zero-state commutation modes. On this basis, the three modes are flexibly switched by model predictive control, and the output is optimized according to the value function for the space vector in each operation, while the midpoint voltage control is added to the value function. The simulation results suggest that the recommended strategy in this study may effectively realize the loss equalization control and midpoint voltage control of the ANPC inverter, which improves the operation efficiency of the electromechanical actuator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Electronics and Actuators)
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20 pages, 8968 KiB  
Article
Optimal Design of a Surface Permanent Magnet Machine for Electric Power Steering Systems in Electric Vehicle Applications Using a Gaussian Process-Based Approach
by Gilsu Choi, Gwan-Hui Jang, Mingyu Choi, Jungmoon Kang, Ye Gu Kang and Sehwan Kim
Actuators 2024, 13(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13010013 - 29 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1248
Abstract
The efficient design optimization of electric machines for electric power steering (EPS) applications poses challenges in meeting demanding performance criteria, including high power density, efficiency, and low vibration. Traditional optimization approaches often fail to find a global solution or suffer from excessive computation [...] Read more.
The efficient design optimization of electric machines for electric power steering (EPS) applications poses challenges in meeting demanding performance criteria, including high power density, efficiency, and low vibration. Traditional optimization approaches often fail to find a global solution or suffer from excessive computation time. In response to the limitations of traditional approaches, this paper introduces a novel methodology by incorporating a Gaussian process-based adaptive sampling technique into a surrogate-assisted optimization process using a metaheuristic algorithm. Validation on a 72-slot/8-pole interior permanent magnet (IPM) machine demonstrates the superiority of the proposed approach, showcasing improved exploitation–exploration balance, faster convergence, and enhanced repeatability compared to conventional optimization methods. The proposed design process is then applied to two surface PM (SPM) machine configurations with 9-slot/6-pole and 12-slot/10-pole combinations for EPS applications. The results indicate that the 12-slot/10-pole SPM design surpasses the alternative design in torque density, efficiency, cogging torque, torque ripple, and manufacturability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Electronics and Actuators)
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16 pages, 6905 KiB  
Article
Parameter Identification of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor with Dynamic Forgetting Factor Based on H∞ Filtering Algorithm
by Tianqing Yuan, Jiu Chang and Yupeng Zhang
Actuators 2023, 12(12), 453; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12120453 - 07 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1150
Abstract
To address system parameter changes during permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) operation, an H∞ filtering algorithm with a dynamic forgetting factor is proposed for online identification of motor resistance and inductance. First, a standard linear discrete PMSM parameter identification model is established; then, [...] Read more.
To address system parameter changes during permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) operation, an H∞ filtering algorithm with a dynamic forgetting factor is proposed for online identification of motor resistance and inductance. First, a standard linear discrete PMSM parameter identification model is established; then, the discrete H∞ filtering algorithm is derived using game theory reducing state and measurement noise influence. A cost function is defined, solving extremes values of different terms. A dynamic forgetting factor is introduced to the weighted combination of initial and current measurement noise covariance matrices, eliminating identification issues from different initial values. On this basis, a dynamic forgetting factor is added to weigh the combination of the initial measurement noise covariance matrix and the current measurement noise covariance matrix, which eliminates the influence of the discrimination error caused by the different initial values. Finally, the identification model is built in MATLAB/Simulink for simulation analysis to verify the feasibility of the proposed algorithm. The simulation results show the proposed H∞ filtering algorithm rapidly and accurately identifies resistance and inductance values with significantly improved robustness. The forgetting factor enables quick stable recognition even with poor initial values, enhancing PMSM control performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Electronics and Actuators)
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17 pages, 5110 KiB  
Article
An Efficient and High-Precision Electromagnetic–Thermal Bidirectional Coupling Reduced-Order Solution Model for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors
by Yinquan Yu, Pan Zhao, HuiHwang Goh, Giuseppe Carbone, Shuangxia Niu, Junling Ding, Shengrong Shu and Zhao Zhao
Actuators 2023, 12(8), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12080336 - 21 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1003
Abstract
The traditional electromagnetic–thermal bidirectional coupling model (EMTBCM) of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) requires a long time to solve, and the temperature-induced torque change is not accounted for in the finite element (FE) numerical calculation of the EM field. This paper presents a [...] Read more.
