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Med. Sci. Forum, 2022, IECBS 2021

The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Brain Sciences

Online | 15–30 July 2021

Volume Editor:
Stephen D. Meriney, University of Pittsburgh, USA

Number of Papers: 15
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Cover Story (view full-size image): This volume presents a collection of contributions made to the electronics conference “the 2nd International Electronic Conference on Brain Sciences”. This e-conference aims to bring [...] Read more.
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Research

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211 KiB  
Abstract
Thigmotaxis Helps Differentiate Normal and Pathological Ageing Processes in a Mouse model of Alzheimer’s Disease
Med. Sci. Forum 2022, 8(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECBS2021-10669 - 14 Jul 2021
Viewed by 471
Abstract
A decline in learning and remembering a spatial route often accompanies the normal ageing process. Impairments in spatial orientation manifest from the early stages of disabling cognitive diseases such as Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). In the preclinical field, detecting behavioural signs that help differentiate [...] Read more.
A decline in learning and remembering a spatial route often accompanies the normal ageing process. Impairments in spatial orientation manifest from the early stages of disabling cognitive diseases such as Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). In the preclinical field, detecting behavioural signs that help differentiate both entities improve understanding of the AD instauration process and promotes advances in novel treatments to ameliorate its impact. Here, the performance of 3xTg-AD mice of both sexes and their non-transgenic (NTg) (C57BL/6J) counterpart was evaluated at two time points (12 and 16-months of age) in the Morris water maze test, using a modified 5-day protocol for the assessment of cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms of dementia, followed by a multiple swim pattern identification within a single trial in the test. In the CUE stage, when a visible flag was available, the classical parameter of mean distance travelled until finding the platform showed that all animals learned the basic principles of the test more rapidly with a second experience (at 16 months of age). After switching the platform location in the Place task (PT) stage, mild variations in reference memory were detected along days at 12 months but not at 16 months of age. Later, in the removal (RMV) stage, where no platform was available, the 16-month-old 3xTg-AD male mice showed better results in short-term memory performance. However, when the swim pattern was visually analysed (qualitative analysis), persistence in Thigmotaxis episodes, a non-hippocampus-associated search strategy, was found in the pathological AD-like model but not in the NTg group, pointing out this pattern as a valuable differentiating trait. Finally, the multiple strategies approach seems valuable for differentiating both mice strains, despite a similar performance when quantitative parameters were analysed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Brain Sciences)
210 KiB  
Abstract
Pomegranate Juice Ameliorates Dopamine Release and Motor and Olfactory Deficits in The Rotenone-Induced Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease
Med. Sci. Forum 2022, 8(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECBS2021-10672 - 14 Jul 2021
Viewed by 529
Abstract
Pomegranate juice (PJ) is a rich source of ellagitannins, precursors of the colonic metabolite urolithin A believed to contribute to pomegranate’s neuroprotective effect. While many experimental studies involving PJ’s role in Alzheimer’s disease and hypoxic–ischemic brain injury have been carried out, our knowledge [...] Read more.
Pomegranate juice (PJ) is a rich source of ellagitannins, precursors of the colonic metabolite urolithin A believed to contribute to pomegranate’s neuroprotective effect. While many experimental studies involving PJ’s role in Alzheimer’s disease and hypoxic–ischemic brain injury have been carried out, our knowledge of pomegranate’s effects against Parkinson’s disease (PD) is very limited. Previously, we have reported that PJ treatment improved the postural stability, which correlated well with the enhancement of neuronal survival, protection against oxidative damage, and α-synuclein aggregation [1]. Since olfactory and motor deficits are typical symptoms of PD associated with a decreased density of nigral dopaminergic neurons, in this study, we aimed to investigate the capability of PJ for protecting the olfactory, motoric and neurochemical alterations. To evaluate its efficiency, Wistar rats were given the treatment with PJ in a dose of 500 mg/kg b.w./day (i.g.) and injected with ROT (1.3 mg/kg b.w./day, s.c.) from the 11th day. The experiment lasted a total of 45 days, including 10 days’ pre-treatment with PJ and 35 days’ combined treatment with PJ and ROT. After that, we assessed the olfactory discrimination index and vertical and horizontal activities as well as dopamine level in the dissected midbrain and cortex of animals according to protocols we described previously [2]. Our findings provide the first evidence that PJ treatment protects against dopamine depletion in the midbrain and cortex that correlated well with the enhanced olfactory discrimination performance. In addition, the PJ treatment slightly mitigated a motor deficit, as evidenced by the increased vertical activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Brain Sciences)
2 pages, 184 KiB  
Abstract
Neuroprotective Potential of Cranberry Juice against Parkinson’s Disease
