A Review of EMI Research of High Power Density Motor Drive Systems for Electric Actuator
Abstract
:1. Introduction
2. The TradeOff between High Power Density and EMC Design
2.1. Integrated Electric Motor Drives
2.2. Applications of WideBandgap Semiconductors
3. EMI Modeling Methods
3.1. Conducted EMI Modeling
3.1.1. TimeDomain Modeling
3.1.2. FrequencyDomain Modeling
3.1.3. Behavioral Modeling
3.2. Radiated EMI Modeling
3.2.1. Radiated EMI Modeling of Cable
3.2.2. Radiated EMI Modeling of Motor
3.2.3. Radiated EMI Modeling of Inverter
4. EMI Suppression Method
4.1. Passive Suppression
4.1.1. Optimization of HighFrequency Performance
4.1.2. Optimization of Power Density
4.2. Active Suppression
4.2.1. Spread Spectrum Modulation
4.2.2. Advanced Topology for ZCM Modulation
4.2.3. Active Gate Driver
4.2.4. Active EMI Filter
5. Conclusions
 (1)
 The modeling methods for conducted EMI mainly include timedomain modeling, frequencydomain modeling, and behavioral modeling.
 (2)
 Timedomain modeling and frequencydomain modeling provide detailed modeling of converters, revealing the mechanism of EMI generation and propagation. They provide a basis for the converter design. However, it is difficult to balance prediction accuracy, computational speed, and convergence.
 (3)
 Behavioral modeling treats the converter as a “black box”, which can achieve accurate and fast predictions. Behavioral modeling must rely on existing prototypes for modeling, meaning that it cannot provide guidance for EMC predesign. However, behavior modeling still plays a crucial role in guiding the design of filters.
 (1)
 Compared to conducted EMI, there is less research on radiated EMI modeling. Radiated EMI modeling can be mainly divided into three aspects: cable, motor, and inverter.
 (2)
 With the development of IMDs, the impact of cables on radiation will gradually decrease, and the motor’s radiation emissions will become the dominant factor in the future. Numerical methods are common modeling techniques, but they are timeconsuming and computationally inefficient. Therefore, there is a growing research trend towards developing methods that balance accuracy and computational efficiency.
 (3)
 Compared to the motor and cable, the inverter itself has lower levels of radiated EMI. However, as the noise source in motor drive systems, the research on the influence of the inverter on radiation is important.
 (1)
 Passive EMI filters are widely used and highly effective methods for suppressing electromagnetic interference (EMI). However, their bulky size poses a challenge to improving power density. Currently, research efforts are focused on optimizing the highfrequency performance and power density of these filters.
 (2)
 Active suppression has gained increasing attention and research due to its advantages in high power density.
 (3)
 SSM and ZCM modulation based on advanced topology are effective in suppressing electromagnetic interference for lowfrequency conducted interference. However, using or sacrificing switch freedom to optimize EMI may lead to a deterioration in control performance, which is a crucial aspect to consider.
 (4)
 AGD, which achieves noise attenuation by optimizing the switching trajectory, is effective in suppressing highfrequency EMI. However, compared to other suppression methods, AGD places higher demands on packaging technology and has limited applications in motor drive systems.
 (5)
 Compared to passive EMI filters, AEFs can effectively increase power density. However, due to bandwidth limitations and parasitic parameters, AEFs are difficult to implement for effective EMI suppression across a wide frequency range. The combination of AEFs and passive EMI filters, known as hybrid filters, is currently a hot research direction.
Author Contributions
Funding
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
References
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Property  Si  GaN  SiC 

Bandgap (eV)  1.1  3.4  3.2 
Critical electric field (MV/cm)  0.3  3.5  3 
Electron saturation velocity (10^{7} cm/s)  1  2.5  2.2 
Thermal conductivity (W/cm·°C)  1.5  1.3  5 
Maximum operation temperature (°C)  200  300  600 
Topology  Ref.  Cases  Number of Power Devices  ZCM Performances  System Performances 

Threephase fourleg inverter  [114]  Conventional threephase motor drive  8 full control switches  The CM voltage is reduced by 20 dB up to 100 kHz. 

threelevel inverter  [115]  Mediumvoltage highpower motor drive  8 full control switches and 6 clamping diodes  The CM voltage is almost up to 20 kHz. 

paralleled inverter  [116]  Highpower motor drive  12 full control switches  The CM voltage is reduced by 30 dB up to 200 kHz, and 10 dB up to 2 MHz. 

[121]  The performance is the same as that in [121]. 
 
dual threephase motor  [117]  Highreliability motor drive  The CM leakage current is reduced by almost 20 dB up to 40 kHz. 
 
[122]  The CM voltage is reduced by more than 20 dB between 150 kHz and 900 kHz, and 10 dB up to 2 MHz. 
 
fourmodule threephase motor  [123]  24 full control switches  The CM voltage is reduced by more than 30 dB between 150 kHz and 1 MHz, and 10 dB up to 3 MHz. 

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Wang, Z.; Jiang, D.; Liu, Z.; Zhao, X.; Yang, G.; Liu, H. A Review of EMI Research of High Power Density Motor Drive Systems for Electric Actuator. Actuators 2023, 12, 411. https://doi.org/10.3390/act12110411
Wang Z, Jiang D, Liu Z, Zhao X, Yang G, Liu H. A Review of EMI Research of High Power Density Motor Drive Systems for Electric Actuator. Actuators. 2023; 12(11):411. https://doi.org/10.3390/act12110411
Chicago/Turabian StyleWang, Zhenyu, Dong Jiang, Zicheng Liu, Xuan Zhao, Guang Yang, and Hongyang Liu. 2023. "A Review of EMI Research of High Power Density Motor Drive Systems for Electric Actuator" Actuators 12, no. 11: 411. https://doi.org/10.3390/act12110411