The traditional electromagnetic–thermal bidirectional coupling model (EMTBCM) of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) requires a long time to solve, and the temperature-induced torque change is not accounted for in the finite element (FE) numerical calculation of the EM field. This paper presents a precise and efficient EMTBC reduced-order solution model. The specific methods are as follows: First, a torque control technology based on the current injection method is proposed for determining the effect of temperature on the properties of EM materials and EM torque in an EM field, and the accuracy of the FE numerical calculation model is improved. Second, we use the improved EM field finite element numerical calculation model (FEMNCM) to analyze the correlation between the EM loss, the temperature, and the load, and we replace the FEMNCM with the EM field reduction model using the least-squares method. Then, we analyze the law of the PMSM’s internal temperature distribution. We choose the GA-BP algorithm with as few samples as possible and a high accuracy and stability to build the regression prediction model of the temperature field. We use this regression prediction model to replace the complex temperature field calculation. After analyzing the EMTBCM solution strategy, the original complex EMTBC numerical calculation model is substituted with iterations of the magnetic field reduction model and the temperature field regression prediction model. The FE numerical calculation is then used to validate the reduced-order model. The proposed model is validated through numerical simulations. The numerical results indicate that the proposed reduced-order EMTBC model in this paper is accurate and computationally efficient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Electronics and Actuators)
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14 pages, 6895 KiB  
Article
Characteristic Analysis of a New Structure Eccentric Harmonic Magnetic Gear
by Libing Jing, Youzhong Wang, Dawei Li and Ronghai Qu
Actuators 2023, 12(6), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12060248 - 14 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1010
Abstract
An eccentric harmonic magnetic gear (EHMG) is better suited for situations requiring larger transmission ratios than magnetic-field-modulated magnetic gears. In the meantime, to increase the torque density even further, a new structure for EHMGs is presented in this paper. The stator’s permanent magnets [...] Read more.
An eccentric harmonic magnetic gear (EHMG) is better suited for situations requiring larger transmission ratios than magnetic-field-modulated magnetic gears. In the meantime, to increase the torque density even further, a new structure for EHMGs is presented in this paper. The stator’s permanent magnets (PMs) are irregularly distributed, while the rotor’s PMs are applied to a fan-shaped structure. Moreover, a Halbach array is adopted in both the rotor and the stator. A two-dimensional finite element (FE) model of the proposed EHMG is developed, and the flux density distribution and torque of the EHMG are calculated and verified via FE analysis. When compared to a conventional EHMG, the presented model’s torque increases from 38.04 Nm to 50.41 Nm. In addition, for the sake of avoiding the oscillation and noise caused by resonance, a modal analysis of the proposed model is conducted and the consequences show that it has better antivibration properties. Finally, a prototype is made, a test bench is established, and the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed model are verified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Electronics and Actuators)
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15 pages, 22138 KiB  
Article
A Non-Permanent Magnet DC-Biased Vernier Reluctance Linear Machine with Non-Uniform Air Gap Structure for Ripple Reduction
by Zhenyang Qiao, Yunpeng Zhang, Jian Luo, Weinong Fu, Dingguo Shao and Haidong Cao
Actuators 2023, 12(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12010007 - 22 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1338
Abstract
Thrust ripple and density greatly impact the performance of the linear machine and other linear actuators, causing positioning control precision, dynamic performance, and efficiency issues. Generalized pole-pair combinations are difficult to satisfy both the thrust and ripple for double salient reluctance linear machines. [...] Read more.
Thrust ripple and density greatly impact the performance of the linear machine and other linear actuators, causing positioning control precision, dynamic performance, and efficiency issues. Generalized pole-pair combinations are difficult to satisfy both the thrust and ripple for double salient reluctance linear machines. In this paper, a DC-Biased vernier reluctance linear machine (DCB-VRLM) is proposed to solve the abovementioned issues. The key to the proposed design is to reduce the ripple and enhance the thrust density with non-uniform teeth by utilizing and optimizing the modulated flux in the air gap. To effectively verify the proposed design, the DCB-VRLMs with different winding pole pairs and secondary poles are compared. The 12-slot/10-pole combination is chosen to adopt a non-uniform air gap structure. Moreover, the energy distribution of AC/DC winding is studied and optimized to further enhance the performance of the proposed DCB-VRLM. The results indicate that the DCB-VRLM with the non-uniform air gap has a lower thrust ripple, better overload capability, and higher thrust density, which confirms its superiority in long-stroke linear rail transit and vertical elevator applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Electronics and Actuators)
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13 pages, 3354 KiB  
Article
Cogging Torque Minimization of Surface-Mounted Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Based on RSM and NSGA-II
by Yinquan Yu, Yue Pan, Qiping Chen, Dequan Zeng, Yiming Hu, Hui-Hwang Goh, Shuangxia Niu and Zhao Zhao
Actuators 2022, 11(12), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/act11120379 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1840
Abstract
A high-end permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motor’s cogging torque is a significant performance measure (PMSM). During the running of the motor, excessive cogging torque will amplify noise and vibration. Therefore, the cogging torque must be taken into account while optimizing the design of [...] Read more.
