Next Issue
Volume 12, December
Previous Issue
Volume 12, October
 
 

Actuators, Volume 12, Issue 11 (November 2023) – 33 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This paper presents an experimentally validated feasibility study of a hydrostatic, MR clutch-driven system of actuators for the control of heavy vehicle vibration. The scope of the paper is to evaluate the preliminary performance of the actuator for future vibration control. The hydraulic system allows the actuators to be remotely located from the wheels or cabin of the heavy vehicle and conveniently placed on the vehicle’s suspended frame. The design includes two MR clutches driven in an antagonistic configuration to push and pull on the end effector. The design can output high forces with a blocked-output bandwidth competitive with past active suspension studied systems. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
15 pages, 6981 KiB  
Article
Design and Testing of Disconnection Actuators for Enhancing Safety and Preventing Failure Escalation
Actuators 2023, 12(11), 429; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12110429 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1285
Abstract
The growing demand for reliability has led to an increased interest in developing effective disconnection systems for enhancing the safety of and preventing failure escalation in engineering systems. Considering this prospect, the design optimization of two disconnection actuators composed of a coaxial magnetic [...] Read more.
The growing demand for reliability has led to an increased interest in developing effective disconnection systems for enhancing the safety of and preventing failure escalation in engineering systems. Considering this prospect, the design optimization of two disconnection actuators composed of a coaxial magnetic coupling linked to an electromagnetic device is presented and discussed. The disconnection actuator delivers a contactless torque transmission through the coaxial magnetic coupling, whereas the torque transfer is interrupted by the electromagnetic device in case a failure is detected via a dedicated algorithm. The performed design procedure relies on 2D finite element analysis, and trade-off studies are carried out to achieve an optimized geometry of an electromagnetic device. Finally, two disconnection actuators, for high-speed and high-torque applications, are prototyped and tested, with the aim of evaluating their disconnection capability. For both disconnection actuators, the developed force and voltage–current characteristics are measured along with the disconnection time. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 5087 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Response of a Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Sensor Embedded in a Metal Structure Using Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing
Actuators 2023, 12(11), 428; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12110428 - 20 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1137
Abstract
This study aims to examine the dynamic response of a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric sensor which is embedded into an aluminum coupon using ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM). Traditional manufacturing techniques used to attach smart materials to metals on the surface have drawbacks, including [...] Read more.
This study aims to examine the dynamic response of a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric sensor which is embedded into an aluminum coupon using ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM). Traditional manufacturing techniques used to attach smart materials to metals on the surface have drawbacks, including the potential of exposing the sensor to adverse environments or physical degradation during manufacture. UAM can avoid these issues by integrating solid-state metal joining with subtractive processes to enable the fabrication of smart structures. A commercial PVDF sensor is embedded in aluminum with a compression technique to provide frictional coupling between the sensor and the metallic matrix. The PVDF sensor’s frequency bandwidth and impact detection performance are evaluated by conducting cantilever and axial impact tests, as well as harmonic excitation tests with an electrodynamic shaker. Under axial loading, the embedded sensor displays high linearity with a sensitivity of 43.7 mV/N, whereas impact tests in the cantilever configuration exhibit a steady decay rate of 0.13%. Finally, bending tests show good agreement between theoretical and experimental natural frequencies with percentage errors under 6% in two different clamping positions, and correspond to the maximum voltage output obtained from the embedded PVDF sensor at resonance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Materials and Structures for Vehicle Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 4068 KiB  
Article
Research on Secure State Estimation and Recovery Control for CPS under Stealthy Attacks
Actuators 2023, 12(11), 427; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12110427 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 942
Abstract
As the application of cyber-physical systems (CPSs) becomes more and more widespread, its security is becoming a focus of attention. Currently, there has been much research on the security defense of the physical layer of the CPS. However, most of the research only [...] Read more.
As the application of cyber-physical systems (CPSs) becomes more and more widespread, its security is becoming a focus of attention. Currently, there has been much research on the security defense of the physical layer of the CPS. However, most of the research only focuses on one of the aspects, for example, attack detection, security state estimation, or recovery control. Obviously, the effectiveness of security defense targeting only one aspect is limited. Therefore, in this paper, a set of security defense processes is proposed for the case that a CPS containing multiple sensors is subject to three kinds of stealthy attacks (i.e., zero-dynamics attack, covert attack, and replay attack). Firstly, the existing attack detection method based on improved residuals is used to detect stealthy attacks. Secondly, based on the detection results, an optimal state estimation method based on improved Kalman filtering is proposed to estimate the actual state of the system. Then, based on the optimal state, internal model control (IMC) is introduced to complete the recovery control of the system. Finally, the proposed methods are integrated to give a complete security defense process, and the simulation is verified for three kinds of stealthy attacks. The simulation results show that the proposed methods are effective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor and Actuator Attacks of Cyber-Physical Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2446 KiB  
Article
Feasibility of Hydrostatic Transmission in Community Wind Turbines
Actuators 2023, 12(11), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12110426 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 975
Abstract
This study investigates the potential improvement of a community wind turbine through replacing the conventional drivetrain with a hydrostatic transmission (HST). Conventional wind turbines use a fixed-ratio gearbox, a variable-speed induction generator, and power electronics to match the grid frequency. Because of unsteady [...] Read more.
This study investigates the potential improvement of a community wind turbine through replacing the conventional drivetrain with a hydrostatic transmission (HST). Conventional wind turbines use a fixed-ratio gearbox, a variable-speed induction generator, and power electronics to match the grid frequency. Because of unsteady wind, the reliability of the gearbox has been a major issue. An HST, a continuously variable transmission with a high power density, can replace a conventional transmission. The resulting wind turbine has the potential to offer the advantages of a lower cost, decreased weight, and increased reliability. For the application considered in this study, the main source of LCOE increase is due to the inefficiencies in the system. Even if the cost of the proposed HST transmission is free, because of inefficiency, the levelized cost of electricity will be higher than for a turbine with a conventional fixed-ratio gearbox. For the HST solution to be cost-competitive, increases in efficiency and reductions in cost are required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative and Intelligent Actuation for Heavy-Duty Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 9136 KiB  
Article
Digitalization of Radial Piston Pumps through Internal Mechanically Actuated Designs
Actuators 2023, 12(11), 425; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12110425 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1132
Abstract
Digital hydraulics is a technology gaining perceptible growth in fluid power research. The advantages of digital fluid power systems can be realized through improved system efficiencies, energy savings, increased productivity, and system performance compared to traditional fluid power systems. Conventional check valve pumps [...] Read more.
