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Textiles, Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2022) – 10 articles

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33 pages, 3346 KiB  
Review
Fibers and Textiles for Personal Protective Equipment: Review of Recent Progress and Perspectives on Future Developments
by Patricia I. Dolez, Sabrina Marsha and Rachel H. McQueen
Textiles 2022, 2(2), 349-381; https://doi.org/10.3390/textiles2020020 - 13 Jun 2022
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 11799
Abstract
This article reviews recent developments in fibers and textiles for Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) applications. Fibers are grouped into six categories: highly extensible elastomeric fibers, cellulose-based fibers, commodity synthetic fibers, high strength inorganic materials, and high performance polymer fibers. New developments with highly [...] Read more.
This article reviews recent developments in fibers and textiles for Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) applications. Fibers are grouped into six categories: highly extensible elastomeric fibers, cellulose-based fibers, commodity synthetic fibers, high strength inorganic materials, and high performance polymer fibers. New developments with highly extensible elastomeric fibers include polyester-based elastic fibers and shape memory polyurethane. In the case of cellulose-based fibers, environmentally friendly processes and nanotechnology-enabling treatments are developed for natural fibers where attempts are made to transfer interesting attributes of the feedstock to regenerated cellulose fibers. Commodity synthetic fibers comprise polyolefins, polyester, and polyamide; they have seen recent developments in terms of surface functionalization and the formation of structures at the nanoscale. In terms of high strength inorganic materials, basalt fibers and carbonaceous materials have found increased use in PPE. Boron is also generating considerable interest for fibers and coatings. Research on high-performance polymer fibers includes further improving their short- and long-term performance, moving to the nanoscale for new functionalities, and exploring their recyclability. An additional section describes a series of special textile structures relevant to PPE involving 3D textile structures, auxetic textile structures, shear thickening fabrics, nanoporous structures, phase change materials, and some specially designed textile-based composite structures for improved protection against mechanical hazards. The article ends with some perspectives on promising avenues for further developments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research Trends for Textiles)
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13 pages, 8717 KiB  
Article
Simulation-Based Development of Gradient Woven Fabrics for Biomimetic Implants to Restore Tendons and Ligaments
by Tobias Georg Lang, Dominik Nuß, Thomas Gereke, Gerald Hoffmann, Michael Wöltje, Dilbar Aibibu and Chokri Cherif
Textiles 2022, 2(2), 336-348; https://doi.org/10.3390/textiles2020019 - 7 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2023
Abstract
Tendons and ligaments are complex tissues that are necessary for human movement. Injuries occur very commonly and treatment quite often requires implants. Such implants must be adapted to the biological and structural composition of human tendons and ligaments. Thus, the objective is to [...] Read more.
Tendons and ligaments are complex tissues that are necessary for human movement. Injuries occur very commonly and treatment quite often requires implants. Such implants must be adapted to the biological and structural composition of human tendons and ligaments. Thus, the objective is to realize graded, biomimetic tendon and ligament implants that are long-term resorbable. First, basic woven fabrics are fabricated from biocompatible silk fibroin yarns. Starting from the basic fabrics, gradient fabrics, with three different weave zones, are then developed and produced. In addition, fabrics with variable width and lateral warp yarn offset are fabricated on the basis of open reed weaving (ORW) technology on a modified shuttle narrow weaving loom. Meso-scale finite element models are developed in order to support the design of the gradient weaves. First, TexGen software is used to create a close to reality fabric geometry. Models are then converted into beam element models using a Python script. Results of real and virtual tensile tests show a clear relationship between the crimp of the warp yarns in the fabric structures and the resulting elongations. The additional ORW yarn system influences the stiffness. The tensile behavior of experiments and simulation agree very well, so the models are suitable for further development of woven implants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Medical Textiles)
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18 pages, 2018 KiB  
Review
Fiber-Based Masks and Respirators: Using Decontamination Methods and Antimicrobial Treatment to Improve Its Reusability during Pandemic
by Xinyu Song, Pengyan Liu, Liangmin Yu and Andrea Zille
Textiles 2022, 2(2), 318-335; https://doi.org/10.3390/textiles2020018 - 6 Jun 2022
Viewed by 3162
Abstract
Shortage of personal protective equipment (PPE) is often projected in response to public health emergencies such as infection outbreaks and pandemics. Respiratory protective devices (RPDs), namely medical face masks and respirators, are considered the last defense for the front-line healthcare workers. Cleaning, decontamination [...] Read more.