A high-end permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motor’s cogging torque is a significant performance measure (PMSM). During the running of the motor, excessive cogging torque will amplify noise and vibration. Therefore, the cogging torque must be taken into account while optimizing the design of motors with precise motion control. In this research, we proposed a local optimization-seeking approach (RSM+NSGA-II-LR) based on Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II), which reduced the cogging torque of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (SPMSM). To reduce the complexity of optimization and increase its efficiency, the sensitivity analysis method was utilized to identify the structural parameters that had a significant impact on the torque performance. Second, RSM was utilized to fit the functional relationship between the structural parameters and each optimization objective, and NSGA-II was integrated to provide the Pareto solution for each optimization objective. The solution with a greater average torque than the initial motor and the lowest cogging torque was chosen, and a new finite element model (FEM) was created. On the basis of the sensitivity analysis, the structural factors that had the highest influence on the cogging torque were selected, and the RSM is utilized for local optimization to lower the cogging torque as much as feasible. The numerical results demonstrated that the optimization strategy presented in this study effectively reduced the cogging torque of the motor without diminishing the motor’s average torque or increasing its torque ripple. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Electronics and Actuators)
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Review

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26 pages, 5741 KiB  
Review
A Review of EMI Research of High Power Density Motor Drive Systems for Electric Actuator
by Zhenyu Wang, Dong Jiang, Zicheng Liu, Xuan Zhao, Guang Yang and Hongyang Liu
Actuators 2023, 12(11), 411; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12110411 - 04 Nov 2023
Viewed by 2004
Abstract
With the global attention given to energy issues, the electrification of aviation and the development of more electric aircraft (MEA) have become important trends in the modern aviation industry. The electric actuator plays multiple roles in aircraft such as flight control, making it [...] Read more.
With the global attention given to energy issues, the electrification of aviation and the development of more electric aircraft (MEA) have become important trends in the modern aviation industry. The electric actuator plays multiple roles in aircraft such as flight control, making it a crucial technology for MEA. Given the limited space available inside an aircraft, the power density of electric actuators has become a critical design factor. However, the pursuit of high power density results in the need for larger rated power and higher switching frequency, which can lead to severe electromagnetic interference (EMI) issues. This, in turn, poses significant challenges to the overall reliability of the electric actuator. This paper provides a comprehensive review of EMI in high power density motor drive systems for electric actuator systems. Firstly, the state of the art of electric actuator systems are surveyed, pointing out the contradictory relationship between high power density and EMI. Subsequently, various EMI modeling approaches of motor control systems are reviewed. Additionally, the main EMI suppression methods are summarized. Active EMI mitigation methods are emphasized in this paper due to their advantages of higher power density compared with passive EMI filters. Finally, the paper concludes by summarizing the EMI research in motor drive systems and offering the prospects of electric actuators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Electronics and Actuators)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Optimal reference current computation for IPMSM drives considering iron loss
Authors: Peter Stumpf; Tamás Tóth-Katona
Affiliation: Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Automation and Applied Informatics
Abstract: Interior Permanent magnet synchronous machines (IPMSMs) are widely used as traction motors in the electric drive-train because of their high torque-per-ampere characteristics and potential for wide field weakening operation to expand the constant power range. The paper aims to introduce the most important equations to calculate the operating trajectories of an IPMSM for optimal control. The main contribution is that the optimal operating trajectories are calculated by considering the stator and iron loss resistive components. The working points of the operation trajectories are calculated using a second order Newton-Raphson based search algorithm.

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