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Textiles, Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2022) – 8 articles

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12 pages, 1421 KiB  
Article
Effect of an Antioxidant and a Compatibilizer on the Mechanical Properties of Virgin and Thermally Aged Polypropylene Drawn Fibers
by Costas Tsioptsias, Georgia Gkouzouma, Konstantinos Leontiadis and Ioannis Tsivintzelis
Textiles 2022, 2(3), 499-510; https://doi.org/10.3390/textiles2030028 - 16 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1678
Abstract
Polypropylene (PP), like all polymers, is susceptible to various forms of aging. Drawn fibers exhibit increased mechanical properties; however, the drawing results in non-equilibrium (decreased entropy) structures, due to the orientation of the polymer chains. Consequently, the drawn fibers are susceptible to an [...] Read more.
Polypropylene (PP), like all polymers, is susceptible to various forms of aging. Drawn fibers exhibit increased mechanical properties; however, the drawing results in non-equilibrium (decreased entropy) structures, due to the orientation of the polymer chains. Consequently, the drawn fibers are susceptible to an additional form of physical aging. In this work, the effect of common industrial additives on the mechanical strength of virgin and thermally aged PP fibers was studied. Thermogravimetry and tensile strength tests were used to characterize the drawn fibers, before and after physical thermal aging. PP drawn at 120 °C and at a drawing ratio of 7 exhibited a tensile strength of 549 MPa, while the incorporation of an antioxidant and a compatibilizer lowered the tensile strength down to 449 MPA. This reduction was related to the constraint of chain alignment due to the low molecular weight and poor dispersion of the additives. Depending on the aging temperature, shrinking occurred to different extents in pure PP fibers, accompanied by a 6–7% reduction in tensile strength. The fibers with incorporated additives exhibited higher rate and degree of shrinking. Briefly, the incorporation of such additives in drawn PP resulted in the deterioration of the fibers’ mechanical tensile properties. Since such additives have an indisputable value for non-drawn samples and their usage is necessary for various reasons also in drawn samples, e.g., for their protection from chemical aging/decomposition, additives specific for drawn samples should be developed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fibrous Materials (Textiles) for Functional Applications II)
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13 pages, 4391 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Several Carbon Fiber Architecture on the Drapability Effect
by Yuri Pereira Chuves, Midori Pitanga, Inga Grether, Maria Odila Cioffi and Francisco Monticeli
Textiles 2022, 2(3), 486-498; https://doi.org/10.3390/textiles2030027 - 5 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2844
Abstract
The growth of the aeronautical sector leads to the growth of polymer composites application, creating new demand for components applications in complex dimensions and shapes. Regarding different methods of draping 2D fabric into a 3D format, the concern is to keep the fabric [...] Read more.
The growth of the aeronautical sector leads to the growth of polymer composites application, creating new demand for components applications in complex dimensions and shapes. Regarding different methods of draping 2D fabric into a 3D format, the concern is to keep the fabric properties and characteristics, since fiber orientation is modified after draping. For that purpose, this study aims to evaluate the drapability capacity of 2D dry fibrous fabrics (plain, twill, satin, non-crimp-fabric 0/90, and ±45) into a complex geometry, i.e., spherical indent. The energy required to drape fabric is composed of fabric deformation mechanisms (shear and bending), which were used together with microscopic deformation analysis to determine the appropriate fabric architectures with the highest malleability. Both NCF fabrics presented high energy and roughness on the fabric surface due to the folding effect of stitching. On the other hand, plain and twill weave fabrics required lower energy to drape but demonstrated higher fiber misalignment and deformation. The satin warp/weft relation favored shear and bending mechanisms, presenting better uniformity in load distribution, symmetry on drape capability, lower deformation degree, and lower fiber misalignment. Despite the intermediate load and energy required for drape, ANOVA and optimization methods confirmed that satin fabric showed better malleability behavior for complex geometries applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fibrous Materials (Textiles) for Functional Applications II)
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0 pages, 8551 KiB  
Article
Hydrophilic Antimicrobial Coatings for Medical Leathers from Silica-Dendritic Polymer-Silver Nanoparticle Composite Xerogels
by Michael Arkas, Georgia Kythreoti, Evangelos P. Favvas, Konstantinos Giannakopoulos, Nafsika Mouti, Marina Arvanitopoulou, Ariadne Athanasiou, Marilina Douloudi, Eleni Nikoli, Michail Vardavoulias, Marios Dimitriou, Ioannis Karakasiliotis, Victoria Ballén and Sara Maria Soto González
Textiles 2022, 2(3), 464-485; https://doi.org/10.3390/textiles2030026 - 26 Aug 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2797
Abstract
Hybrid organic-inorganic (dendritic polymer-silica) xerogels containing silver nanoparticles (Ag Nps) were developed as antibacterial leather coatings. The preparation method is environmentally friendly and is based on two biomimetic reactions. Silica gelation and spontaneous Ag Nps formation were both mediated by hyperbranched poly (ethylene [...] Read more.