Shortage of personal protective equipment (PPE) is often projected in response to public health emergencies such as infection outbreaks and pandemics. Respiratory protective devices (RPDs), namely medical face masks and respirators, are considered the last defense for the front-line healthcare workers. Cleaning, decontamination and reuse of the disposable RPDs have been accepted by local health authorities during the pandemic period. To contribute to the mitigation of RPD shortage and ensure the safe adoption of decontamination protocols, this review discusses the regulated testing standards and the most commonly studied decontamination methods in the literature. The reuse of RPDs must fulfill three criteria: remove the microbial thread, maintain original function and structural integrity (including fitting tests) and leave no harmful residuals. Decontamination methods such as ultraviolet germicidal irradiation, moist heat and vaporized hydrogen peroxide appeared to be the most promising methods in balancing the above-mentioned criteria. However, the effectiveness of decontamination methods varies depending on the RPDs’ models, materials and design. Therefore, the adoption of protocols needs to be evidence-based with full validation in the local institutes. Additionally, new technology such as antimicrobial treated PPE that can reduce the risks of fomite during donning and doffing process with an extended lifespan should be encouraged. Overall, good training and guidance for appropriate reuse of RPDs are fundamental to ensure their efficiency in protecting front-line healthcare workers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Medical Textiles)
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11 pages, 487 KiB  
Article
Sensory and Tactile Comfort Assessment of Sub-Clinical and Clinical Compression Socks on Individuals with Ankle Instability
by Amit Talukder, Hunter Derby, Charles Freeman, Reuben Burch, Adam Knight and Harish Chander
Textiles 2022, 2(2), 307-317; https://doi.org/10.3390/textiles2020017 - 20 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2043
Abstract
This study aims to quantify wearers’ perceived sensory/tactile comfort responses to clinical and sub-clinical compression socks before, during, and after several activities (postural stability tasks, donning, and doffing). Through purposive sampling, the researchers recruited 20 participants (11 male and 9 female) aged 21.5 [...] Read more.
This study aims to quantify wearers’ perceived sensory/tactile comfort responses to clinical and sub-clinical compression socks before, during, and after several activities (postural stability tasks, donning, and doffing). Through purposive sampling, the researchers recruited 20 participants (11 male and 9 female) aged 21.5 ± 2 years. Among all participants, 40% had chronic ankle instability, 30% were copers, and 30% were healthy control groups. Sensory/tactile and movement comfort were assessed using a comfort 8-item questionnaire in a wear trial. The findings exhibit that the tested clinical socks are more comfortable than subclinical socks regardless of the participant types. The strongest positive correlation was between material appearance and hand feel (r = 0.84, ** p < 0.01) and between ‘no red marks’ and non-itchiness (r = 0.72, ** p < 0.01). Additionally, no statistically significant differences in comparisons of comfort assessment measures were reported. However, due to the consistency of the trends in differences, the researchers suggest that these findings warrant additional research using a more robust sampling technique. According to the findings of this study, a higher-pressure level compression sock may be preferable for patients with ankle stability issues, as there is no significant evidence for a comforting outcome. Full article
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11 pages, 1192 KiB  
Review
Textile-Based Sound Sensors (TSS): New Opportunities for Sound Monitoring in Smart Buildings
by Andrea Giglio, Karsten Neuwerk, Michael Haupt, Giovanni Maria Conti and Ingrid Paoletti
Textiles 2022, 2(2), 296-306; https://doi.org/10.3390/textiles2020016 - 19 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2773
Abstract
Persistent poor acoustic conditions can imbalance humans’ psychophysical capabilities. A good acoustic project starts with either correct measurements of the existing acoustic parameters or with the correct hypothesis of new sound conditions. International standards define invasive measurement conditions and procedures that can disturb [...] Read more.