Med. Sci. Forum 2022, 8(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECBS2021-10673 - 05 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1048
Abstract
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor dysfunction associated with a loss of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and the presence of Lewy bodies, mainly composed of aggregated α-synuclein (ASN), in the brain [1 [...] Read more.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor dysfunction associated with a loss of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and the presence of Lewy bodies, mainly composed of aggregated α-synuclein (ASN), in the brain [1]. Cranberry juice (CJ) is a rich source of polyphenols with strong antioxidant activity, which is believed to contribute to this fruit’s wide range of health benefits. However, to date, our knowledge of cranberry neuroprotective potential is very scarce and limited to only a few in vitro studies. Recently, we have reported that treatment with CJ controls oxidative stress in several organs, with the most noticeable effect occurring in the brain [2]. It has been shown that rats exposed to prolonged low-dose of rotenone (ROT) treatment develop PD-like neurodegeneration due to complex I inhibition and associated oxidative damage, ASN aggregation, and loss of DAergic neurons in the SNpc [3]. This study aimed to examine CJ’s ability to modulate the apoptosis mechanism and thereby provide neuroprotection in an ROT-induced rat model of parkinsonism. Wistar rats were given treatment with CJ in a dose of 500 mg/kg b.w./day (i.g.) and injected with ROT (1.3 mg/kg b.w./day, s.c.) from the 11th day. The experiment lasted a total of 45 days, including 10 days pre-treatment with CJ and 35 days combined treatment with CJ and ROT. To evaluate its neuroprotective effect, a microscopic examination, determination of inflammation and apoptosis markers, and ASN level were performed in the midbrain. Our results indicated that the CJ treatment provided neuroprotection, as evidenced by an enhancement of neuronal survival, which correlated well with the decreased expression of pro-apoptotic caspase-9 and Bax and normalization of cytochrome c levels. Importantly, treatment with CJ declined α-synuclein levels. The expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) was similar across all groups, with no statistically significant differences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Brain Sciences)
206 KiB  
Abstract
Novel Interactions between Mas and Angiotensin Receptors and Their Functionality Modulatory Role for the Brain RAS
Med. Sci. Forum 2022, 8(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECBS2021-10656 - 14 Jul 2021
Viewed by 455
Abstract
The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) not only plays an important role in controlling blood pressure, but also participates in almost every process to maintain homeostasis in mammals. The occurrence of RAS in the basal ganglia suggests that the system may be targeted to improve [...] Read more.
The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) not only plays an important role in controlling blood pressure, but also participates in almost every process to maintain homeostasis in mammals. The occurrence of RAS in the basal ganglia suggests that the system may be targeted to improve the therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. We found heteromers formed by Mas and angiotensin receptors, and addressed their functionality in neurons and microglia. Novel interactions formed by MAS/AT1R and MAS/AT2R were discovered by using resonance energy transfer techniques. In the heterologous system, we showed that the three receptors—MasR, AT1R, and AT2R—can interact to form heterotrimers (Figure S1). The functionality of individual and interacting receptors was assayed by measuring levels of the second messengers cAMP and Ca2+ in transfected human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293T) (Figure S2) and primary cultures of striatal cells. Expression (Figure S3) and functionality (Figure S4) were assayed in parallel in primary cultures of microglia treated or not treated with lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) to simulate neuroinflammation conditions. The proximity ligation assay (PLA) was used to assess heteromer expression in parkinsonian and dyskinetic conditions (Figure S4). In all cases, agonist-induced signaling was reduced upon coactivation, and in some cases just by coexpression. In addition, the blockade of signaling of two receptors in a complex by the action of a given (selective) receptor antagonist (cross-antagonism) was often observed. The negative modulation of calcium mobilization (mediated by AT1R activation), the multiplicity of possibilities on RAS affecting the MAPK pathway, and the disbalanced expression of heteromers in dyskinesia yield new insights into the operation of the RAS system, how it becomes unbalanced, and how a disbalanced RAS system can be rebalanced. Furthermore, RAS components in activated microglia warrant attention in drug development approaches to address neurodegeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Brain Sciences)
220 KiB  
Abstract
Intrinsic (Genotype) and Extrinsic (Environment) Factors in the Temporal Patterns of Nest-Building Process: Effect of Forced Isolation in Old Female Mice with Normal and AD-Pathological Aging
Med. Sci. Forum 2022, 8(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECBS2021-10677 - 14 Jul 2021
Viewed by 457
Abstract
The impact of isolation has become a critical worldwide issue since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. In nursing homes, the physical distance measures forced the separation of old patients in restricted areas and rooms to avoid the spread of the virus. Similarly, [...] Read more.