Digital hydraulics is a technology gaining perceptible growth in fluid power research. The advantages of digital fluid power systems can be realized through improved system efficiencies, energy savings, increased productivity, and system performance compared to traditional fluid power systems. Conventional check valve pumps use differential pressures to deliver pressurized flow to the system. Digital fluid power pumps enable conventional check valve pumps to achieve variable displacements by enhancing the controllability of the inlet and outlet valves through digital hydraulic technologies and techniques. The benefit of this technology is the use of positive sealing check valves with lower leakage losses compared to typical variable displacement pumps, increasing the unit’s overall efficiency. The primary focus of prior digital pump/motor research has been on digital actuation using electronic solenoids to actuate or latch the valves. While these electrical systems provide a platform for digital hydraulic techniques, they come with a cost: added energy sources, advanced controls, and expensive data acquisition systems. Research has also shown that minor valve timing inconsistencies can limit the potential energy savings of digital pumps in electrically actuated systems. A system configuration that promotes the advantages of digital hydraulics while mitigating the disadvantages associated with electrical systems is mechanically actuated systems. This work discusses variable cams and their advantages/disadvantages in digital radial piston pump/motor technologies. The significance of this work is the investigation of the digitalization of radial piston pumps through mechanically actuated valving systems, which has yet to be implemented in prior research. This paper evaluates various design concepts for commercializing digital radial piston pumps using mechanically actuated cams. A two-quadrant pump and a four-quadrant pump/motor design are simulated to assess their potential efficiency across the bandwidth of their displacement. The results show that the two systems can achieve relatively high efficiencies across their displacement bandwidth but show room for further improvement by optimizing these systems. This study is the first step in designing an integrated mechanically actuated variable cam system in digital radial piston pumps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative and Intelligent Actuation for Heavy-Duty Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 9621 KiB  
Article
Development of Hexagonal Pyramid-Shaped Flexible Actuator with Anisotropic Stiffness for Upper-Limb Rehabilitation Device
Actuators 2023, 12(11), 424; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12110424 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1013
Abstract
Rehabilitation devices for passive exercise have been actively researched and developed in accordance with Japan’s aging society. A previous study proposed and tested an extension-type flexible pneumatic actuator (EFPA) with reinforced stiffness that could achieve passive exercise in patients. In addition, a rehabilitation [...] Read more.
Rehabilitation devices for passive exercise have been actively researched and developed in accordance with Japan’s aging society. A previous study proposed and tested an extension-type flexible pneumatic actuator (EFPA) with reinforced stiffness that could achieve passive exercise in patients. In addition, a rehabilitation device for shoulder joints with an embedded controller and small valves was proposed and tested. Joints such as the shoulder and scapula were subjected to passive exercise utilizing the tested device. However, it is difficult for patients with contractions to perform the same exercise because the reinforced EFPA can buckle. Here, to realize an EFPA with a higher stiffness, a flexible actuator in the shape of a hexagonal pyramid is proposed and tested. The hexagonal pyramid shape of a flexible actuator has a high stiffness in the direction of motion and flexibility in other directions; hereafter, this characteristic is called anisotropic stiffness. The characteristics of the hexagonal pyramid shape of the EFPA are described and compared with those of a previously reinforced EFPA. An analytical model was proposed to predict and design the shape of the hexagonal pyramid EFPA. The validity of the model is also described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multimodal Deployable Flexible Robots in Medical Domains)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 10971 KiB  
Article
Automatic Estimation of Excavator’s Actual Productivity in Trenching and Grading Operations Using Building Information Modeling (BIM)
Actuators 2023, 12(11), 423; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12110423 - 13 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1181
Abstract
This paper discusses the excavator’s actual productivity in trenching and grading operations. In these tasks, the quantity of material moved is not significant; precision within specified tolerances is the key focus. The manual methods for productivity estimation and progress monitoring of these operations [...] Read more.
This paper discusses the excavator’s actual productivity in trenching and grading operations. In these tasks, the quantity of material moved is not significant; precision within specified tolerances is the key focus. The manual methods for productivity estimation and progress monitoring of these operations are highly time-consuming, costly, error-prone, and labor-intensive. An automatic method is required to estimate the excavator’s productivity in the operations. Automatic productivity tracking aids in lowering time, fuel, and operational expenses. It also enhances planning, detects project problems, and boosts management and financial performance. The productivity definitions for trenching and grading operations are the trench’s length per unit of time and graded area per unit of time, respectively. In the proposed techniques, a grid-based height map (2.5D map) from working areas is obtained using a Livox Horizon® light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensor and localization data from the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and inertial measurement units (IMUs). Additionally, building information modeling (BIM) is utilized to acquire information regarding the target model and required accuracy. The productivity is estimated using the map comparison between the working areas and the desired model. The proposed method is implemented on a medium-rated excavator operated by an experienced operator in a private worksite. The results show that the method can effectively estimate productivity and monitor the development of operations. The obtained information can guide managers to track the productivity of each individual machine and modify planning and time scheduling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative and Intelligent Actuation for Heavy-Duty Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2688 KiB  
Article
Bistable Actuation Based on Antagonistic Buckling SMA Beams
Actuators 2023, 12(11), 422; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12110422 - 11 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1217
Abstract
Novel miniature-scale bistable actuators are developed, which consist of two antagonistically coupled buckling shape memory alloy (SMA) beams. Two SMA films are designed as buckling SMA beams, whose memory shapes are adjusted to have opposing buckling states. Coupling the SMA beams in their [...] Read more.
