Previous Issue
Volume 4, March
 
 

Micro, Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2024) – 10 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
19 pages, 6120 KiB  
Article
Implementation of Numerical Model for Prediction of Temperature Distribution for Metallic-Coated Firefighter Protective Clothing
by Jawad Naeem, Adnan Mazari, Zdenek Kus, Antonin Havelka and Mohamed Abdelkader
Micro 2024, 4(2), 368-386; https://doi.org/10.3390/micro4020023 - 21 May 2024
Viewed by 216
Abstract
The aim of this study is to predict the distribution of temperature at various positions on silver-coated firefighter protective clothing when subjected to external radiant heat flux. This will be helpful in the determination of thermal protective performance. Firefighter clothing consists of three [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to predict the distribution of temperature at various positions on silver-coated firefighter protective clothing when subjected to external radiant heat flux. This will be helpful in the determination of thermal protective performance. Firefighter clothing consists of three layers, i.e., the outer shell, moisture barrier and thermal liner. The outer shell is the exposed surface, which was coated with silver particles through a physical vapor deposition process called magnetron sputtering. Afterwards, these uncoated and silver-coated samples were exposed to radiant heat transmission equipment at 10 kW/m2 as per the ISO 6942 standard. Silver-coated samples displayed better thermal protective performance as the rate of temperature rise in silver-coated samples slowed. Later, a numerical approach was employed, contemplating the impact of metallic coating on the exterior shell. The finite difference method was utilized for solving partial differential equations and the implicit method was employed to discretize the partial differential equations. The numerical model displayed a good prediction of the distribution of temperature at different nodes with respect to time. The comparison of time vs. temperature graphs at different nodes for uncoated and silver-coated samples acquired from numerical solutions showed similar patterns, as witnessed in the experimental results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microscale Materials Science)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 28023 KiB  
Article
A Microfluidic Paper-Based Lateral Flow Device for Quantitative ELISA
by Ashutosh Kumar, Cameron Hahn, Stephen Herchen, Alex Soucy, Ethan Carpio, Sophia Harper, Nassim Rahmani, Constantine Anagnostopoulos and Mohammad Faghri
Micro 2024, 4(2), 348-367; https://doi.org/10.3390/micro4020022 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 359
Abstract
This study presents an innovative lateral flow microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) designed for conducting quantitative paper-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (p-ELISA), seamlessly executing conventional ELISA steps in a paper-based format. The p-ELISA device utilizes a passive fluidic circuit with functional elements such as [...] Read more.
This study presents an innovative lateral flow microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) designed for conducting quantitative paper-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (p-ELISA), seamlessly executing conventional ELISA steps in a paper-based format. The p-ELISA device utilizes a passive fluidic circuit with functional elements such as a multi-bi-material cantilever (B-MaC) assembly, delay channels, and a buffer zone, all enclosed within housing for autonomous, sequential loading of critical reagents onto the detection zone. This novel approach not only demonstrates a rapid assay completion time of under 30 min, but also boasts reduced reagent requirements, minimal equipment needs, and broad applicability across clinical diagnostics and environmental surveillance. Through detailed descriptions of the design, materials, and fabrication methods for the multi-directional flow assay (MDFA), this manuscript highlights the device’s potential for complex biochemical analyses in a user-friendly and versatile format. Analytical performance evaluation, including a limit of detection (LOD) of 8.4 pM for Rabbit IgG, benchmarks the device’s efficacy compared to existing p-ELISA methodologies. This pioneering work lays the groundwork for future advancements in autonomous diagnostics, aiming to enhance global health outcomes through accessible and reliable testing solutions. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 5726 KiB  
Article
Coupled Mode Design of Low-Loss Electromechanical Phase Shifters
by Nathnael S. Abebe, Sunil Pai, Rebecca L. Hwang, Payton Broaddus, Yu Miao and Olav Solgaard
Micro 2024, 4(2), 334-347; https://doi.org/10.3390/micro4020021 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 439
Abstract
Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) have the potential to provide low-power phase shifting in silicon photonics, but techniques for designing low-loss devices are necessary for adoption of the technology. Based on coupled mode theory (CMT), we derive analytical expressions relating the loss and, in particular, [...] Read more.
Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) have the potential to provide low-power phase shifting in silicon photonics, but techniques for designing low-loss devices are necessary for adoption of the technology. Based on coupled mode theory (CMT), we derive analytical expressions relating the loss and, in particular, the phase-dependent loss, to the geometry of the MEMS phase shifters. The analytical model explains the loss mechanisms of MEMS phase shifters and enables simple optimization procedures. Based on that insight, we propose phase shifter geometries that minimize coupling power out of the waveguide. Minimization of the loss is based on mode orthogonality of a waveguide and phase shifter modes. We numerically model such geometries for a silicon nitride MEMS phase shifter over a silicon nitride waveguide, predicting less than −1.08 dB loss over a 2π range and −0.026 dB loss when optimized for a π range. We demonstrate this design framework with a custom silicon nitride process and achieve −0.48 dB insertion loss and less than 0.05 dB transmission variation over a π phase shift. Our work demonstrates the strength of the coupled mode approach for the design and optimization of MEMS phase shifters. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 9619 KiB  
Article
Silver Nanoparticles’ Localized Surface Plasmon Resonances Emerged in Polymeric Environments: Theory and Experiment
by Maria Tsarmpopoulou, Dimitrios Ntemogiannis, Alkeos Stamatelatos, Dimitrios Geralis, Vagelis Karoutsos, Mihail Sigalas, Panagiotis Poulopoulos and Spyridon Grammatikopoulos
Micro 2024, 4(2), 318-333; https://doi.org/10.3390/micro4020020 - 2 May 2024
Viewed by 545
Abstract
Considering that the plasmonic properties of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) are strongly influenced by their dielectric environment, comprehension and manipulation of this interplay are crucial for the design and optimization of functional plasmonic systems. In this study, the plasmonic behavior of silver nanoparticles encapsulated [...] Read more.
Considering that the plasmonic properties of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) are strongly influenced by their dielectric environment, comprehension and manipulation of this interplay are crucial for the design and optimization of functional plasmonic systems. In this study, the plasmonic behavior of silver nanoparticles encapsulated in diverse copolymer dielectric environments was investigated, focusing on the analysis of the emerging localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) through both experimental and theoretical approaches. Specifically, two series of nanostructured silver ultrathin films were deposited via magnetron sputtering on heated Corning Glass substrates at 330 °C and 420 °C, respectively, resulting in the formation of self-assembled NPs of various sizes and distributions. Subsequently, three different polymeric layers were spin-coated on top of the silver NPs. Optical and structural characterization were carried out by means of UV–Vis spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy, respectively. Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA) was employed to study the LSPRs theoretically. The polymeric environment consistently induced a red shift as well as various alterations in the LSPR amplitude, suggesting the potential tunability of the system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microscale Materials Science)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 6627 KiB  
Article
Micro-Spectrometer-Based Interferometric Spectroscopy and Environmental Sensing with Zinc Oxide Thin Film
by Ciao-Ming Tsai, Yu-Chen Hsu, Chang-Ting Yang, Wei-Yi Kong, Chitsung Hong and Cheng-Hao Ko
Micro 2024, 4(2), 305-317; https://doi.org/10.3390/micro4020019 - 1 May 2024
Viewed by 344
Abstract
This study introduces a novel approach for analyzing thin film interference spectra by employing a micro-spectrometer equipped with a spectral chip. Focusing on zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films prepared via the sol–gel method, this research aims to explore the films’ physical properties through [...] Read more.