Hybrid organic-inorganic (dendritic polymer-silica) xerogels containing silver nanoparticles (Ag Nps) were developed as antibacterial leather coatings. The preparation method is environmentally friendly and is based on two biomimetic reactions. Silica gelation and spontaneous Ag Nps formation were both mediated by hyperbranched poly (ethylene imine) (PEI) scaffolds of variable Mw (2000–750,000). The formation of precursor hydrogels was monitored by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The chemical composition of the xerogels was assessed by infrared spectroscopy (IR) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), while the uniformity of the coatings was established by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The release properties of coated leather samples and their overall behavior in water in comparison to untreated analogs were investigated by Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. Antibacterial activity was tested against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus, and antibiofilm properties against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Enterococcus faecalis, while the SARS-CoV-2 clinical isolate was employed for the first estimation of their antiviral potential. Toxicity was evaluated using the Jurkat E6.1 cell line. Finally, water-contact angle measurements were implemented to determine the enhancement of the leather surface hydrophilicity caused by these composite layers. The final advanced products are intended for use in medical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Medical Textiles)
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17 pages, 1962 KiB  
Review
A Review of Recent Developments in Smart Textiles Based on Perovskite Materials
by Madeeha Tabassum, Qasim Zia, Yongfeng Zhou, Yufei Wang, Michael J. Reece and Lei Su
Textiles 2022, 2(3), 447-463; https://doi.org/10.3390/textiles2030025 - 16 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2654
Abstract
Metal halide perovskites (MHPs) are thought to be among the most promising materials for smart electronic textiles because of their unique optical and electrical characteristics. Recently, wearable perovskite devices have been developed that combine the excellent properties of perovskite with those of textiles, [...] Read more.
Metal halide perovskites (MHPs) are thought to be among the most promising materials for smart electronic textiles because of their unique optical and electrical characteristics. Recently, wearable perovskite devices have been developed that combine the excellent properties of perovskite with those of textiles, such as flexibility, light weight, and facile processability. In this review, advancements in wearable perovskite devices (e.g., solar cells, photodetectors, and light-emitting diodes) concerning their device architectures, working mechanisms, and fabrication techniques have been discussed. This study also highlights the technical benefits of integrating MHPs into wearable devices. Moreover, the application challenges faced by wearable perovskite optoelectronic devices—from single devices to roll-to-roll manufacturing, stability and storage, and biosafety—are briefly discussed. Finally, future perspectives on using perovskites for other wearable optoelectronic devices are stated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanofunctionalization of Textiles)
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11 pages, 11425 KiB  
Review
Digital Hybridisation in Adaptive Textiles for Public Space
by Katia Gasparini
Textiles 2022, 2(3), 436-446; https://doi.org/10.3390/textiles2030024 - 5 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2027
Abstract
Over recent years, many architectural and urban surfaces interact with the environment like a changing skin, adaptable to environmental stimuli. The textile technology appears to be the most suitable to meet the requirement of adaptability to the environment because it can produce changes [...] Read more.