Novel miniature-scale bistable actuators are developed, which consist of two antagonistically coupled buckling shape memory alloy (SMA) beams. Two SMA films are designed as buckling SMA beams, whose memory shapes are adjusted to have opposing buckling states. Coupling the SMA beams in their center leads to a compact bistable actuator, which exhibits a bi-directional snap-through motion by selectively heating the SMA beams. Fabrication involves magnetron sputtering of SMA films, subsequent micromachining by lithography, and systems integration. The stationary force–displacement characteristics of monostable actuators consisting of single buckling SMA beams and bistable actuators are characterized with respect to their geometrical parameters. The dynamic performance of bistable actuation is investigated by selectively heating the SMA beams via direct mechanical contact to a low-temperature heat source in the range of 130–190 °C. The bistable actuation is characterized by a large stroke up to 3.65 mm corresponding to more than 30% of the SMA beam length. Operation frequencies are in the order of 1 Hz depending on geometrical parameters and heat source temperature. The bistable actuation at low-temperature differences provides a route for waste heat recovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cooperative Microactuator Devices and Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 5370 KiB  
Article
Kinematic Analysis of a New 3-DOF Parallel Wrist-Gripper Assembly with a Large Singularity-Free Workspace
Actuators 2023, 12(11), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12110421 - 10 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1219
Abstract
This paper introduces a novel dexterous 3-DOF parallel wrist-gripper assembly with a large singularity-free range of motion. It consists of a zero-torsion 2-DOF parallel wrist and a 1-DOF parallel gripper. The wrist produces a 2-DOF sphere-on-sphere pure rolling motion. This large singularity-free 2-DOF [...] Read more.
This paper introduces a novel dexterous 3-DOF parallel wrist-gripper assembly with a large singularity-free range of motion. It consists of a zero-torsion 2-DOF parallel wrist and a 1-DOF parallel gripper. The wrist produces a 2-DOF sphere-on-sphere pure rolling motion. This large singularity-free 2-DOF sphere-on-sphere pure rolling motion of the wrist allows for smooth and precise manipulation of objects in various orientations, making it suitable for applications such as assembly, pick-and-place, and inspection tasks. Using a geometrical approach, analytical solutions for the inverse and forward kinematics problems of the wrist and gripper are derived. From the inverse kinematic equations, the Jacobian matrices are derived and it is shown that the whole workspace is free of type I and type II singularities. It is shown that with a proper choice of design variables, a large singularity-free range of motion can be obtained. The absence of singularities in the whole workspace of the wrist-gripper assembly is an important feature that enhances its reliability. Finally, the correctness of the derived equations for the wrist inverse and forward kinematics are verified using MSC Adams. These results confirm the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed parallel wrist-gripper assembly. Overall, the novel parallel wrist-gripper assembly presented in this paper demonstrates great potential for improving the efficiency and flexibility of robotic manipulators in a variety of industrial and research applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancement in the Design and Control of Robotic Grippers)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2794 KiB  
Article
Concept Evaluation for the Establishment of a Firm End-Stop Feeling in an Asymmetric Hydraulic Steering Unit
Actuators 2023, 12(11), 420; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12110420 - 10 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1003
Abstract
Danfoss Power Solutions Aps has a product line focusing on hydraulic steering units for heavy-duty machines. The focus of this paper is on the end-stop torque encountered by the operator for a new asymmetrical hydraulic steering unit, referred to as sSteer. This hydraulically [...] Read more.
Danfoss Power Solutions Aps has a product line focusing on hydraulic steering units for heavy-duty machines. The focus of this paper is on the end-stop torque encountered by the operator for a new asymmetrical hydraulic steering unit, referred to as sSteer. This hydraulically asymmetric concept increases the steering responsiveness between the steering wheel input and the output. However, compared to traditional hydraulic steering units, the asymmetrical design has a drawback regarding the level of end-stop torque felt by the operator when reaching the left-side end stop. This paper investigates three different concepts for improving/increasing the end-stop torque, namely, including a bleed orifice, removing a set of suction valves, and a solution with pre-tensioned suction valves and tank line. During the investigations, these concepts were compared and benchmarked using experimental data to identify advantages and disadvantages. Based on the investigations, it is concluded that the concept with pre-tensioned suction valves and a pressurized tank line ensures the best compromise between the different design requirements and the establishment of a firm end-stop feeling for the operator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative and Intelligent Actuation for Heavy-Duty Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 10401 KiB  
Article
Mixed Reality: A Tool for Investigating the Complex Design and Mechanisms of a Mechanically Actuated Digital Pump
Actuators 2023, 12(11), 419; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12110419 - 10 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1278
Abstract
Digital hydraulics is a discrete technology that integrates advanced dynamic system controls, digital electronics, and machine learning to enhance fluid power systems’ performance, overall efficiency, and controllability. A mechanically actuated inline three-piston variable displacement digital pump was previously proposed and designed. The inline [...] Read more.