Persistent poor acoustic conditions can imbalance humans’ psychophysical capabilities. A good acoustic project starts with either correct measurements of the existing acoustic parameters or with the correct hypothesis of new sound conditions. International standards define invasive measurement conditions and procedures that can disturb user activities. For this reason, alternative methodologies have been developed by mounting real-time sound-monitoring devices. Most of the research on these aims to decrease their dimensions in order to be placed in the tight service spaces of modern architecture and to reduce their aesthetic impact on interiors design. In this perspective, this article explores the features and potentialities of textile-based sound sensors (TSS) as they can not only fulfill these needs but can also be used as architectural ornaments by partially wrapping interiors. The ubiquitous of e-textiles for wearable applications has led to increasing the performance of TSS. Therefore, a comparison of the sensitivity values, signal-to-noise ratio and noise floor of sound TSS with sound sensors is presented, which is still missing in the literature. The paper demonstrates how these can be exploited for sound monitoring and can provide valid opportunities for new smart acoustic textiles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research Trends for Textiles)
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21 pages, 19903 KiB  
Article
Loop Order Analysis of Weft-Knitted Textiles
by Levi Kapllani, Chelsea Amanatides, Genevieve Dion and David E. Breen
Textiles 2022, 2(2), 275-295; https://doi.org/10.3390/textiles2020015 - 18 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3170
Abstract
In this paper, we describe algorithms that perform loop order analysis of weft-knitted textiles, which build upon the foundational TopoKnit topological data structure and associated query functions. During knitting, loops of yarn may be overlayed on top of each other and then stitched [...] Read more.
In this paper, we describe algorithms that perform loop order analysis of weft-knitted textiles, which build upon the foundational TopoKnit topological data structure and associated query functions. During knitting, loops of yarn may be overlayed on top of each other and then stitched together with another piece of yarn. Loop order analysis aims to determine the front-to-back ordering of these overlapping loops, given a stitch pattern that defines the knitted fabric. Loop order information is crucial for the simulation of electrical current, water, force, and heat flow within functional fabrics. The new algorithms are based on the assumption that stitch instructions are executed row-by-row and for each row the instructions can be executed in any temporal order. To make our algorithms knitting-machine-independent, loop order analysis utilizes precedence rules that capture the order that stitch commands are executed when a row of yarn loops are being knitted by a two-bed flat weft knitting machine. Basing the algorithms on precedence rules allows them to be modified to adapt to the analysis of fabrics manufactured on a variety of knitting machines that may execute stitch commands in different temporal orders. Additionally, we have developed visualization methods for displaying the loop order information within the context of a TopoKnit yarn topology graph. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research Trends for Textiles)
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10 pages, 3995 KiB  
Communication
50/60 Hz Power Grid Noise as a Skin Contact Measure of Textile ECG Electrodes
by Khorolsuren Tuvshinbayar, Guido Ehrmann and Andrea Ehrmann
Textiles 2022, 2(2), 265-274; https://doi.org/10.3390/textiles2020014 - 1 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3143
Abstract
The electrocardiogram (ECG) is one of the most commonly measured biosignals. In particular, textile electrodes allow for the measuring of long-term ECG without skin irritation or other discomforts for the patient. Such textile electrodes, however, usually suffer from insufficient or unreliable skin contact. [...] Read more.
The electrocardiogram (ECG) is one of the most commonly measured biosignals. In particular, textile electrodes allow for the measuring of long-term ECG without skin irritation or other discomforts for the patient. Such textile electrodes, however, usually suffer from insufficient or unreliable skin contact. Thus, developing textile electrodes is impeded by the often-complicated differentiation between signal artifacts due to moving and breathing and artifacts related to unreliable skin contact. Here, we suggest a simple method of using 50/60 Hz power grid noise to evaluate the skin contact of different textile electrodes in comparison with commercial glued electrodes. We use this method to show the drying of wetted skin under an embroidered electrode as well as sweating of the originally dry skin under a coated electrode with high water vapor resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research Trends for Textiles)
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13 pages, 3641 KiB  
Perspective
Bacterial Secondary Metabolites as Biopigments for Textile Dyeing
by Ana Kramar and Mirjana M. Kostic
Textiles 2022, 2(2), 252-264; https://doi.org/10.3390/textiles2020013 - 19 Apr 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 9324
Abstract
In the past two decades, a growing body of research regarding the utilization of natural bacterial pigments or dyes for textile dyeing has emerged. Bacterial pigments are bacterial secondary metabolites that usually have bright colors and some special properties (e.g., antimicrobial, antioxidative, UV [...] Read more.
In the past two decades, a growing body of research regarding the utilization of natural bacterial pigments or dyes for textile dyeing has emerged. Bacterial pigments are bacterial secondary metabolites that usually have bright colors and some special properties (e.g., antimicrobial, antioxidative, UV protective etc.). In addition to their high production yield, these special properties led scientists to research and develop methods for utilizing bacterial pigments in textile dyeing. This study presents the current state this field of research, with a focus on the dyeing potential of bacterial pigments for different types of textile material. The potential future directions of research in this area are also highlighted. In addition to the durable dyeing of textiles, bacterial pigments with special properties, such as antimicrobial activity, can add multifunctionality to dyed materials, thus increasing the value of the final product. This emerging field of research will also have a great impact on sustainability and the environment, contributing to the decreased usage of synthetic dyes in the textile industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research Trends for Textiles)
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43 pages, 21663 KiB  
Review
High-Performance and Functional Fiber Materials—A Review of Properties, Scanning Electron Microscopy SEM and Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy EDS
by Boris Mahltig and Thomas Grethe
Textiles 2022, 2(2), 209-251; https://doi.org/10.3390/textiles2020012 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 15102
Abstract
This review supports an overview of selected high-performance fibers and functional fiber materials. A review of several properties and applications is given. For fiber materials and fabrics, microscopic images taken by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are presented. As well as this, electron dispersive [...] Read more.
This review supports an overview of selected high-performance fibers and functional fiber materials. A review of several properties and applications is given. For fiber materials and fabrics, microscopic images taken by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are presented. As well as this, electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) is performed on the fiber materials and an overview of EDS spectra is presented. The features of SEM images and EDS spectra are discussed, especially with the aim of supporting people who are working in the field of fiber analytics. To support a complete view of both analytic methods—SEM and EDS—challenges and typical mistakes for SEM measurements on textiles are also described. Altogether, this review supports a useful overview of interesting high technology fiber materials and their investigation using the analytical methods SEM and EDS. Using these, material properties and their composition are presented and discussed. The composition of industrial fiber materials is investigated and discussed, as well as fiber treatments for the realization of functional fiber properties. Furthermore, it aims to support a helpful tool for fiber and textile analytics and identification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research Trends for Textiles)
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20 pages, 1023 KiB  
Review
Geotextiles—A Versatile Tool for Environmental Sensitive Applications in Geotechnical Engineering
by Fulga Tanasă, Mărioara Nechifor, Mauruşa-Elena Ignat and Carmen-Alice Teacă
Textiles 2022, 2(2), 189-208; https://doi.org/10.3390/textiles2020011 - 8 Apr 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 13533
Abstract
Geotextiles, a group of high-performance materials, have grown during the last decades into needful auxiliaries when it comes to infrastructure, soil, construction, agriculture and environmental applications. Although geotextiles made of synthetic fibers (geosynthetics) are considered a modern achievement, the basic concept dates back [...] Read more.
Geotextiles, a group of high-performance materials, have grown during the last decades into needful auxiliaries when it comes to infrastructure, soil, construction, agriculture and environmental applications. Although geotextiles made of synthetic fibers (geosynthetics) are considered a modern achievement, the basic concept dates back to ancient times when textiles consisting of locally available natural fibers were employed to increase the stability of roads and soils. In recent decades, considering the growing interest in environmental protection and sustainable development based on using renewable resources and the recovery and recycling of waste of various origins, the use of natural fibers-based geotextiles is a viable alternative, despite their limited-life service owing to their biodegradability. In addition to this feature, their low cost, good mechanical properties and large-scale accessibility recommend them for geo-engineering applications, environmental sensitive applications in geotechnical engineering, such as land improvements and soil erosion control. This paper focuses on geotextiles as a versatile tool in environmental applications given their high theoretic and practical relevance as substantiated by recent literature reports. Natural and synthetic geotextiles are presented herein, as well as their features that recommend them for geo-engineering. Insights on the main types of applications of geotextiles are also included, along with a wide variety of materials employed to perform specific functions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research Trends for Textiles)
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