This study introduces a novel approach for analyzing thin film interference spectra by employing a micro-spectrometer equipped with a spectral chip. Focusing on zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films prepared via the sol–gel method, this research aims to explore the films’ physical properties through spectral analysis. After obtaining the interference spectrum of the ZnO thin films, the peak positions within the spectrum were cataloged. Mathematical simulation was used to adjust the refractive index and thickness of the films to match the simulated interference peak positions with the observed peak positions. The thickness of the prepared ZnO film was estimated to be 4.9 μm and its refractive index at 80 °C was estimated to be 1.96. In addition, the measurement system was used to detect environmental changes, including temperature changes and gas exposure. It was observed that the optical characteristics of ZnO films exhibit marked variations with temperature shifts, enabling the establishment of a temperature calibration curve based on spectral feature displacement. In addition, experiments using a variety of gases showed that NO2 and gaseous isopropanol significantly affect the interference spectrum of ZnO, with the peak of the interference spectrum shifted by 2.3 nm and 5.2 nm, respectively, after injection of the two gases. This indicates that interferometric spectroscopy can serve as an effective tool for ZnO monitoring, capable of selectively detecting specific gases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Analysis Methods and Instruments)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 3352 KiB  
Article
Single-Cell Screening through Cell Encapsulation in Photopolymerized Gelatin Methacryloyl
by Venkatesh Kumar Panneer Selvam, Takeru Fukunaga, Yuya Suzuki, Shunya Okamoto, Takayuki Shibata, Tuhin Subhra Santra and Moeto Nagai
Micro 2024, 4(2), 295-304; https://doi.org/10.3390/micro4020018 - 27 Apr 2024
Viewed by 289
Abstract
This study evaluated the potential of gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) for single-cell screening compared to polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA). GelMA photopolymerized at 1000–2000 mJ/cm2 produced consistent patterns and supported HeLa cell viability. GelMA (5%w/v) facilitated better cell collection within 2 days due [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the potential of gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) for single-cell screening compared to polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA). GelMA photopolymerized at 1000–2000 mJ/cm2 produced consistent patterns and supported HeLa cell viability. GelMA (5%w/v) facilitated better cell collection within 2 days due to its shape retention. GelMA demonstrated biocompatibility with HeLa cells exhibiting exponential proliferation and biodegradation over 5 days. The average cell displacement over 2 days was 16 µm. Two targeted cell recovery strategies using trypsin were developed: one for adherent cells encapsulated at 800 mJ/cm2, and another for floating cells encapsulated at 800 mJ/cm2, enabling the selective removal of unwanted cells. These findings suggest GelMA as a promising biomaterial for single-cell screening applications, offering advantages over PEGDA in cell encapsulation and targeted recovery. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 4943 KiB  
Article
Water Diffusion in Additively Manufactured Polymers: Analysis of the Capillary Effect
by Boyu Li, Konstantinos P. Baxevanakis and Vadim V. Silberschmidt
Micro 2024, 4(2), 281-294; https://doi.org/10.3390/micro4020017 - 25 Apr 2024
Viewed by 382
Abstract
Additive manufacturing (AM) is an advanced manufacturing method that produces objects by sequential layering. Material extrusion AM (MEAM) with continuous-fibre reinforcement is becoming more widely used in naval structures, which are exposed to the marine environment. However, the water diffusion process and the [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing (AM) is an advanced manufacturing method that produces objects by sequential layering. Material extrusion AM (MEAM) with continuous-fibre reinforcement is becoming more widely used in naval structures, which are exposed to the marine environment. However, the water diffusion process and the effect of water ageing on the mechanical performance of AM materials are not yet well understood because of their complex internal structure, caused by defects generated during manufacturing. Current research on diffusion is mostly based on experimental methods for conventionally manufactured materials without considering AM-induced defects. The objective of this study is to explore how the defects inherent to MEAM affect water diffusion in a composite material by the capillary effect. Results from a numerical study of capillary flow in MEAM polymer are applied as a boundary condition in the subsequent finite-element analysis. The study illustrates that flow in the capillary reaches the steady state quicker compared to the saturation time in the matrix, predicted by Fick’s diffusion equation. It is demonstrated that the capillary effect can significantly affect the water diffusion in MEAM parts and reduce the saturation time to one-third compared to the case without accounting for this effect. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

52 pages, 6842 KiB  
Review
Porous Inorganic Nanomaterials: Their Evolution towards Hierarchical Porous Nanostructures
by Anitta Jose, Tom Mathew, Nora Fernández-Navas and Christine Joy Querebillo
Micro 2024, 4(2), 229-280; https://doi.org/10.3390/micro4020016 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 792
Abstract
The advancement of both porous materials and nanomaterials has brought about porous nanomaterials. These new materials present advantages both due to their porosity and nano-size: small size apt for micro/nano device integration or in vivo transport, large surface area for guest/target molecule adsorption [...] Read more.