Digital hydraulics is a discrete technology that integrates advanced dynamic system controls, digital electronics, and machine learning to enhance fluid power systems’ performance, overall efficiency, and controllability. A mechanically actuated inline three-piston variable displacement digital pump was previously proposed and designed. The inline three-piston pump incorporates complex mechanical and hydraulic subsystems and highly coupled mechanisms. The complexity of the utilized subsystems poses challenges when assessing the viability of the conceptual design. Therefore, this work focuses on designing, developing, and implementing a collaborative virtual platform involving a digitized module showcasing the internal mechanical structure of the digital pump utilizing mixed reality (MR) technology. MR technology is acknowledged as the forthcoming evolution of the human–machine interface in the real–virtual environment utilizing computers and wearables. This technology permits running simulations that examine the complexity of highly coupled systems, like the digital pump, where understanding the physical phenomenon is far too intricate. The developed MR platform permits multiple users to collaborate in a synchronized immersive MR environment to study and analyze the applicability of the pump’s design and the adequacy of the operated mechanisms. The collaborative MR platform was designed and developed on the Unity game engine, employing Microsoft Azure and Photon Unity Networking to set up the synchronized MR environment. The platform involves a fully interactive virtual module on the digital pump design, developed in multiple stages using Microsoft’s Mixed Reality Tool Kit (MRTK) for Unity and deployed in the synchronized MR environment through a HoloLens 2 MR headset. A research study involving 71 participants was carried out at Purdue University. The study’s objective was to explore the impact of the collaborative MR environment on understanding the complexity and operation of the digital pump. It also sought to assess the effectiveness of MR in facilitating collaboration among fluid power stakeholders in a synchronized digital reality setting to study, diagnose, and control their complex systems. Surveys were designed and completed by all 71 participants after experiencing the MR platform. The results indicate that approximately 75% of the participants expressed positive attitudes toward their overall MR platform experience, with particular appreciation for its immersive nature and the synchronized collaborative environment it provided. More than 70% of the participants agreed that the pump’s collaborative MR platform was essential for studying and understanding the complexity and intricacy of the digital pump’s mechanical structure. Overall, the results demonstrate that the MR platform effectively facilitates the visualization of the complex pump’s internal structure, inspection of the assembly of each of the involved subsystems, and testing the applicability of the complicated mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative and Intelligent Actuation for Heavy-Duty Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 27396 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Property Degradation of Entangled Metallic Wire Materials under Vibration Environment: Experiments and Prediction Models
Actuators 2023, 12(11), 418; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12110418 - 08 Nov 2023
Viewed by 939
Abstract
Entangled metallic wire material (EMWM) can be utilized as a novel elastic element in vibration isolation devices for mechanical actuators. This paper presents a vibration experiment aimed at investigating the degradation behavior of mechanical performance in EMWM under a cyclic compressive environment. An [...] Read more.
Entangled metallic wire material (EMWM) can be utilized as a novel elastic element in vibration isolation devices for mechanical actuators. This paper presents a vibration experiment aimed at investigating the degradation behavior of mechanical performance in EMWM under a cyclic compressive environment. An electric vibration testing system, coupled with an isolation structure, is employed to apply compressive loads to the EMWM specimens. Through visual observations and quasi-static compression tests, the variations in geometric morphology and mechanical properties are studied, considering different relative densities and vibrational stress amplitudes. The results indicate a significant reduction in the compressed dimension of the specimens as the number of cycles increases, without any wire fractures or wear. The mechanical properties exhibit an increasing secant modulus and a decreasing loss factor. These variations ultimately lead to a gradual deviation of the vibration characteristics of the isolation structure from its design state, including resonance frequency and transmission rate. To forecast the mechanical property degradation of EMWM, prediction models are proposed, incorporating its dimensions, modulus, and damping by fitting the experiment results. This research provides valuable experimental data and presents an effective method to determine the operational lifespan of vibration isolators utilizing EMWM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Spacecraft Structural Dynamics and Actuation Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 29655 KiB  
Article
Modeling and Fault Simulation of a New Double-Redundancy Electro-Hydraulic Servo Valve Based on AMESim
Actuators 2023, 12(11), 417; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12110417 - 08 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1223
Abstract
The feedback spring rod of the armature assembly was eliminated in the double-redundancy electro-hydraulic servo valve (DREHSV), which employed a redundant design in contrast to the typical double-nozzle flapper electro-hydraulic servo valve (DNFEHSV). The pilot stage was mainly composed of four torque motors, [...] Read more.
The feedback spring rod of the armature assembly was eliminated in the double-redundancy electro-hydraulic servo valve (DREHSV), which employed a redundant design in contrast to the typical double-nozzle flapper electro-hydraulic servo valve (DNFEHSV). The pilot stage was mainly composed of four torque motors, and the double-system spool was adopted in the power stage. Consequently, the difficulty of spool displacement control was increased. By artificially changing the structural parameters of the simulation model in accordance with the theoretical analysis through AMESim, this paper aimed to study the dynamics and static characteristics of the DREHSV. The advantage of redundant design was further demonstrated by disconnecting working coils and setting the different worn parts of the spool. On the test bench, the necessary experiments were performed. Through simulation, it was discovered that when the clogged degree of the nozzle is increased, the zero bias value increases, the pressure and flow gain remain unchanged, and the internal leakage decreases. The pressure gain changes very little, the flow gain close to the zero position grows, the zero leakage increases significantly, and the pilot stage leakage changes very little as a result of the wear of the spool throttling edge. The basic consistency between the simulation curves and the experimental findings serve to validate the accuracy of the AMESim model. The findings can serve as a theoretical guide for the design, debugging, and maintenance of the DREHSV. The simulation model is also capable of producing a large amount of sample data for DREHSV fault diagnosis using a neural network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Precision Actuators)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 5040 KiB  
Article
Fault Feature Extraction Method of Ball Screw Based on Singular Value Decomposition, CEEMDAN and 1.5DTES
Actuators 2023, 12(11), 416; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12110416 - 07 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1091
Abstract
In this article, a method is proposed to effectively extract weak fault features and accurately diagnose faults in ball screws, even in the presence of strong background noise. This method combines singular value decomposition (SVD), complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition with adaptive noise [...] Read more.