The impact of isolation has become a critical worldwide issue since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. In nursing homes, the physical distance measures forced the separation of old patients in restricted areas and rooms to avoid the spread of the virus. Similarly, older people living at home face severe restrictions as the best preventive strategy to protect their lives before vaccination is possible/effective. At the translational level, we recently demonstrated the impact of isolation in male 3×Tg-AD mice for Alzheimer’s disease and the increase in gross and fine motor activity. The latter was monitored through nesting, a species-typical ethological behavior used as a naturalistic approach to measuring animals’ well-being and abilities in instrumental tasks. In the present work, we scored the nests and the nest-building process in old females under the effects of intrinsic (genotype, 3×Tg-AD vs. C57BL/6J) and extrinsic (environment, forced isolation vs. social environment) factors. Nests were scored according to the ordinal Deacon Scale, whereas the temporal progress of nest construction was determined with a new parametric (numeric) measurement analog. The results confirmed previously described genotype differences, with worse nests in 3×Tg-AD mice living under standard housing conditions than their non-transgenic counterparts, at 48 and 72 h. However, the genotype effect was lost under isolation, mainly due to isolated 3×Tg-AD females enhancing nest-building behavior, while isolated non-transgenic counterparts were less efficient at 24 h. The results also indicate that temporal patterns of the nest-building process are important to be considered when measuring the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Brain Sciences)
217 KiB  
Abstract
Sex-Dependent Hepatomegaly, and Increased Hepatic Oxidative Stress in Old Male and Female 3xTg-AD Mice as Compared to Mice with Physiological Aging
Med. Sci. Forum 2022, 8(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECBS2021-10668 - 14 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 530
Abstract
When it comes to neurodegenerative disorders, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the main causes of dementia in older people. Until now, studies have focused on alterations occurring in the brain. However, it has been shown that along with the accumulation of beta-amyloid [...] Read more.
When it comes to neurodegenerative disorders, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the main causes of dementia in older people. Until now, studies have focused on alterations occurring in the brain. However, it has been shown that along with the accumulation of beta-amyloid plaques and tau proteins, oxidative stress and inflammation also play a role in this disease’s pathophysiology. Peripheral organs such as the liver, the central organ regulating metabolism and supporting the immune system, could affect AD pathophysiological development and/or progress. We have previously described hepatic oxidative stress in 6-month-old 3xTg-AD mice, an age mimicking the prodromal stages of AD disease. In the present work, we studied the impact of AD-genotype and sex effects on liver dysfunction in 16-month-old male and female 3xTg-AD mice, an age mimicking advanced neuropathological stages of the disease, and as compared to age- and sex-matched non-transgenic mice with physiological aging. The mass index results showed hepatic damage as hepatomegaly in 3xTg-AD mice. A sex-dependent increase in hepatic tissue oxidative stress, measured through antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase (Gr) and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), and antioxidant compound glutathione (GSH), was found in 3xTg-AD mice. Furthermore, the correlations between the enzymes and the hepatic index also showed sex and genotype differences. These results indicate that liver status is affected in 3xTg-AD mice; it is affected in a sexually differential manner and could favor AD progression. Further ongoing analysis regarding β-amyloid and lipidic depositions on the liver would determine if these alterations correlate with a worse prognosis of the disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Brain Sciences)
190 KiB  
Abstract
Positive Facial Expression for Pain Modulation in Patients with Chronic Migraine
Med. Sci. Forum 2022, 8(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECBS2021-10658 - 14 Jul 2021
Viewed by 395
Abstract
Background: Migraine is one of the most prevalent neurological disorders worldwide [1]. A large number of studies suggest that migraines are associated with the mental state of the patients, and especially with negative emotions [2]. One option to regulate [...] Read more.
Background: Migraine is one of the most prevalent neurological disorders worldwide [1]. A large number of studies suggest that migraines are associated with the mental state of the patients, and especially with negative emotions [2]. One option to regulate negative emotions or the negative affective state in chronic migraine patients is by using visual feedback techniques that may visually induce analgesia [3]. In fact, it is known that the observation of facial expressions effectively modulates pain perception during social interactions [4]. Aim: To investigate whether exposure to different visual feedback conditions (facial expressions) may modulate pain perception, assessed by the 1 to 100 cm visual analogue scale in chronic migraine patients. Methods: To this aim, 38 female chronic migraine patients were recruited at the IRCCS C. Mondino Foundation. Chronic migraine patients eligible for detoxification in our institution during the pain attack period (pain between 3 and 7 in the visual analogue scale) were included. Participants were exposed to a 1 × 4 within-subject study design, where they had to observe different visual stimuli (positive face, neutral face, negative face, and control (white screen)), presented three times in a randomized order (each condition lasted 40 s). After the observation of each visual condition, pain ratings with a 0 to 100 VAS and identification scores in a Likert scale from −3 (no identification at all) to 3 (total identification) were assessed. Results: The results show a significant difference in pain ratings between the positive (32.44 ± 31) the negative (38.61 ± 29.74) (z = −4.46, p < 0.0001), and the neutral facial expression (37.15 ± 28.36) (z = 3.41, p < 0.001). Participants identified more with the neutral face condition compared with the negative face condition (z = 3.32, p < 0.05). Overall, the patients identified more with the three emotional face conditions than with the white screen control condition. Conclusions: A positive emotional face feedback is a stimulus strong enough to modulate pain perception via the mediation of emotion regulation for positive emotions. This study paves the way for the integration of new cognitive–behavioural training based on the adoption of visual placebo analgesia to further control pain perception in chronic migraine patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Brain Sciences)
201 KiB  
Abstract
Towards Advanced Ultrasound Image Analysis by Combining Radiomics and Artificial Intelligence in Brain Tumors
Med. Sci. Forum 2022, 8(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECBS2021-1065 - 14 Jul 2021
Viewed by 339
Abstract
Background: Intraoperative ultrasound (ioUS) images of brain tumors contain information that has not yet been exploited. The present work aims to analyze images in both B-mode and strain-elastography using techniques based on artificial intelligence and radiomics. We intend to assess the capacity for [...] Read more.
Background: Intraoperative ultrasound (ioUS) images of brain tumors contain information that has not yet been exploited. The present work aims to analyze images in both B-mode and strain-elastography using techniques based on artificial intelligence and radiomics. We intend to assess the capacity for differentiating glioblastomas (GBM) from solitary brain metastases (SBM) and also to assess the ability to predict the overall survival (OS) in GBM. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent craniotomy between March 2018 to June 2020 with GBM and SBM diagnoses. Cases with an ioUS study were included. In the first group of patients, an analysis based on deep learning was performed. An existing neural network (Inception V3) was used to classify tumors into GBM and SBM. The models were evaluated using the area under the curve (AUC), classification accuracy, and precision. In the second group, radiomic features from the tumor region were extracted. Radiomic features associated with OS were selected employing univariate correlations. Then, a survival analysis was conducted using Cox regression. Results: For the classification task, a total of 36 patients were included: 26 GBM and 10 SBM. Models were built using a total of 812 ultrasound images. For B-mode, AUC, and accuracy, values of the classification algorithms ranged from 0.790 to 0.943 and from 72 to 89%, respectively. For elastography, AUC and accuracy values ranged from 0.847 to 0.985 and from 79 to 95%, respectively. Sixteen patients were available for the survival analysis. A total of 52 radiomic features were extracted. Two texture features from B-mode (Conventional mean and GLZLM_SZLGE) and one texture feature from strain-elastography (GLZLM_LZHGE) were significantly associated with OS. Conclusion: Automated processing of ioUS images through deep learning can generate high-precision classification algorithms. Radiomic tumor region features in B-mode and elastography appear to be significantly associated with OS in GBM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Brain Sciences)

Other

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1369 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Evaluation of Psychomotor Coordination during Educational Activities in Adolescents with Mental Disorders in Remission
Med. Sci. Forum 2022, 8(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECBS2021-10652 - 14 Jul 2021
Viewed by 517
Abstract
The imbalance between the speed and accuracy of cognitive–motor operations can lead to the formation of abnormal behavioral programs fraught with serious negative consequences for the individual. For successful correction and prevention of social disadaptation in adolescents with nervous and mental diseases and [...] Read more.