Over recent years, many architectural and urban surfaces interact with the environment like a changing skin, adaptable to environmental stimuli. The textile technology appears to be the most suitable to meet the requirement of adaptability to the environment because it can produce changes in shape and colour. Today, this is a possible thanks to textile systems and fibres that are increasingly hi-tech and smart. To make these adaptable systems is a fundamental role in digital technologies and is an important a multidisciplinary approach in every design phase. This article interweaves some of the developments and applications of textiles in urban space design, exploring the possible applications of emerging technology in architectural and urban design. This analysis aims to explore the intersection between the culture, design and technology of textile systems, as well as the role of parametric design and embedded systems in urban space design and transformation. The aim of this article is to spread knowledge on adaptable textile systems as materials for architecture and to do so through practice-based design research. The study frames the contemporary design explorations, in which digital design tools and material expression are major placeholders, with a focus on surface shapes and design experiments exploring the expressiveness of light, colour and movement as design materials. The article reflects on the role of digital design applied to textile systems for urban space as a possible tool aiming at enhancing existing space by surface prototyping. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile Materials for Civil Engineering Applications)
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14 pages, 5375 KiB  
Article
A Prognostic Based Fuzzy Logic Method to Speculate Yarn Quality Ratio in Jute Spinning Industry
by Tamal Krishna Paul, Tazin Ibna Jalil, Md. Shohan Parvez, Md. Reazuddin Repon, Ismail Hossain, Md. Abdul Alim, Tarikul Islam and Mohammad Abdul Jalil
Textiles 2022, 2(3), 422-435; https://doi.org/10.3390/textiles2030023 - 29 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2620
Abstract
Jute is a bio-degradable, agro-renewable, and widely available lingo cellulosic fiber having high tensile strength and initial modulus, moisture regain, good sound, and heat insulation properties. For these unique properties and eco-friendly nature of jute fibers, jute-based products are now widely used in [...] Read more.
Jute is a bio-degradable, agro-renewable, and widely available lingo cellulosic fiber having high tensile strength and initial modulus, moisture regain, good sound, and heat insulation properties. For these unique properties and eco-friendly nature of jute fibers, jute-based products are now widely used in many sectors such as packaging, home textiles, agro textiles, build textiles, and so forth. The diversified applications of jute products create an excellent opportunity to mitigate the negative environmental effect of petroleum-based products. For producing the best quality jute products, the main prerequisite is to ensure the jute yarn quality that can be defined by the load at break (L.B), strain at break (S.B), tenacity at break (T.B), and tensile modulus (T.M). However, good quality yarn production by considering these parameters is quite difficult because these parameters follow a non-linear relationship. Therefore, it is essential to build up a model that can cover this entire inconsistent pattern and forecast the yarn quality accurately. That is why, in this study, a laboratory-based research work was performed to develop a fuzzy model to predict the quality of jute yarn considering L.B, S.B, T.B, and T.M as input parameters. For this purpose, 173 tex (5 lb/spindle) and 241 tex (7 lb/spindle) were produced, and then L.B, S.B, T.B and T.M values were measured. Using this measured value, a fuzzy model was developed to determine the optimum L.B, S.B, T.B, and T.M to produce the best quality jute yarn. In our proposed fuzzy model, for 173 tex and 241 tex yarn count, the mean relative error was found to be 1.46% (Triangular membership) and 1.48% (Gaussian membership), respectively, and the correlation coefficient was 0.93 for both triangular and gaussian membership function. This result validated the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy model for an industrial application. The developed fuzzy model may help a spinner to produce the best quality jute yarn. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Technical Textiles)
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27 pages, 1248 KiB  
Systematic Review
Tight Margins: Compression Garment Use during Exercise and Recovery—A Systematic Review
by Alana J. Leabeater, Lachlan P. James and Matthew W. Driller
Textiles 2022, 2(3), 395-421; https://doi.org/10.3390/textiles2030022 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 11984
Abstract
Background: Compression garments (CGs) are a popular tool that may act on physiological, physical, neuromuscular, biomechanical, and/or perceptual domains during exercise and recovery from exercise, with varying levels of efficacy. While previous reviews have focused on the effects of CGs during running, high-intensity [...] Read more.
Background: Compression garments (CGs) are a popular tool that may act on physiological, physical, neuromuscular, biomechanical, and/or perceptual domains during exercise and recovery from exercise, with varying levels of efficacy. While previous reviews have focused on the effects of CGs during running, high-intensity exercise, and exercise recovery, a comprehensive systematic review that assesses the effectiveness of garment use both during and after exercise has not been recently conducted. Methods: A systematic search of the literature from the earliest record until May 2022 was performed based on the PRISMA-P guidelines for systematic reviews, using the online databases PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and Google Scholar. Results: 160 articles with 2530 total participants were included for analysis in the systematic review, comprised of 103 ‘during exercise’ studies, 42 ‘during recovery’ studies, and 15 combined design studies. Conclusions: During exercise, CGs have a limited effect on global measures of endurance performance but may improve some sport-specific variables (e.g., countermovement jump height). Most muscle proteins/metabolites are unchanged with the use of CGs during exercise, though measures of blood lactate tend to be lowered. CGs for recovery appear to have a positive benefit on subsequent bouts of endurance (e.g., cycling time trials) and resistance exercise (e.g., isokinetic dynamometry). CGs are associated with reductions in lactate dehydrogenase during recovery and are consistently associated with decreases in perceived muscle soreness following fatiguing exercise. This review may provide a useful point of reference for practitioners and researchers interested in the effect of CGs on particular outcome variables or exercise types. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Medical Textiles)
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13 pages, 2459 KiB  
Article
Photochromic Textiles Based upon Aqueous Blends of Oxygen-Deficient WO3-x and TiO2 Nanocrystals
by Roberto Giannuzzi, Vitantonio Primiceri, Riccardo Scarfiello, Marco Pugliese, Fabrizio Mariano, Antonio Maggiore, Carmela Tania Prontera, Sonia Carallo, Cristian De Vito, Luigi Carbone and Vincenzo Maiorano
Textiles 2022, 2(3), 382-394; https://doi.org/10.3390/textiles2030021 - 1 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3064
Abstract
With the main objective being to develop photochromic smart textiles, in this paper, we studied the photochromic behavior of WO3-x nanocrystals (NCs) cooperatively interacting with variable amounts of TiO2 NCs. We tested several blends of WO3-x:TiO2 NCs, admixed [...] Read more.
With the main objective being to develop photochromic smart textiles, in this paper, we studied the photochromic behavior of WO3-x nanocrystals (NCs) cooperatively interacting with variable amounts of TiO2 NCs. We tested several blends of WO3-x:TiO2 NCs, admixed in different compositions (relative molar ratio of 4:0, 3:1, 2:2, 1:3, 0:4) and electrostatically interfacing because of opposite values of Z-potential, for photo-induced chromogenic textiles. We further monitored the photochromic sensitivity of NC-impregnated textiles after exposure to a few solvents (i.e., methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol) or when over-coated with different polymeric matrices such as natural cellulose or ionic conductive Nafion. The optimization of the compositions of the WO3-x:TiO2 blends embedded in polymeric matrices, allowed the nanostructured photochromic textiles to show rapid and tunable coloration (<5 min) and bleaching kinetics (~5 in at 75 °C or 6 h at room temperature) along with good recovery and cycling stability. This study features a simple strategy for the widespread application of WO3-x:TiO2-based photochromic smart textiles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research Trends for Textiles)
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