In this article, a method is proposed to effectively extract weak fault features and accurately diagnose faults in ball screws, even in the presence of strong background noise. This method combines singular value decomposition (SVD), complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition with adaptive noise (CEEMDAN), and the 1.5-dimensional spectrum (1.5D) to process and analyze fault vibration signals. The first step involves decomposing the fault signal using the SVD algorithm. The singular values are then screened, and the part of the screen containing more noise information is extracted to complete the first denoising step. The second step involves decomposing the signal after the initial denoising process using CEEMDAN and removing some of the false components from the intrinsic mode function (IMF) components, based on the kurtosis correlation function index. The signal is then reconstructed to complete the second denoising step. Finally, the denoised signal is analyzed using Teager energy operator demodulation and 1.5D spectral analysis to extract the fault frequency and determine the location of the fault in the ball screw. This method has been compared with other denoising methods, such as wavelet packet decomposition combined with CEEMDAN or SVD combined with variational mode decomposition (VMD), and the results show that under the condition of strong background noise, the proposed method can better extract the fault frequency of ball screw. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Actuators for Manufacturing Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 16004 KiB  
Article
A Novel Cooling Design for an Agonistic–Antagonistic SMA Tendon-Driven Actuator
Actuators 2023, 12(11), 415; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12110415 - 07 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1042
Abstract
Shape memory alloys (SMAs) exhibit a unique property that undergoes deformation in response to temperature variation. This characteristic can be utilized via the application of a filiform SMA wire to tendon-driven robotic actuators for biomimetic joint movements. However, due to the inefficiencies in [...] Read more.
Shape memory alloys (SMAs) exhibit a unique property that undergoes deformation in response to temperature variation. This characteristic can be utilized via the application of a filiform SMA wire to tendon-driven robotic actuators for biomimetic joint movements. However, due to the inefficiencies in heat dissipation, conventional SMA tendon-driven actuators are characterized by their lower relaxation speeds than other actuators. This paper proposes a novel cooling design for an SMA tendon-driven actuator using thin-fin heat sinks based on a multi-layer wrapped SMA tendon design. In addition, the electric circuit and the controller are refined. Prototype devices are constructed to validate the performance of SMA-based actuators under PID control. The results indicate that the proposed design exceeds previous models in terms of relaxation performance by up to 5.8 times while also being able to stabilize at a target angle within 0.5 s under control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) Actuators and Their Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 5977 KiB  
Article
Additively Manufactured Porous Filling Pneumatic Network Actuator
Actuators 2023, 12(11), 414; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12110414 - 07 Nov 2023
Viewed by 973
Abstract
This research project investigated the additive manufacturing of pneumatic actuators based on the principle of droplet dosing using an Arburg Freeformer 300-3X 3D printer. The developed structure consists of a porous inner filling and a dense, airtight chamber. By selectively varying the filling [...] Read more.
This research project investigated the additive manufacturing of pneumatic actuators based on the principle of droplet dosing using an Arburg Freeformer 300-3X 3D printer. The developed structure consists of a porous inner filling and a dense, airtight chamber. By selectively varying the filling densities of the porous inner filling, different membrane deflections of the actuator were achieved. By linking the actuators, a pneumatic network actuator was developed that could be used in endorobotics. To describe the membrane deflection of an additively manufactured pneumatic actuator, a mathematical model was developed that takes into account the influence of additive manufacturing and porous filling. Using a dedicated test rig, the predicted behavior of the pneumatic actuators was shown to be qualitatively consistent. In addition, a pneumatic network actuator (PneuNet) with a diameter of 17 mm and a height of 76 mm, consisting of nine chambers with different filling densities, could be bent through 82° under a pressure of 8 bar. Our study shows that the variation of filling densities during production leads to different membrane deflections. The mathematical model developed provides satisfactory predictions, although the influence of additive manufacturing needs to be determined experimentally. Post-processing is still a necessary step to realize the full bending potential of these actuators, although challenges regarding air-tightness remain. Future research approaches include studying the deflection behavior of the chambers in multiple directions, investigating alternative materials, and optimizing the printing process to improve mechanical properties and reliability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design of Smart Endorobots: Actuators, Sensors and Control Strategies)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 11314 KiB  
Article
Load Emulation with Independent Metering for a Pump Test Bench
Actuators 2023, 12(11), 413; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12110413 - 05 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1219
Abstract
For the investigation of new types of internal gear pumps under realistic conditions, a test bench is presented that enables dynamic load emulation via the pressure with simultaneous dynamic speed control of the pump. For pressure control, a hydraulic half-bridge with separate control [...] Read more.
For the investigation of new types of internal gear pumps under realistic conditions, a test bench is presented that enables dynamic load emulation via the pressure with simultaneous dynamic speed control of the pump. For pressure control, a hydraulic half-bridge with separate control edges is used on both sides of the pump and a pressure control is presented. An error-based adaptive controller is used for pressure control and tested experimentally. It is shown that the error-based adaptive controller has a better performance compared to a simple PID control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative and Intelligent Actuation for Heavy-Duty Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 4749 KiB  
Article
Soft End Effector Using Spring Roll Dielectric Elastomer Actuators
Actuators 2023, 12(11), 412; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12110412 - 04 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1087
Abstract
Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) offer robust, high-energy-density solutions for soft robotics. The proposed end effector consists of three spring roll configuration DEAs, each acting as a robotic finger, using a 3M VHB-F9473PC adhesive membrane. Spring roll DEAs can be designed to achieve highly [...] Read more.
Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) offer robust, high-energy-density solutions for soft robotics. The proposed end effector consists of three spring roll configuration DEAs, each acting as a robotic finger, using a 3M VHB-F9473PC adhesive membrane. Spring roll DEAs can be designed to achieve highly specialised actuations depending on the electrode patterning and structural supports. This allows a spring roll DEA-based soft end effector to be tailor-made by simply altering the electrode patterning. The lateral force, bending angle and response time of the actuator are measured experimentally and compared with the predictions of an analytical model. The cylindrical actuator measures 70 mm in length and 15 mm in diameter and achieves a lateral force of 30 mN, a bending angle of 6.8° and a response time of 1 s. Spring roll configuration DEAs are shown to reduce the effects of viscoelasticity seen in the membrane, making the actuator more controllable at higher voltages. The dielectric constant of the membrane is shown to be a limiting factor of actuation, with a decrease in dielectric constant resulting in larger actuation. The end effector successfully grips numerous light objects for extended periods, showing the applicability of spring roll DEAs for soft end effectors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Motion Control of Soft Robots)
Show Figures

Figure 1

26 pages, 5741 KiB  
Review
A Review of EMI Research of High Power Density Motor Drive Systems for Electric Actuator
Actuators 2023, 12(11), 411; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12110411 - 04 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1686
Abstract
With the global attention given to energy issues, the electrification of aviation and the development of more electric aircraft (MEA) have become important trends in the modern aviation industry. The electric actuator plays multiple roles in aircraft such as flight control, making it [...] Read more.
