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Merits, Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2022) – 8 articles

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17 pages, 705 KiB  
Article
Relationships between ICT Use for Task and Social Functions, Work Characteristics, and Employee Task Proficiency and Job Satisfaction: Does Age Matter?
by Carolin Dietz, Pauline Bauermann and Hannes Zacher
Merits 2022, 2(3), 224-240; https://doi.org/10.3390/merits2030016 - 30 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3617
Abstract
Digitalization and demographic change represent two megatrends that impact organizations and workplaces around the globe. Rapid developments in information and communication technology (ICT) are fundamentally changing the ways in which work is conducted. At the same time, workforces are becoming increasingly older and [...] Read more.
Digitalization and demographic change represent two megatrends that impact organizations and workplaces around the globe. Rapid developments in information and communication technology (ICT) are fundamentally changing the ways in which work is conducted. At the same time, workforces are becoming increasingly older and age diverse. Integrating the model of workplace ICT use and work design with socioemotional selectivity theory from the lifespan development literature, we investigate employee age as a moderator of the indirect and total effects of ICT use for task and social functions on self-rated task proficiency and job satisfaction. As potential mediators, we focus on three job-related resources: job autonomy, team cohesion, and task significance. Data were collected from 1761 employees at three measurement points across two months. The results showed that ICT use for task and social functions were not significantly associated with job autonomy, team cohesion, task significance, task proficiency, and job satisfaction, while controlling for baseline levels of these mediator and outcome variables. Job autonomy was negatively related to task proficiency, and team cohesion was positively related, whereas both job autonomy and team cohesion were positively related to job satisfaction. Contrary to expectations, age did not moderate the indirect and total effects of ICT use for task and social functions on task proficiency and job satisfaction. We discuss the implications of our findings for future research and practice regarding ICT use and age in the work context. Full article
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14 pages, 279 KiB  
Article
A Construct Validity Study for the Union Intolerance Scale: Convergent-Discriminant Validity and Concurrent Criterion-Related Validity
by Steven Mellor
Merits 2022, 2(3), 210-223; https://doi.org/10.3390/merits2030015 - 25 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1217
Abstract
Stemming from union intolerance as a psychological construct, defined as sustained hatred by nonunion employees when unions are perceived to encourage intolerable vices in employees and, notably, in union employees, we sought to broaden the empirical basis to claim scale validity for the [...] Read more.
Stemming from union intolerance as a psychological construct, defined as sustained hatred by nonunion employees when unions are perceived to encourage intolerable vices in employees and, notably, in union employees, we sought to broaden the empirical basis to claim scale validity for the union intolerance scale. In doing so, we targeted two forms of construct validity: convergent-discriminant validity and concurrent criterion-related validity. Based on survey data drawn from a sample of American nonunion employees (N = 162), we found supportive correlational evidence for both forms. In reference to convergent validity, the scores yielded by the intolerance scale showed expected convergence with the scores yielded by measures of general intolerance of stigmatized groups and union reliance. In reference to discriminant validity, the scores yielded by the intolerance scale showed expected divergence with the scores yielded by a measure of self-reported negative social emotions linked to vices. As for concurrent validity, the scores yielded by the intolerance scale were associated with the scores yielded by a measure of support for the Protecting the Right to Organize Act (the PRO Act), a proposed labor law passed by the U.S. House of Representatives, in which employees indicated whether they will or will not urge their two State Senators to cast a vote in favor of the Act when it is brought to the floor of the U.S. Senate. Included are discussion points about why the scale can be suggested as valid and how scale validity can be extended. Full article
23 pages, 9071 KiB  
Article
Female Human Capital and Economic Growth in Sudan: Empirical Evidence for Women’s Empowerment
by Elwasila S. E. Mohamed
Merits 2022, 2(3), 187-209; https://doi.org/10.3390/merits2030014 - 23 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2158
Abstract
Human capital in general spurs economic growth. Female human capital in terms of education and health in particular is important for economic growth in countries where poverty and gender inequalities are pervasive, such as Sudan. This study aimed to investigate the role of [...] Read more.
Human capital in general spurs economic growth. Female human capital in terms of education and health in particular is important for economic growth in countries where poverty and gender inequalities are pervasive, such as Sudan. This study aimed to investigate the role of female human capital in economic growth in Sudan, together with female labor force participation and women’s participation in the national parliament. The study applied a basic autoregressive distributed lag model ARDL and a nonlinear (NARDL) accounting for structural breaks to time-series data over the period 1975–2021. The bounds tests revealed that female human capital variables and economic growth have a long-run equilibrium relationship. The empirical results revealed that female human capital has a negative effect on gross national income per capita (GNIP). However, female labor participation was found to have a significant positive effect on economic growth in both models. Prevalence of HIV/AIDS among women of age 14–25 has a significant negative effect on economic growth, which is likely also reflecting the negative effect of female human capital. Results also showed that women’s participation in the parliament has positive and significant effect on economic growth in the short run only. The study argues for enhancing female human capital via female enrollment in education and through the promotion of women’s health, including combatting HIV/AIDS. Effective female labor participation can be enhanced through reductions in women’s vulnerability in employment and increasing their work in waged formal sectors. Women’s political empowerment could foster long-term growth, but its quality aspects must be ascertained. Full article
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17 pages, 315 KiB  
Article
Employers’ Perceived Career Impact of Canada’s Parental-Leave Extension from 35 to 61 Weeks—“An Empty Gift”
by Rachael N. Pettigrew
Merits 2022, 2(3), 170-186; https://doi.org/10.3390/merits2030013 - 5 Aug 2022
Viewed by 3062
Abstract
Introduced in 1990, Canadian parental-leave policy has seen several iterations. The most recent policy change, introduced in December 2017, extended parental leave from 35 to 61 weeks, resulting in longer work interruptions. Forty-six structured interviews were conducted to explore Canadian employers’ perception of [...] Read more.
Introduced in 1990, Canadian parental-leave policy has seen several iterations. The most recent policy change, introduced in December 2017, extended parental leave from 35 to 61 weeks, resulting in longer work interruptions. Forty-six structured interviews were conducted to explore Canadian employers’ perception of how use of the new extended leave may impact employees’ careers. Though some employers offered explicit support for employees, a large proportion of employers felt that use of the longer leave would negatively impact employees’ careers. The presence of unions appeared to insulate employees from a career impact. A thematic analysis revealed that the career impact perceived by employers resulted from concern for employees’ missed opportunities (e.g., training, promotions), length of absence, specific employment situations (e.g., role, level in the organization, career ambitions, and tenure with the organization), and gendered views of employee leave use. Given that the vast majority of Canadian parental-leave users continue to be women, this research highlights the presence of considerable workplace stigma for work interruptions and that longer parental leave may only serve to exacerbate that stigma, especially for women. Recommendations and implications for parental-leave policy, workers, and employers are discussed. Full article
6 pages, 208 KiB  
Editorial
Changing Realities for Women and Work: The Impact of COVID-19 and Prospects for the Post-Pandemic Workplace
by Randal Joy Thompson
Merits 2022, 2(3), 164-169; https://doi.org/10.3390/merits2030012 - 1 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3545
Abstract
COVID-19 plunged the globe into a multi-year pandemic that still continues to this day, meting out devastating repercussions on the international economy and the wellbeing of people everywhere [...] Full article
18 pages, 957 KiB  
Article
New Ways of Working and Employee In-Role Performance in Swiss Public Administration
by Frédéric Cornu
Merits 2022, 2(3), 146-163; https://doi.org/10.3390/merits2030011 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2491
Abstract
Following the COVID-19 pandemic, public organizations are tempted to introduce to practices that allow employees to work independently of time and space. However, little is known about the impact of such practices on employees’ outcomes. The purpose of this study is to investigate [...] Read more.
Following the COVID-19 pandemic, public organizations are tempted to introduce to practices that allow employees to work independently of time and space. However, little is known about the impact of such practices on employees’ outcomes. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between New Ways of Working (NWW) and in-role performance, while also considering the role that outcome-oriented culture plays in this relationship. Hierarchical regression models are used to analyze a sample of 1204 public employees at the cantonal level in Switzerland. Our findings support the hypothesized positive relationships between two NWW practices (flexibility in time and location and access to organizational knowledge). However, the moderating role of an outcome-oriented culture is only partially supported. Our study emphasizes the significance of having an organizational culture that is aligned with practices such as NWW to improve job performance. Full article
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20 pages, 875 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Implementation of Toyota’s Human Resources Management Practices in the Aerospace Industry
by Amal Benkarim and Daniel Imbeau
Merits 2022, 2(3), 126-145; https://doi.org/10.3390/merits2030010 - 14 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 6526
Abstract
Many companies try to follow Toyota’s production model to achieve better performance. In their attempts, however, they primarily focus on Lean Production tools, often overlooking the role of employees and HRM practices. In this work, we aim to investigate the implementation of Toyota’s [...] Read more.
Many companies try to follow Toyota’s production model to achieve better performance. In their attempts, however, they primarily focus on Lean Production tools, often overlooking the role of employees and HRM practices. In this work, we aim to investigate the implementation of Toyota’s HRM practices in the aerospace sector. For this purpose, we used a qualitative methodology, whereby data were collected through semi-structured interviews with thirty office and production employees from a Canadian aerospace company. Our results show that the company under study adopted several of Toyota’s HRM practices, including training, communication, respect, supervisor/manager support, fairness, and occupational health and safety. These findings underscore the importance of Toyota’s HRM practices in the aerospace sector. Notably, however, not all of Toyota’s HRM practices were adopted, and among those adopted, we found considerable differences in implementation. Overall, our findings provide novel insights into the implementation of HRM practices in the aerospace sector and highlight the flexibility in their implementation to adapt to the context of the target company. Full article
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25 pages, 389 KiB  
Article
Intangibles, Intellectual Capital, and the Performance of Listed Non-Financial Services Firms in West Africa: A Cross-Country Analysis
by King Carl Tornam Duho
Merits 2022, 2(3), 101-125; https://doi.org/10.3390/merits2030009 - 28 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3278
Abstract
This study aims to examine the impact of intellectual capital and intangible value on the performance of listed non-financial firms in West Africa. The study used the Value Added Intellectual Coefficient (VAIC™) to measure intellectual capital performance (with components as ICE [...] Read more.
This study aims to examine the impact of intellectual capital and intangible value on the performance of listed non-financial firms in West Africa. The study used the Value Added Intellectual Coefficient (VAIC™) to measure intellectual capital performance (with components as ICE—Intellectual Capital Efficiency an additive measure of the next two metrics, HCE—Human Capital Efficiency, SCE—Structural Capital Efficiency and CEE—Capital Employed Efficiency), financial ratios to measure intangible value and return on assets to measure performance while controlling for firm-level and macroeconomic variables. Using the panel-corrected standard error regression on 59 firms operating from 2007 to 2018, the study found that VAIC, ICE, HCE and SCE measures of intellectual capital are the pièce de résistance that drive the performance of firms. It is found that the relationship is curvilinear taking the shape of an inverted U. CEE does not drive the performance of firms, and asset tangibility inhibits performance but the investment in intangible fixed assets has a positive insignificant effect on performance. Firm size has a positive impact while financial leverage has a negative impact on performance. Human development does not drive performance but foreign direct investment and economic development do. There are country-specific insights where in Ghana intellectual capital and intangible value have a very strong positive effect on performance, followed by a relatively high impact in Cote D’Ivoire while there is a weak effect in the Nigerian context. The study also explores the effect of other variables such as firm size, financial leverage, human development, foreign direct investment and economic development. The findings are useful for policy, accounting, finance, economic and human resource practitioners as well as, for the academic community. Full article
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