The imbalance between the speed and accuracy of cognitive–motor operations can lead to the formation of abnormal behavioral programs fraught with serious negative consequences for the individual. For successful correction and prevention of social disadaptation in adolescents with nervous and mental diseases and functional disorders in the mental sphere in general education schools, the peculiarities of their psychomotor activity should be taken into account. We measured some parameters of visual–motor coordination and sensorimotor reaction in adolescents with mental disorders with or without organic brain damage. Adolescents from both groups showed higher speed, but poorer accuracy and smoothness of movements than typically developing students. The visual and acoustic reaction times were longer in adolescents with mental disorders without organic brain damage than in reference groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Brain Sciences)
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1350 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Density of SMI-32 Immunopositive Neurons in Eye-Specific Layers of Lateral Geniculate Nuclei in Kittens Reared with Monocular Deprivation and Unilateral Convergent Squint
Med. Sci. Forum 2022, 8(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECBS2021-10666 - 14 Jul 2021
Viewed by 617
Abstract
To reveal the dynamics of the development of the morphological changes in lateral geniculate nuclei caused by binocular vision impairment, we study the changes in density of SMI-32 immunopositive neurons in the frontal sections of the LGNd of both hemispheres of 2- and [...] Read more.
To reveal the dynamics of the development of the morphological changes in lateral geniculate nuclei caused by binocular vision impairment, we study the changes in density of SMI-32 immunopositive neurons in the frontal sections of the LGNd of both hemispheres of 2- and 3-month-old kittens reared with monocular deprivation or unilateral convergent squint. We develop a custom software to divide the binocular part of the A-layers into 10 consecutive sectors and calculate the number of SMI-32 immunopositive neurons in each of them. The neuronal density was calculated and compared between groups in sectors with the same eccentricity. In monocularly deprived animals, a decline in the neuronal density relative to the control group was found in the layers innervated from the deprived eye in both age groups, regardless of eccentricity. However, in the strabismic kittens, the decrease in neuronal density was revealed only in the peripheral sectors of layer A1, driven by the deviated eye. The width of this area of reduced Y-neuron density was larger in the 3-month-old kittens, indicating that the development of the disorder has not yet stabilized at this age. The results may be interpreted as morpho-physiological correlates of different types of human amblyopia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Brain Sciences)
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606 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Measuring Temporal Patterns of the Nest-Building Process in Mice for Animal Welfare and Disease Monitoring
Med. Sci. Forum 2022, 8(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECBS2021-10685 - 15 Jul 2021
Viewed by 929
Abstract
Nesting behavior in rodents, used to assess animal welfare/illness and instrumental tasks, is also proposed as valuable for disease monitoring, evaluating potential risk factors and interventions. The reliability of Deacon’s 5-point ordinal scale to score nests at 24 h is well-recognized. However, previous [...] Read more.
Nesting behavior in rodents, used to assess animal welfare/illness and instrumental tasks, is also proposed as valuable for disease monitoring, evaluating potential risk factors and interventions. The reliability of Deacon’s 5-point ordinal scale to score nests at 24 h is well-recognized. However, previous work with the 3xTg-AD mice model of Alzheimer’s disease proposed a 3-day protocol to discard false negatives, thus unveiling genotype-, sex- and age-dependent differences. Here, we propose the size of nesting as a numeric variable, complementary to the ordinal scale, to allow parametric repeated measures analysis for identifying and evaluating temporal patterns in the nest-building process. Thus, nests of male and female mice with normal and AD-pathological aging ‘measured’ during 3-days showed that the nest-building process responded to a linear equation in wild-type animals or when female sex was considered but disrupted in males or the AD-genotype. Genotype per sex interaction indicated the optimal nest-building process in wild-type females, as they build the best nests at 72 h and the worst nests in 3xTg-AD mice at 48 h. On each day, data were consistent with the ordinal scale, but the identification of temporal patterns with the numeric variable confirmed nest-building as a complex process, which is sensitive to sex and genotype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Brain Sciences)
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1233 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Writing Units or Decades First in Two Digit Numbers Dictation Tasks: The Case of Arabic an Inverted Language
Med. Sci. Forum 2022, 8(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECBS2021-10654 - 14 Jul 2021
Viewed by 527
Abstract
This study investigated the effect of educational level and of the syntactic representation of numbers in Arabic on the task of transcoding two-digit numbers from dictation. The participants were primary, junior-high, and high school pupils and higher education students. All spoke Arabic as [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effect of educational level and of the syntactic representation of numbers in Arabic on the task of transcoding two-digit numbers from dictation. The participants were primary, junior-high, and high school pupils and higher education students. All spoke Arabic as a mother tongue. They performed a transcoding task, namely writing two-digit numbers from dictation. Units-first\decades-first writing patterns were collected depending on the differential syntactic structures of the two-digit number dictated (decades first: whole tens; units first: teen numbers; identical units and decades, remaining two-digit numbers). The findings reveal that in general, Arabic speakers adopt a decades-first writing pattern for two-digit numbers, especially when it is consistent with the syntactic structure of two-digit numbers, as in whole-tens numbers. This decade-first writing pattern is more evident and consistent in junior-high school, high school, and higher education than in primary school due to the improvement in mathematical skills and second and third languages. However, this pattern is modulated by the syntactic complexity of the unit–decade structure. This complexity is more pronounced in two-digit numbers whose processing is more dependent on numerical syntax. Thus, whole-tens numbers, teen numbers, and identical-decade–unit numbers are less complex than the remaining two-digit numbers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Brain Sciences)
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1408 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Comparing Brain Responses to Different Styles of Music through Their Real and Imagined Interpretation: An Analysis Based on EEG Connectivity Networks
Med. Sci. Forum 2022, 8(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECBS2021-10667 - 14 Jul 2021
Viewed by 352
Abstract
The aim of this work was to assess the brain responses of expert cellists during a real (real-INT) or imagined (imag-INT) interpretation of two musical styles with different learning/training cognitive roots. EEGs of 12 cellists were recorded while they interpreted previously memorized excerpts [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to assess the brain responses of expert cellists during a real (real-INT) or imagined (imag-INT) interpretation of two musical styles with different learning/training cognitive roots. EEGs of 12 cellists were recorded while they interpreted previously memorized excerpts of tonal-baroque (T) and atonal-contemporary (A) music and at rest (R). Phase synchronization functional connectivity measurements among different cortical regions were computed from the EEG data and at different frequency bands (FB). These were then thresholded using surrogate data tests. Brain network construction and graph-metric analysis were performed for each FB and condition/interpretation. Global graph-indices statistical results showed that regardless of FB: (a) the node degree and density presented significant differences among conditions T, A, and R during imag-INT and between interpretations with real greater than imag-INT only for A; (b) global (NGE) and local (NLE) normalized efficiency (vs. random network), indices measuring network information exchanges, exhibited a similar small-world network structure (SW) in T, A, and R during real-INT; however, during imag-INT, SW changed in T and A but due to a significant NLE increase with NLE(A) greater than NLE(T) and the latter greater than NLE(R). Statistical node topographic maps results showed significant differences for graph degree (real-INT greater than imag-INT) and for NLE (imag-INT greater than real-INT) in A for certain nodes of delta and theta EEG FB networks. Style differences appearing only during imag-INT (e.g., the SW) indicate that imag-INT requires/involves different cognitive functions/processes than those in real-INT. The analysis and previous results allowed the discrimination of representative musical styles from different periods, which receive different cognitive learning in the musicians’ lives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Brain Sciences)
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498 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Systematic Review: Antioxidant and Neuroprotective Capacity of Species of the Genus Asplenium (Monilophyta: Aspleniaceae)
Med. Sci. Forum 2022, 8(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECBS2021-10665 - 14 Jul 2021
Viewed by 327
Abstract
The genus Asplenium L. comprises about 700 species of terrestrial, epiphytic, and saxicolous habits distributed in temperate and tropical regions around the world, exhibiting a high chemical richness with variable biological activity. In this review, compounds with antioxidant activity that constitute a pharmacological [...] Read more.
The genus Asplenium L. comprises about 700 species of terrestrial, epiphytic, and saxicolous habits distributed in temperate and tropical regions around the world, exhibiting a high chemical richness with variable biological activity. In this review, compounds with antioxidant activity that constitute a pharmacological potential in diseases of the central nervous system are detailed. Asplenium nidus L. species presents a high concentration of phenols and flavonoids evidenced by antioxidant activity assays, such as DPPH, FRAP, total phenols, total flavonoids, and ORAC, and represent compounds with bioactive potential, including neuroprotection. The species Asplenium adiantum-nigrum L. presents a high antioxidant potential of its rhizome extracts exhibited in DPPH and ABTS assays, attributed to the high concentration of mangiferin. the xanthone mangiferin is a compound also present in other species of genera, such as Asplenium ceterach L. and Asplenium montanum Willd., in significant amounts. This xanthone has studies on its neuroprotective effect through different targets, some of them being the acetylcholinesterase enzymes, the 5-lipooxygenase enzyme, and the antioxidant activity itself. All these mechanisms of action of mangiferin constitute an object of study for its effect on memory loss, which can be relayed in Alzheimer’s disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Brain Sciences)
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