With the global attention given to energy issues, the electrification of aviation and the development of more electric aircraft (MEA) have become important trends in the modern aviation industry. The electric actuator plays multiple roles in aircraft such as flight control, making it a crucial technology for MEA. Given the limited space available inside an aircraft, the power density of electric actuators has become a critical design factor. However, the pursuit of high power density results in the need for larger rated power and higher switching frequency, which can lead to severe electromagnetic interference (EMI) issues. This, in turn, poses significant challenges to the overall reliability of the electric actuator. This paper provides a comprehensive review of EMI in high power density motor drive systems for electric actuator systems. Firstly, the state of the art of electric actuator systems are surveyed, pointing out the contradictory relationship between high power density and EMI. Subsequently, various EMI modeling approaches of motor control systems are reviewed. Additionally, the main EMI suppression methods are summarized. Active EMI mitigation methods are emphasized in this paper due to their advantages of higher power density compared with passive EMI filters. Finally, the paper concludes by summarizing the EMI research in motor drive systems and offering the prospects of electric actuators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Electronics and Actuators)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 8667 KiB  
Article
Adaptive Fuzzy Power Management Strategy for Extended-Range Electric Logistics Vehicles Based on Driving Pattern Recognition
Actuators 2023, 12(11), 410; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12110410 - 03 Nov 2023
Viewed by 868
Abstract
The primary objective of an energy management strategy is to achieve optimal fuel economy through proper energy distribution. The adoption of a fuzzy energy management strategy is hindered due to different reasons, such as uncertainties surrounding its adaptability and sustainability compared to conventional [...] Read more.
The primary objective of an energy management strategy is to achieve optimal fuel economy through proper energy distribution. The adoption of a fuzzy energy management strategy is hindered due to different reasons, such as uncertainties surrounding its adaptability and sustainability compared to conventional energy control methods. To address this issue, a fuzzy energy management strategy based on long short-term memory neural network driving pattern recognition is proposed. The time-frequency characteristics of vehicle speed are obtained using the Hilbert–Huang transform method. The multi-dimensional features are composed of the time-frequency features of vehicle speed and the time-domain signals of the accelerator pedal and brake pedal. A novel driving pattern recognition approach is designed using a long short-term memory neural network. A dual-input and single-output fuzzy controller is proposed, which takes the required power of the vehicle and the state of charge of the battery as the input, and the comprehensive power of the range extender as the output. The parameters of the fuzzy controller are selected according to the category of driving pattern. The results show that the fuel consumption of the method proposed in this paper is 5.8% lower than that of the traditional fuzzy strategy, and 4.2% lower than the fuzzy strategy of the two-dimensional feature recognition model. In general, the proposed EMS can effectively improve the fuel consumption of extended-range electric vehicles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Dynamics and Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2217 KiB  
Article
Characterization of a 3D Printed Endovascular Magnetic Catheter
Actuators 2023, 12(11), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12110409 - 01 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1526
Abstract
Minimally invasive endovascular procedures rely heavily on catheter devices. However, traditional catheters lack active steering requiring considerable skill on the surgeon’s part to accurately position the tip. While catheter tips could be made steerable using tendon-driven and Pneumatic Artificial Muscle (PAM) approaches, remote [...] Read more.
Minimally invasive endovascular procedures rely heavily on catheter devices. However, traditional catheters lack active steering requiring considerable skill on the surgeon’s part to accurately position the tip. While catheter tips could be made steerable using tendon-driven and Pneumatic Artificial Muscle (PAM) approaches, remote magnetic actuation is uniquely suited for this task due to its safety, controllability, and intrinsic miniaturization capabilities. Soft composite magnetic materials feature embedding distributed magnetic microparticles compared with attaching discrete permanent magnets proving beneficial in steerability and control. This work demonstrates the fabrication of a soft hollow magnetic tip that can be attached to a catheter to make the assembly steerable. The catheter tip is extensively characterized in terms of bending hysteresis, bending force, and dynamic response. The catheter showed average hysteresis between 5% and 10% and bending forces up to 0.8 N. It also showed a good dynamic response by changing its bending angle in <200 ms under a step response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soft Actuators for Medical Robotics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 706 KiB  
Article
An Adaptive Controller Based on Interconnection and Damping Assignment Passivity-Based Control for Underactuated Mechanical Systems: Application to the Ball and Beam System
Actuators 2023, 12(11), 408; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12110408 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1077
Abstract
In this paper, an adaptive technology and the interconnection and damping assignment passivity-based control method are combined to solve the stabilization problem for underactuated mechanical systems with uncertainties (including matched and unmatched). These uncertainties include unknown friction coefficients and unknown terms in kinetic [...] Read more.
In this paper, an adaptive technology and the interconnection and damping assignment passivity-based control method are combined to solve the stabilization problem for underactuated mechanical systems with uncertainties (including matched and unmatched). These uncertainties include unknown friction coefficients and unknown terms in kinetic energy and potential energy. A novel adaptive interconnection and damping assignment passivity-based control scheme is proposed and an adaptive stabilization controller is designed to make the closed-loop system locally stable. Verification is conducted on the ball and beam system. The locally asymptotic stability is demonstrated using the LaSalle’s invariance principle and approximate linearization. The effectiveness of the proposed control law is verified through numerical simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Control Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 13913 KiB  
Article
Design and Experimental Assessment of a Vibration Control System Driven by Low Inertia Hydrostatic Magnetorheological Actuators for Heavy Equipment
Actuators 2023, 12(11), 407; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12110407 - 29 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1232
Abstract
Active suspension systems for automotive vehicles were developed in the past using hydrostatic, electric, magnetic and magnetorheological (MR) technologies to control road vibrations and vehicle dynamics and thus improve ride comfort and vehicle performance. However, no such systems were developed for heavy equipment, [...] Read more.