The advancement of both porous materials and nanomaterials has brought about porous nanomaterials. These new materials present advantages both due to their porosity and nano-size: small size apt for micro/nano device integration or in vivo transport, large surface area for guest/target molecule adsorption and interaction, porous channels providing accessibility to active/surface sites, and exposed reactive surface/active sites induced by uncoordinated bonds. These properties prove useful for the development of different porous composition types (metal oxides, silica, zeolites, amorphous oxides, nanoarrays, precious metals, non-precious metals, MOFs, carbon nanostructures, MXenes, and others) through different synthetic procedures—templating, colloidal synthesis, hydrothermal approach, sol-gel route, self-assembly, dealloying, galvanostatic replacement, and so—for different applications, such as catalysis (water-splitting, etc.), biosensing, energy storage (batteries, supercapacitors), actuators, SERS, and bio applications. Here, these are presented according to different material types showing the evolution of the structure design and development towards the formation of hierarchical porous structures, emphasizing that the formation of porous nanostructures came about out of the desire and need to form hierarchical porous nanostructures. Common trends observed across these different composition types include similar (aforementioned) applications and the use of porous nanomaterials as templates/precursors to create novel ones. Towards the end, a discussion on the link between technological advancements and the development of porous nanomaterials paves the way to present future perspectives on these nanomaterials and their hierarchical porous architectures. Together with a summary, these are given in the conclusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Micro- and Nanomaterials: Synthesis and Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 5029 KiB  
Review
Magnetic Micro and Nano Sensors for Continuous Health Monitoring
by Tomasz Blachowicz, Ilda Kola, Andrea Ehrmann, Karoline Guenther and Guido Ehrmann
Micro 2024, 4(2), 206-228; https://doi.org/10.3390/micro4020015 - 6 Apr 2024
Viewed by 708
Abstract
Magnetic micro and nano sensors can be used in a broad variety of applications, e.g., for navigation, automotives, smartphones and also for health monitoring. Based on physical effects such as the well-known magnetic induction, the Hall effect, tunnel magnetoresistance and giant magnetoresistance, they [...] Read more.
Magnetic micro and nano sensors can be used in a broad variety of applications, e.g., for navigation, automotives, smartphones and also for health monitoring. Based on physical effects such as the well-known magnetic induction, the Hall effect, tunnel magnetoresistance and giant magnetoresistance, they can be used to measure positions, flow, pressure and other physical properties. In biomedicine and healthcare, these miniaturized sensors can be either integrated into garments and other wearables, be directed through the body by passive capsules or active micro-robots or be implanted, which usually necessitates bio-functionalization and avoiding cell-toxic materials. This review describes the physical effects that can be applied in these sensors and discusses the most recent micro and nano sensors developed for healthcare applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microscale Physics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 1607 KiB  
Article
Piezoelectric and Pyroelectric Properties of Organic MDABCO-NH4Cl3 Perovskite for Flexible Energy Harvesting
by Rosa M. F. Baptista, Bruna Silva, João Oliveira, Bernardo Almeida, Cidália Castro, Pedro V. Rodrigues, Ana Machado, Etelvina de Matos Gomes and Michael Belsley
Micro 2024, 4(2), 196-205; https://doi.org/10.3390/micro4020014 - 27 Mar 2024
Viewed by 583
Abstract
This study describes the synthesis and characterization of the lead-free organic ferroelectric perovskite N-methyl-N’-diazabicyclo [2.2.2]octonium)-ammonium trichloride (MDABCO-NH4Cl3). The electrospinning technique was employed to obtain nanofibers embedded with this perovskite in a PVC polymer for hybrid fiber [...] Read more.
This study describes the synthesis and characterization of the lead-free organic ferroelectric perovskite N-methyl-N’-diazabicyclo [2.2.2]octonium)-ammonium trichloride (MDABCO-NH4Cl3). The electrospinning technique was employed to obtain nanofibers embedded with this perovskite in a PVC polymer for hybrid fiber production. The dielectric, piezoelectric, and pyroelectric properties of these fibers were carefully examined. Based on measurements of the dielectric permittivity temperature and frequency dependence, together with the pyroelectric results, a transition from a high temperature paraelectric to a ferroelectric phase that persisted at room temperature was found to occur at 438 K. The measured pyroelectric coefficient yielded values as high as 290 μC K−1 m−2, which is in between the values reported for MDABCO-NH4I3 and the semiorganic ferroelectric triglycine sulfate (TGS). The hybrid nanofibers exhibited good morphological characteristics and demonstrated very good piezoelectric properties. Specifically, a piezoelectric coefficient of 42 pC/N was obtained when applying a periodical force of 3 N and a piezoelectric voltage coefficient of geff = 0.65 V mN−1. The performance of these fibers is on par with that of materials discussed in the existing literature for the fabrication of nano energy-harvesting generators. Importantly, the perovskite nanocrystals within the fibers are protected from degradation by the surrounding polymer, making them a promising environmentally friendly platform for flexible mechanical energy harvesting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microscale Physics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop