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Foundations, Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2024) – 6 articles

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24 pages, 5936 KiB  
Review
Do Pores Exist?—Foundational Issues in Pore Structural Characterisation
by Sean P. Rigby
Foundations 2024, 4(2), 225-248; https://doi.org/10.3390/foundations4020015 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 210
Abstract
This work reviews a range of fundamental theoretical considerations in pore structural characterisation. The pore concept is essential for providing a better understanding of physical processes arising within porous media than purely phenomenological approaches. The notion of a pore structure is found to [...] Read more.
This work reviews a range of fundamental theoretical considerations in pore structural characterisation. The pore concept is essential for providing a better understanding of physical processes arising within porous media than purely phenomenological approaches. The notion of a pore structure is found to be independently valid and invariant during theory change concerning said physical processes, even for structural models obtained via indirect methods. While imaging methods provide a more direct characterisation of porous solids, there is often a surfeit of information beyond that which can be wielded with current computing power to predict processes sufficiently accurately. Unfortunately, the pore network model extraction methods cannot decide in advance the level of simplification necessary to obtain the optimum minimal idealisation for a given physical process. Pore network models can be obtained with differing geometrical and topological properties, but similar mass transfer rates, for reasons that are often not clear. In contrast, the ‘pore-sifting’ strategy aims to explicitly identify the key feature of the void space that controls a mass transport process of interest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sciences)
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20 pages, 2624 KiB  
Article
Minimal Conditioned Stiffness Matrices with Frequency-Dependent Path Following for Arbitrary Elastic Layers over Half-Spaces
by Andrew T. Peplow and Bilong Liu
Foundations 2024, 4(2), 205-224; https://doi.org/10.3390/foundations4020014 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 224
Abstract
This paper introduces an efficient computational procedure for analyzing the propagation of harmonic waves in layered elastic media. This offers several advantages, including the ability to handle arbitrary frequencies, depths, and the number of layers above an elastic half-space, and efforts to follow [...] Read more.
This paper introduces an efficient computational procedure for analyzing the propagation of harmonic waves in layered elastic media. This offers several advantages, including the ability to handle arbitrary frequencies, depths, and the number of layers above an elastic half-space, and efforts to follow dispersion curves and flag up possible singularities are investigated. While there are inherent limitations in terms of computational accuracy and capacity, this methodology is straightforward to implement for studying free or forced vibrations and obtaining relevant response data. We present computations of wavenumber dispersion diagrams, phase velocity plots, and response data in both the frequency and time domains. These computational results are provided for two example cases: plane strain and axisymmetry. Our methodology is grounded in a well-conditioned dynamic stiffness approach specifically tailored for deep-layered strata analysis. We introduce an innovative method for efficiently computing wavenumber dispersion curves. By tracking the slope of these curves, users can effectively manage continuation parameters. We illustrate this technique through numerical evidence of a layer resonance in a real-life case study characterized by a fold in the dispersion curves. Furthermore, this framework is particularly advantageous for engineers addressing problems related to ground-borne vibrations. It enables the analysis of phenomena such as zero group velocity (ZGV), where a singularity occurs, both in the frequency and time domains, shedding light on the unique characteristics of such cases. Given the reduced dimension of the problem, this formulation can considerably aid geophysicists and engineers in areas such as MASW or SASW techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sciences)
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30 pages, 1124 KiB  
Article
A Fundamental Duality in the Exact Sciences: The Application to Quantum Mechanics
by David Ellerman
Foundations 2024, 4(2), 175-204; https://doi.org/10.3390/foundations4020013 - 11 May 2024
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Abstract
There is a fundamental subsets–partitions duality that runs through the exact sciences. In more concrete terms, it is the duality between elements of a subset and the distinctions of a partition. In more abstract terms, it is the reverse-the-arrows of category theory that [...] Read more.
There is a fundamental subsets–partitions duality that runs through the exact sciences. In more concrete terms, it is the duality between elements of a subset and the distinctions of a partition. In more abstract terms, it is the reverse-the-arrows of category theory that provides a major architectonic of mathematics. The paper first develops the duality between the Boolean logic of subsets and the logic of partitions. Then, probability theory and information theory (as based on logical entropy) are shown to start with the quantitative versions of subsets and partitions. Some basic universal mapping properties in the category of Sets are developed that precede the abstract duality of category theory. But by far the main application is to the clarification and interpretation of quantum mechanics. Since classical mechanics illustrates the Boolean worldview of full distinctness, it is natural that quantum mechanics would be based on the indefiniteness of its characteristic superposition states, which is modeled at the set level by partitions (or equivalence relations). This approach to interpreting quantum mechanics is not a jury-rigged or ad hoc attempt at the interpretation of quantum mechanics but is a natural application of the fundamental duality running throughout the exact sciences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sciences)
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19 pages, 4730 KiB  
Article
Exchangeable Quantities and Power Laws: Τhe Case of Pores in Solids
by Antigoni G. Margellou and Philippos J. Pomonis
Foundations 2024, 4(2), 156-174; https://doi.org/10.3390/foundations4020012 - 23 Apr 2024
Viewed by 553
Abstract
In this work we suggest that the common cause for the development of various power laws is the existence of a suitable exchangeable quantity between the agents of a set. Examples of such exchangeable quantities, leading to eponymous power laws, include money (Pareto’s [...] Read more.
In this work we suggest that the common cause for the development of various power laws is the existence of a suitable exchangeable quantity between the agents of a set. Examples of such exchangeable quantities, leading to eponymous power laws, include money (Pareto’s Law), scientific knowledge (Lotka’s Law), people (Auerbach’s Law), and written or verbal information (Zipf’s Law), as well as less common cases like bullets during deadly conflicts, recognition in social networks, heat between the atmosphere and sea-ice floes, and, finally, mass of water vapors between pores in solids. This last case is examined closely in the present article based on extensive experimental data. It is shown that the transferred mass between pores, which eventually grow towards a power law distribution, may be expressed using different parameters, either transferred surface area, or transferred volume, or transferred pore length or transferred pore anisotropy. These distinctions lead to different power laws of variable strength as reflected by the corresponding exponent. The exponents depend quantitatively on the spread of frequency distribution of the examined parameter and tend to zero as the spread of distribution tends to a single order of magnitude. A comparison between the energy and the entropy of different kinds of pore distributions reveals that these two statistical parameters are linearly related, implying that the system poise at a critical state and the exchangeable quantities are the most convenient operations helping to keep this balance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sciences)
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10 pages, 280 KiB  
Article
On Mach’s Principle in Entropic Gravity
by A. Schlatter and R. E. Kastner
Foundations 2024, 4(2), 146-155; https://doi.org/10.3390/foundations4020011 - 3 Apr 2024
Viewed by 580
Abstract
The question of where the inertial properties of matter come from has been open for a long time. Isaac Newton considered inertia an intrinsic property of matter. Ernst Mach held a different view whereby the inertia of a body comes from its interaction [...] Read more.
The question of where the inertial properties of matter come from has been open for a long time. Isaac Newton considered inertia an intrinsic property of matter. Ernst Mach held a different view whereby the inertia of a body comes from its interaction with the rest of the universe. This idea is known today as Mach’s principle. We discuss Mach’s principle based on transactional gravity, the recently developed connection of entropic gravity to the physics of quantum events, induced by transactions. It is shown that Mach’s principle holds and that there is a fundamental relation between the gravitational constant G and the total mass in the causal universe. This relationship, derived by means of entropic principles, is rigorously proven. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sciences)
12 pages, 277 KiB  
Article
Dirac Field, van der Waals Gas, Weyssenhoff Fluid, and Newton Particle
by Luca Fabbri
Foundations 2024, 4(2), 134-145; https://doi.org/10.3390/foundations4020010 - 28 Mar 2024
Viewed by 415
Abstract
This article considers the Dirac field in polar formulation and shows that when torsion is taken in effective approximation the theory has the thermodynamic properties of a van der Waals gas. It is then shown that in the limit of zero chiral angle [...] Read more.
This article considers the Dirac field in polar formulation and shows that when torsion is taken in effective approximation the theory has the thermodynamic properties of a van der Waals gas. It is then shown that in the limit of zero chiral angle the van der Waals gas reduces to a Weyssenhoff fluid, and in spinlessness regime the Weyssenhoff fluid further reduces to a Newton particle. This nesting of approximations allows us to interpret the various spinor quantities. We will see that torsion will provide a form of negative pressure, while the chiral angle will be related to a type of temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sciences)
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