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Textiles, Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2024) – 6 articles

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11 pages, 2033 KiB  
Article
Towards Single-Polymer-Based Fully Printed Textile-Based Flexible Ag2O-Zn Battery for Wearable Electronics
by Akash Kota, Kavya Vallurupalli, Amy T. Neidhard-Doll and Vamsy P. Chodavarapu
Textiles 2024, 4(2), 256-266; https://doi.org/10.3390/textiles4020015 - 19 May 2024
Viewed by 363
Abstract
Printed textile-based flexible batteries are gaining attention in several applications, but they are becoming more relevant to the health care industry in terms of realizing wearable and skin-conformable electronic devices. A flexible battery must ideally be deformable along multiple directions. In this work, [...] Read more.
Printed textile-based flexible batteries are gaining attention in several applications, but they are becoming more relevant to the health care industry in terms of realizing wearable and skin-conformable electronic devices. A flexible battery must ideally be deformable along multiple directions. In this work, with an aim to develop a fully printed omnidirectional deformable battery, we report the fabrication process of a novel single-polymer-based flexible non-rechargeable planar Ag2O-Zn battery on a textile substrate using the stencil printing method. Except for the electrolyte, all the components of the battery, including the current collectors, the anode, the cathode, and the separator membrane, are fabricated using a single polymer, namely styrene–ethylene–butylene–styrene (SEBS). To fabricate the SEBS separator, we introduce the solvent evaporation-induced phase separation (SEIPS) process. In the SEIPS method, toluene and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) are selected as the solvent–nonsolvent pair. The SEBS: toluene: DMSO system with a wt% ratio of 6:85:9 showed improved performance regarding the OCV tests. A polyacrylic acid (PAA)-based alkaline polymer gel is used as an electrolyte. The demonstrated process is simple, and, with suitable modifications, it should find its use in the development of digitally printed alkaline batteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Smart Textiles)
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19 pages, 3812 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Tactile and Thermophysiological Comfort in Reusable Surgical Gowns Compared to Disposable Gowns
by Magdalena Georgievska, Abreha Bayrau Nigusse, Benny Malengier, Hasan Riaz Tahir, Charlotte Harding, Sufiyan Derbew Tiku and Lieva Van Langenhove
Textiles 2024, 4(2), 237-255; https://doi.org/10.3390/textiles4020014 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 454
Abstract
Though the transition from disposable to reusable surgical gowns holds substantial promise, successful implementation faces challenges. This study investigated tactile and thermophysiological comfort in surgical reusable gowns, comparing them with their disposable counterparts. Parameters such as surface roughness, compression, heat flux, and material [...] Read more.
Though the transition from disposable to reusable surgical gowns holds substantial promise, successful implementation faces challenges. This study investigated tactile and thermophysiological comfort in surgical reusable gowns, comparing them with their disposable counterparts. Parameters such as surface roughness, compression, heat flux, and material rigidity were tested using a Fabric Touch Tester. Additionally, the water vapour permeability and static charge of the gowns were assessed. Thermophysiological comfort of the gowns was evaluated by measuring the temperature and relative humidity (RH) on test subjects during wear trials where they were engaged in an activity that mimics a surgeon’s performance. Skin temperature was monitored using iButton sensors and a thermal camera, and the impact on heart rate during the task was analysed. Following each test, participants provided subjective feedback through a questionnaire. The results indicated that reusable gowns boasted a smoother texture, translating to reduced friction on the skin and better heat transfer compared to the disposable fabrics, as indicated using FTT. They also exhibited higher water vapour permeability compared to their disposable counterparts. The wear trials revealed minimal differences in comfort between disposable and reusable gowns. While performing the activity, an increase in body temperature led to decreased RH, yet this rise did not adversely affect subject comfort, as validated using heart rate and questionnaire survey data. From a comfort point of view, switching from disposable to reusable gowns would not have drawbacks, meaning hospitals should be able to switch provided logistics and costs can be managed. Full article
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19 pages, 9357 KiB  
Article
Quantification of Fundamental Textile Properties of Electronic Textiles Fabricated Using Different Techniques
by Arash M. Shahidi, Kalana Marasinghe, Parvin Ebrahimi, Jane Wood, Zahra Rahemtulla, Philippa Jobling, Carlos Oliveira, Tilak Dias and Theo Hughes-Riley
Textiles 2024, 4(2), 218-236; https://doi.org/10.3390/textiles4020013 - 3 May 2024
Viewed by 1247
Abstract
Electronic textiles (E-textiles) have experienced an increase in interest in recent years leading to a variety of new concepts emerging in the field. Despite these technical innovations, there is limited literature relating to the testing of E-textiles for some of the fundamental properties [...] Read more.
Electronic textiles (E-textiles) have experienced an increase in interest in recent years leading to a variety of new concepts emerging in the field. Despite these technical innovations, there is limited literature relating to the testing of E-textiles for some of the fundamental properties linked to wearer comfort. As such, this research investigates four fundamental properties of E-textiles: air permeability, drape, heat transfer, and moisture transfer. Three different types of E-textiles were explored: an embroidered electrode, a knitted electrode, and a knitted structure with an embedded electronic yarn. All of the E-textiles utilized the same base knitted fabric structure to facilitate a comparative study. The study used established textile testing practices to evaluate the E-textiles to ascertain the suitability of these standards for these materials. The study provides a useful point of reference to those working in the field and highlights some limitations of existing textile testing methodologies when applied to E-textiles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Smart Textiles)
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35 pages, 16518 KiB  
Review
Artificial-Neural-Network-Based Predicted Model for Seam Strength of Five-Pocket Denim Jeans: A Review
by Aqsa Zulfiqar, Talha Manzoor, Muhammad Bilal Ijaz, Hafiza Hifza Nawaz, Fayyaz Ahmed, Saeed Akhtar, Fatima Iftikhar, Yasir Nawab, Muhammad Qamar Khan and Muhammad Umar
Textiles 2024, 4(2), 183-217; https://doi.org/10.3390/textiles4020012 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1072
Abstract
This study explores previous research efforts concerning prediction models related to the textile and polymer industry, especially garment seam strength, emphasizing critical parameters such as stitch density, fabric GSM, thread type, thread count, stitch classes, and seam types. These parameters play a pivotal [...] Read more.
This study explores previous research efforts concerning prediction models related to the textile and polymer industry, especially garment seam strength, emphasizing critical parameters such as stitch density, fabric GSM, thread type, thread count, stitch classes, and seam types. These parameters play a pivotal role in determining the durability and overall quality of denim jeans based on cellulosic polymer. A significant focus is dedicated to the mathematical computational models employed for predicting seam strength in five-pocket denim jeans. Herein, the discussion poses the application of AI for manufacturing industries, especially for textile and clothing sectors, and highlights the importance of using a machine learning prediction model for sewing thread consumption, seam strength analysis, and seam performance analysis. Therefore, the authors suggest the significant importance of the machine learning prediction model, as future trends anticipate advancements in AI-driven methodologies, potentially leading to high-profile predictions and superior manufacturing processes. The authors also describe the limitation of AI and address a comprehensive model of risk outlines of AI in the manufacturing-based industries, especially the garments industry. Put simply, this review serves as a bridge between the realms of AI, mathematics, and textile engineering, providing a clear understanding of how artificial-neural-network-based models will be shaping the future of seam strength prediction in the denim manufacturing landscape. This type of evolution, based on ANN, will support and enhance the accuracy and efficiency of seam strength predictions by allowing models to discern intricate patterns and relationships within vast and diverse datasets. Full article
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19 pages, 1381 KiB  
Review
Hemp: From Field to Fiber—A Review
by João Mariz, Catarina Guise, Teresa Luísa Silva, Lúcia Rodrigues and Carla Joana Silva
Textiles 2024, 4(2), 165-182; https://doi.org/10.3390/textiles4020011 - 12 Apr 2024
Viewed by 2079
Abstract
Hemp fibers derived from Cannabis sativa L. have experienced a resurgence in popularity over the past few decades, establishing themselves as one of the most sought-after fibers. This article delves into the intricacies of the hemp production chain, offering a comprehensive understanding from [...] Read more.
Hemp fibers derived from Cannabis sativa L. have experienced a resurgence in popularity over the past few decades, establishing themselves as one of the most sought-after fibers. This article delves into the intricacies of the hemp production chain, offering a comprehensive understanding from field to fiber. Key aspects covered include the botany of hemp, cultivation requirements, the impact of various factors on plant growth, the harvesting process, different methods of fiber extraction, fibers properties, and suitable spinning processes. Recent studies of hemp’s Life Cycle Assessment are explored, shedding light on how it compares to other sustainable crops and providing insights into the true sustainability of hemp, substantiated by numerical data. The article also addresses challenges encountered throughout the hemp production chain and speculates on future directions that may unfold in the coming years. The overall goal of this study is to provide a knowledge base encompassing every facet of hemp fiber production. It elucidates how different technological approaches and the technical properties of fibers play pivotal roles in determining their ultimate applications. By offering a comprehensive overview, this article contributes to the broader understanding of hemp as a valuable and sustainable resource in the textile industry. Full article
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27 pages, 12330 KiB  
Article
Wood Extracts for Dyeing of Cotton Fabrics—Special View on Mordanting Procedures
by Thanh Hoa Mai, Thomas Grethe and Boris Mahltig
Textiles 2024, 4(2), 138-164; https://doi.org/10.3390/textiles4020010 - 12 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1468
Abstract
Natural dyes offer a bio-based opportunity to support the attractive coloration of textile fabrics made from natural fibers like cotton, wool, hemp, and many other textile materials. They can be part of a strategy to realize fully bio-based textiles and clothing materials. In [...] Read more.
Natural dyes offer a bio-based opportunity to support the attractive coloration of textile fabrics made from natural fibers like cotton, wool, hemp, and many other textile materials. They can be part of a strategy to realize fully bio-based textiles and clothing materials. In line with this statement, the following study investigates the use of wood extracts for dyeing cotton fabrics. Specifically, extract powders of logwood (Haematoxylon campechianum L.), brazilwood (Caesalpinia spp.), and quebracho wood (Schinopsis lorentzii) are used. The aim of the study is to evaluate which colorations can be obtained by the application of those wood extracts and what fastness properties are reached. For this, different modified process parameters and mordants are evaluated. The dyeing process is modified using different mordants based on iron and aluminum salts. These mordants are applied in pre-, meta-, or post-mordant procedures. The color and fastness properties of prepared textile samples are determined by spectroscopic measurements, color measurements, washing procedures, and a Xenotest for measuring the light fastness. Ultimately, it is shown that a broad range of colorations can be realized through different combinations of wood extracts and mordanting procedures. Notably, stronger color depths are reached with pre- and meta-mordanting compared to post-mordanting. Good wash fastness is obtained for some color shades. However, with post-mordanting, better wash fastness can be achieved. The light fastness of the realized samples is only moderate to low. In conclusion, it can be stated that dyes from wood extracts are excellent materials to dye natural fibers if they are combined with the right mordanting agent in pre- or meta-mordanting procedures. The present study is therefore a good proof-of-concept for the realization of fully bio-based colored textile materials. Full article
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