Active suspension systems for automotive vehicles were developed in the past using hydrostatic, electric, magnetic and magnetorheological (MR) technologies to control road vibrations and vehicle dynamics and thus improve ride comfort and vehicle performance. However, no such systems were developed for heavy equipment, trucks and off-highway vehicles. For instance, agricultural tractors are still equipped with minimal suspension systems causing discomfort and health problems to drivers. The high suspension loads due to the massive weight of these vehicles are a challenge since high forces are needed to achieve efficient active suspension control. This paper presents an experimentally validated feasibility study of a hydrostatic, MR clutch-driven system of actuators. The scope of this paper is to evaluate the preliminary performance of the actuator for future vibration control. The hydraulic system allows the actuators to be remotely located from the wheels or cabin of the heavy vehicle and conveniently placed on the vehicle’s suspended frame. The design includes two MR clutches driven in an antagonistic configuration to push and pull on the end effector. Experiments on a laboratory prototype show that the low-inertia characteristics of the clutches allow a high blocked-output force bandwidth of 20 Hz with peak output forces exceeding 15 kN. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

32 pages, 5622 KiB  
Review
Review and Analysis of Platform-Related Performance of Rehabilitation Lower Limb Exoskeletons
Actuators 2023, 12(11), 406; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12110406 - 29 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1203
Abstract
Powered Lower Limb Exoskeletons (PLLE) have attracted much interest due to their potential applications. They provide assistance for persons with disabilities to accomplish activities of daily living (ADL), and more importantly, assist them in achieving their rehabilitation goals. However, there is still uncertainty [...] Read more.
Powered Lower Limb Exoskeletons (PLLE) have attracted much interest due to their potential applications. They provide assistance for persons with disabilities to accomplish activities of daily living (ADL), and more importantly, assist them in achieving their rehabilitation goals. However, there is still uncertainty regarding the quality and benefits that PLLEs can offer to patients. This is due to limited usability and performance of current PLLEs, insufficient clinical use of PLLEs for different patients with high diversity in their disability type and impairment, and also the large gap between the technological state of the art and clinical expectations. In this study, we review and analyse various factors that can improve the effectiveness of PLLEs at yielding better assistance and rehabilitation training for patients with motor impairments. First, we define a set of criteria that characterize the majority of expectations for the rehabilitation and assistance domains and we use them for evaluating PLLEs depending on the context. Then, we include the effects of control strategies and combined approaches which include auxiliary devices such as functional electrical stimulation and smart crutches applied to PLLEs with regard to the criteria we defined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Actuators for Robotics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

26 pages, 6639 KiB  
Article
High-Precision and Modular Decomposition Control for Large Hydraulic Manipulators
Actuators 2023, 12(11), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12110405 - 28 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1042
Abstract
It is difficult to achieve a high-precision motion control in hydraulic manipulators due to their structural redundancy, strong coupling of closed-chain structures, and flow–pressure coupling. In this paper, a high-precision motion control method for hydraulic manipulators is proposed based on the traditional virtual [...] Read more.
It is difficult to achieve a high-precision motion control in hydraulic manipulators due to their structural redundancy, strong coupling of closed-chain structures, and flow–pressure coupling. In this paper, a high-precision motion control method for hydraulic manipulators is proposed based on the traditional virtual decomposition control (VDC). The method proposed avoids an excessive virtual decomposition of the hydraulic manipulator and requires fewer model parameters than the traditional VDC. Further, the control precision improved by combining an adaptive real-time update of the inertial parameters. Compared with MBC, the proposed control method improved the motion accuracy of the hydraulic manipulator by more than 40% and 20% under elliptical and triangular trajectories. The simulation results showed that the proposed control method reduced the maximum position errors in Cartesian space by 90.4%, 86.8%, 23.6%, and 44.3% compared with PID and model-based control (MBC) in the absence of disturbances. The maximum position error in Cartesian space was reduced by 76.5% compared with that of MBC in a simulation with external disturbances. It can be seen from all the simulation results that with the proposed control method, the position error of the manipulator was less than 50 mm. The proposed control method effectively improved the motion precision of the examined hydraulic manipulator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative and Intelligent Actuation for Heavy-Duty Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 4369 KiB  
Article
Suspension Flux Internal Model Control of Single-Winding Bearingless Flux-Switching Permanent Magnet Motor
Actuators 2023, 12(11), 404; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12110404 - 28 Oct 2023
Viewed by 947
Abstract
A suspension flux internal model control method is proposed to address the problem of the strong coupling of a single-winding bearingless flux-switching permanent magnet motor leading to a significant ripple of the rotor radial displacement. Firstly, based on air-gap magnetic field modulation theory, [...] Read more.
A suspension flux internal model control method is proposed to address the problem of the strong coupling of a single-winding bearingless flux-switching permanent magnet motor leading to a significant ripple of the rotor radial displacement. Firstly, based on air-gap magnetic field modulation theory, the stator flux equation considering rotor dynamic eccentricity is established to reveal the relationship between the eccentric rotor and the magnetic field. Secondly, according to the dynamic characteristics of the motor and the variation law of the air-gap magnetic field, the suspension-plane flux is substituted into the rotor dynamic model, and the suspension flux-dynamics internal model and corresponding output are constructed, respectively. Finally, a complete control strategy is established, and the rotor is stably suspended by PWM control. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method has better steady-state and dynamic performance than traditional PID control, and the maximum radial displacement ripples of the rotor are reduced by 53% and 50% in steady-state and dynamic operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vibration Control Using Electromagnetic Actuators)
Show Figures

Figure 1

27 pages, 4764 KiB  
Article
A Survey on Autonomous Offline Path Generation for Robot-Assisted Spraying Applications
Actuators 2023, 12(11), 403; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12110403 - 28 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1054
Abstract
Robot-assisted spraying is a widespread manufacturing process for coating a multitude of mechanical components in an efficient and cost-effective way. However, process preparation is very time-consuming and relies heavily on the expertise of the robot programmer for generating the appropriate robot trajectory. For [...] Read more.
Robot-assisted spraying is a widespread manufacturing process for coating a multitude of mechanical components in an efficient and cost-effective way. However, process preparation is very time-consuming and relies heavily on the expertise of the robot programmer for generating the appropriate robot trajectory. For this reason, industry and academia investigate the possibility of supporting the end-user in the process by the use of appropriate algorithms. Mostly partial concepts can be found in the literature instead of a solution that solves this task end-to-end. This survey paper provides a summary of previous research in this field, listing the frameworks developed with the intention of fully automating the coating processes. First, the main inputs required for the trajectory calculation are described. The path-generating algorithm and its subprocesses are then classified and compared with alternative approaches. Finally, the required information for the executable output program is described, as well as the validation tools to keep track of program performance. The paper comes to the conclusion that there is a demand for an autonomous robot-assisted spraying system, and with a call-for-action for the implementation of the holistic framework. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Control Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2530 KiB  
Article
Extended State Observer-Based Sliding Mode Control Design of Two-DOF Lower Limb Exoskeleton
Actuators 2023, 12(11), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12110402 - 27 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1076
Abstract
Due to some model uncertainties and unknown friction disturbances that exist in the 2-DOF lower limb exoskeleton, a linear extended state observer (LESO) is proposed to estimate the unmeasurable angular velocity of two joints and the lumped uncertainties caused by friction disturbance and [...] Read more.
Due to some model uncertainties and unknown friction disturbances that exist in the 2-DOF lower limb exoskeleton, a linear extended state observer (LESO) is proposed to estimate the unmeasurable angular velocity of two joints and the lumped uncertainties caused by friction disturbance and hydraulic parametric uncertainties. Meanwhile, by using the Lyapunov technique, a sliding mode controller is designed to improve the dynamic performance and the steady state accuracy of two joint angle responses in human–exoskeleton cooperative motion. By regulating the sliding mode controller gain, both the system state errors and estimation errors of the LESO are reduced in an arbitrary boundary of zero neighborhood. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is verified with both simulation and experimental results for one operator-wearable test, to guarantee that the joint position tracking performance and human–exoskeleton impedance torques are suppressed in a satisfactory boundary. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 4658 KiB  
Article
A New Approach to Study the Effect of Complexity on an External Gear Pump Model to Generate Data Source for AI-Based Condition Monitoring Application
Actuators 2023, 12(11), 401; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12110401 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1236
Abstract
The external gear pump, like any other hydraulic component, is vulnerable to failure, which may lead to downtime as well as the failure of other components linked to it, thereby causing production loss. Therefore, establishing a condition monitoring system is crucial in identifying [...] Read more.
The external gear pump, like any other hydraulic component, is vulnerable to failure, which may lead to downtime as well as the failure of other components linked to it, thereby causing production loss. Therefore, establishing a condition monitoring system is crucial in identifying failure at an early stage. Traditional condition monitoring approaches rely on experimental data that are collected by means of sensors. However, the sensors utilized in the experiments may have calibration issues, which lead to inaccurate measurements. The availability of experimental data is also limited as it is difficult and expensive to create and detect a fault in a component. Hence, it is essential to develop a simulation model that mimics the performance of the actual system. The data generated from the model can be utilized to create the data source required for automated condition monitoring. A new methodology based on a detailed geometric model for simulating the External Gear Pump is described and compared to two models analyzed in the authors’ previous work, namely Schlosser’s loss model and simple geometric model. In this paper, the three models are compared with experimental data and the method utilized for fault injection. Schlosser’s loss model, as well as the detailed geometric model, are found to be suitable in terms of validation; however, the latter is a better candidate in terms of fault injection. Hence, the detailed geometric model can be implemented as a tool to generate the data source for condition monitoring applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative and Intelligent Actuation for Heavy-Duty Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 3267 KiB  
Article
Rate-Dependent Hysteresis Model of a Giant Magnetostrictive Actuator Based on an Improved Cuckoo Algorithm
Actuators 2023, 12(11), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12110400 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 922
Abstract
A rate-dependent asymmetric Prandtl–Ishilinskii (RAPI) model was proposed to tackle the serious rate-dependent hysteresis nonlinearity of the giant magnetostrictive actuator(GMA) output. First, a polynomial function was introduced based on the PI model, and hysteresis factors were introduced to the Play operator, which accurately [...] Read more.
A rate-dependent asymmetric Prandtl–Ishilinskii (RAPI) model was proposed to tackle the serious rate-dependent hysteresis nonlinearity of the giant magnetostrictive actuator(GMA) output. First, a polynomial function was introduced based on the PI model, and hysteresis factors were introduced to the Play operator, which accurately described the asymmetrical characteristic of the actuator output. On this basis, rate-dependent parameters were added to establish a rate-dependent RAPI model. Second, an improved cuckoo search (ICS) algorithm was proposed to solve the difficulty in the parameter identification of the RAPI model. For the ICS algorithm, the algorithm stability and optimization accuracy were improved using the adaptive step (AS) strategy and bird’s nest disturbance strategy. Then, the effectiveness of the ICS algorithm was tested by comparing it with other parameter identification algorithms. Finally, the rate-dependent RAPI model was verified by combining the output data of the giant magnetostrictive actuator under different frequencies. The results show that the rate-dependent RAPI model exhibits a higher accuracy than the PI model, thus verifying the effectiveness of the rate-dependent RAPI model. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop