Next Issue
Volume 3, June
Previous Issue
Volume 2, December
 
 

Constr. Mater., Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2023) – 9 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
16 pages, 4040 KiB  
Article
A Critical Comparison of Correlations for Rapid Estimation of Subgrade Stiffness in Pavement Design and Construction
by Christina Plati and Maria Tsakoumaki
Constr. Mater. 2023, 3(1), 127-142; https://doi.org/10.3390/constrmater3010009 - 12 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1702
Abstract
According to pavement design principles, the subgrade or soil layer serving as the foundation for pavement depends on the properties and stiffness of the soil material. The resilient modulus (MR) is the absolute measure of the bearing capacity of the subgrade [...] Read more.
According to pavement design principles, the subgrade or soil layer serving as the foundation for pavement depends on the properties and stiffness of the soil material. The resilient modulus (MR) is the absolute measure of the bearing capacity of the subgrade for pavement design. However, due to the complexity of MR testing, indirect methods are chosen to determine MR. In this context, the CBR test is considered a practical tool for determining the strength of the subgrade, but the use of the correlations of MR-CBR has caused great controversy in the scientific community. Nevertheless, such correlations are widely used in practice for pavement design, and the question of their influence on design results is always raised. Therefore, the present study investigates the use and applicability of the MR-CBR correlations for the subgrade with respect to the design of flexible pavements, with the aim of optimizing the thickness and bearing capacity of the unbound base/sub-base. Based on the previous debate on the use of MR-CBR correlations, this study first investigates the main correlations between MR and the CBR index based on a thorough review of the literature. Using the properties of certain medium-grained soils used in practice and the corresponding values of MR, estimated by the various MR-CBR correlations reported in the international literature, a theoretical pavement design is then carried out on the basis of a sensitivity analysis. A major outcome of the sensitivity analysis is the identification of the most optimal correlation for estimating MR in pavement design, while the development of a global MR-CBR correlation applicable to most types of soil materials used in pavement construction remains an important topic for future research. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 6250 KiB  
Article
Geotechnical Properties of Soil Stabilized with Blended Binders for Sustainable Road Base Applications
by Per Lindh and Polina Lemenkova
Constr. Mater. 2023, 3(1), 110-126; https://doi.org/10.3390/constrmater3010008 - 12 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2772
Abstract
This study aimed at evaluating the effect of blended binders on the stabilization of clayey soils intended for use as road and pavement materials in selected regions of Sweden. The stabilization potential of blended binders containing five stabilizers (cement, bio fly ash, energy [...] Read more.
This study aimed at evaluating the effect of blended binders on the stabilization of clayey soils intended for use as road and pavement materials in selected regions of Sweden. The stabilization potential of blended binders containing five stabilizers (cement, bio fly ash, energy fly ash, slag and lime) was investigated using laboratory tests and statistical analysis. Soil samples were compacted using Swedish Standards on UCS. The specimens were stabilized with blended mixtures containing various ratios of five binders. The effects of changed ratio of binders on soil strength was analyzed using velocities of seismic P-waves penetrating the tested soil samples on the day 14 of the experiment. The difference in the soil surface response indicated variations in strength in the evaluated specimens. We tested combination of blended binders to improve the stabilization of clayey soil. The mix of slag/lime or slag/cement accelerated soil hardening process and gave durable soil product. We noted that pure lime (burnt or quenched) is best suited for the fine-grained soils containing clay minerals. Slag used in this study had a very finely ground structure and had hydraulic properties (hardens under water) without activation. Therefore, slag has a too slow curing process for it to be practical to use in real projects on stabilization of roads. The best performance on soil stabilization was demonstrated by blended binders consisted of lime/fly ash/cement which considerably improved the geotechnical properties and workability of soil and increased its strength. We conclude that bearing capacities of soil intended for road construction can be significantly improved by stabilization using mixed binders, compared to pure binders (cement). Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 5020 KiB  
Article
Laboratory Assessment of Modified Asphalt Binders Using Crumb Rubber Modifier (CRM) and Processed Oil
by Navid Hemmati, Shyaamkrishnan Vigneswaran, Mithil Mazumder, Moon-Sup Lee and Soon-Jae Lee
Constr. Mater. 2023, 3(1), 93-109; https://doi.org/10.3390/constrmater3010007 - 08 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1313
Abstract
The study examines the effects of modifying PG 64-22 asphalt binder with Crumb Rubber Modifier (CRM) and processed oil on its properties. The binder was tested at different temperatures, and different amounts of CRM and processed oil were added to the binder. The [...] Read more.
The study examines the effects of modifying PG 64-22 asphalt binder with Crumb Rubber Modifier (CRM) and processed oil on its properties. The binder was tested at different temperatures, and different amounts of CRM and processed oil were added to the binder. The modified binders were also aged using different procedures. The study found that adding processed oil to CRM-modified binders reduces viscosity and improves workability, while CRM improves the rutting resistance. However, the addition of processed oil reduces the binder’s rutting performance. The study also found that CRM and processed oil improve the low temperature cracking resistance. The study’s results indicate that co-modifying CRM binders with processed oil resulted in a significant reduction in viscosity values, resulting in improved workability. The results also showed that increasing the processed oil concentration from 6% to 12% caused a viscosity reduction of 27%, 34%, 33%, and 31% for modified binders containing 0, 5%, 10%, and 15% CRM, respectively. Even though the addition of processed oil results in a reduction in the rutting performance of asphalt binder, the addition of CRM significantly improved the rutting resistance of asphalt binders. The CRM binder containing processed oil decreased the G*sin δ values, and the content of 6% processed oil containing 5%, 10%, and 15% CRM decreased by 28%, 17%, and 11%, respectively, while the 12% processed oil-modified asphalt binder showed a reduction in G*sin δ by 5%, 13%, and 22%, respectively. The BBR results for modified asphalt binders showed that the incorporation of CRM and processed oil improved the low temperature cracking resistance significantly. The stiffness values with 6% processed oil containing 5%, 10%, and 15% CRM were observed to be 118, 97, and 80 MPa, respectively, while at the same temperature for the same CRM contents with 12% processed oil, the stiffness values were found to be 89, 72, and 56 MPa, respectively. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2066 KiB  
Article
Strength, Porosity and Permeability Properties of Porous Concrete Made from Recycled Concrete Aggregates
by Muniter Muresa Muda, Alemu Mosisa Legese, Girum Urgessa and Teshome Boja
Constr. Mater. 2023, 3(1), 81-92; https://doi.org/10.3390/constrmater3010006 - 07 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4649
Abstract
Due to expansion in infrastructure and increased development of urbanization in Ethiopia, most of the places are covered either by impermeable cement concrete or bitumen that blocks the percolation of water from rainfall. A porous concrete made of zero fine aggregates, creating a [...] Read more.
Due to expansion in infrastructure and increased development of urbanization in Ethiopia, most of the places are covered either by impermeable cement concrete or bitumen that blocks the percolation of water from rainfall. A porous concrete made of zero fine aggregates, creating a pore that permits the concrete to be water permeable, is highly desirable. Similarly, the demand for natural coarse aggregates remains high, while natural resources are being depleted. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the properties of porous concrete using recycled concrete aggregate as a partial replacement for natural coarse aggregate. Experimental tests were conducted on cement setting time, workability of concrete, compressive, split tensile, porosity, and permeability of porous concrete. The properties of porous concrete at different ratios—0, 15, 30, 45 and 60%—revealed that RCA is suitable for use as coarse aggregate. The optimum replacement percentage of recycled aggregate for porous concrete in terms of strength is 30%, with 28th-day compressive strength of 17.37 MPa. However, slight increments were observed in porosity and permeability coefficient. Therefore, the concrete produced in this study is structural concrete, which is suitable for walkways and other concrete flat works, whereby heavy vehicle traffic loads do not exist. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 1683 KiB  
Article
An Index for Assessing the Environmental Impact of Pavement Maintenance Operations on the Motorway Network: The Environmental Asphalt Rating
by Davide Chiola, Vincenzo Cirimele and Cristina Tozzo
Constr. Mater. 2023, 3(1), 62-80; https://doi.org/10.3390/constrmater3010005 - 04 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2620
Abstract
In recent years, attention on pavement management is increasing and the research is focused on the development of innovative protocols and comparative evaluation of maintenance alternatives. Among these, the concept of sustainability related to the management of pavements is gaining ground and, more [...] Read more.
In recent years, attention on pavement management is increasing and the research is focused on the development of innovative protocols and comparative evaluation of maintenance alternatives. Among these, the concept of sustainability related to the management of pavements is gaining ground and, more generally, infrastructure and the quantification of environmental impact as a combination of emissions and energy consumption. To properly estimate the environmental impact of different pavement interventions, a calculation methodology is presented in this paper that can summarize all the different aspects of environmental impact for both the production and paving phases of asphalt mixtures. The innovative approach takes into account also the need to evaluate new methodologies and new production processes in order to compare these new technologies with already used materials and processes. The result of this paper is a dimensionless index based on Environmental Product Declaration (EPD) certification which has been named Environmental Asphalt Rating (EAR) with weighting factors and performance coefficients fine-tuned on the European scenario. The EAR computation wants to be a certified procedure ensuring the repeatability and the quality of the environmental evaluation but also able to include in the evaluation noise and mechanical characteristics of the pavement. Several applications are expected such as the design stage of maintenance operations, and awarding criteria in tenders of monitoring phases of the pavement maintenance interventions. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 18698 KiB  
Article
Cyclic Behavior of FRP Strengthened Beam-Column Joints under Various Concrete Damage Levels
by Rajai Al-Rousan, Osama Nusier, Khairedin Abdalla, Mohammad Alhassan, Emmanouil A. Vougioukas, Athanassios A. Stamos and Nikos D. Lagaros
Constr. Mater. 2023, 3(1), 38-61; https://doi.org/10.3390/constrmater3010004 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1847
Abstract
This paper is intended to examine the efficiency of utilizing the FRP composite material with an externally bonded technique in enhancing the behavior of the damaged B-C joints and controlling their failure mode using the NLFEA approach. At first, the modeled Beam-Column joint [...] Read more.
This paper is intended to examine the efficiency of utilizing the FRP composite material with an externally bonded technique in enhancing the behavior of the damaged B-C joints and controlling their failure mode using the NLFEA approach. At first, the modeled Beam-Column joint was validated as per the previously-attained experimentally-attained results. Later, the model was widened to experiment with the impact of axial-column load and the concrete compressive strength on the reinforced and un-reinforced models with FRP. To run the experiment, there were three cases of applying the axial column load: no load applied (0%), applying 25%, applying 50%, and applying 75%, while the concrete compressive strength degradation level was (0% damage), (25% damage), and (50% damage). All models were evaluated for structural performance, considering: the failure mode, stresses distribution, and the ultimate capacities in pulling and pushing with its corresponding displacements. However, the horizontal load-displacement hysteretic loops and envelopes, stiffness degradation, displacement ductility, and energy dissipation were reported. The experimental results revealed that using FRP to externally-reinforce B-C joints improved overall cyclic performance, as the FRP caused a rise in the ultimate load capacity, horizontal displacement, ductility of displacement, and displacement energy dissipation, while it slowed down the stiffness degradation. In addition, the FRP material converted the failure mode of the region between the joint and column from brittle to ductile due to the formation of a plastic hinge only on the side of the beam when the axial column load exceeded 25%. It must be noticed that when the column’s axial load is less than 25%, the ultimate capacity of axial load and resultant deflection is solely improved. However, it has been stated that increasing the column’s axial loading by 25% increases the resulting stiffness degradation by 3% for undamaged joints, which further increases by 16% for each increased damage level. In contrast, the absorbed energy is increased by 170% under axial loading, increasing by 25%, which is reduced to only one-fourth under the various damage levels. Generally, the resulting observations help specialized engineers retrofit appropriate B-C joints in already-standing buildings due to their accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Concrete Binders and Reinforced Concrete)
Show Figures

Figure 1

2 pages, 145 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of Construction Materials in 2022
by Construction Materials Editorial Office
Constr. Mater. 2023, 3(1), 36-37; https://doi.org/10.3390/constrmater3010003 - 18 Jan 2023
Viewed by 848
Abstract
High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...] Full article
22 pages, 4353 KiB  
Article
Influence of the Type of Cement on the Durability of Concrete Structures Exposed to Various Carbonation Environments in Greece: A Contribution to the Sustainability of Structures
by Christos Tassos, Kosmas K. Sideris, Alexandros Chatzopoulos, Emmanouel Tzanis and Marios S. Katsiotis
Constr. Mater. 2023, 3(1), 14-35; https://doi.org/10.3390/constrmater3010002 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2685
Abstract
The research objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of different types of cement and different climatic conditions on the durability of reinforced concrete structures to understand and address issues of durability and erosion. The types of cement used were CEM [...] Read more.
The research objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of different types of cement and different climatic conditions on the durability of reinforced concrete structures to understand and address issues of durability and erosion. The types of cement used were CEM I 42.5N, CEM II/A-M (P-LL) 42.5N and CEM II/B-M (W-P-LL) 32.5N. Mixtures of three different cement mortars and six different concretes were prepared with these three types of cement. Cement mortars were produced according to the European standard EN 196-1. Concrete mixtures were of the strength classes C25/30 and C30/37. Concrete mixtures produced according to the specifications of the European standard EN 206 may have a shorter service life due to carbonation-induced corrosion if the choice of the cement type is not made carefully. The results indicate that the carbonation rate of concrete mixtures is significantly influenced by the type and strength class of the cement used. Using meteorological data from six regions of Greece, an empirical carbonation prediction model for these regions was obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Concrete Binders and Reinforced Concrete)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 4204 KiB  
Article
Impact of Moisture Content on the Elasto-Viscoplastic Behaviour of Rammed Earth Wall: New Findings
by Taini Chitimbo, Feras Abdulsamad, Noémie Prime, André Revil and Olivier Plé
Constr. Mater. 2023, 3(1), 1-13; https://doi.org/10.3390/constrmater3010001 - 20 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1432
Abstract
The influence of hydric state on the elasto-viscoplastic behaviour of a unstabilised rammed earth (URE) wall has yet to be studied in the literature. This paper presents an experimental campaign on a rammed earth wall. The aim is to evaluate the link between [...] Read more.
The influence of hydric state on the elasto-viscoplastic behaviour of a unstabilised rammed earth (URE) wall has yet to be studied in the literature. This paper presents an experimental campaign on a rammed earth wall. The aim is to evaluate the link between the mechanical properties (including viscosity) and the varying hydric state inside the drying wall after manufacture. Cyclic axial compression and stress relaxation tests were carried out for this purpose. A compression test was conducted up to 0.1 MPa, followed by a stress relaxation test. These tests were periodically performed over 32 weeks. In addition, the hydric state inside the wall was monitored by humidity sensors. The results show that both the elastic modulus and the dynamic viscosity coefficient increase as the structure dries. A dependence of the mechanical behaviour on time is therefore found in these samples in the transient state. This can occur when the sample is in the drying or wetting phase. As rammed earth is a material particularly sensitive to water, this result is crucial for the durability of earthen constructions. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop