Next Issue
Volume 4, September
Previous Issue
Volume 4, March
 
 

Solids, Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2023) – 3 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
23 pages, 5800 KiB  
Review
Sustainable Approaches to Incorporate Plant-Based Biomaterials in Power Generation
by Antonio Ruiz-Gonzalez, Mingqing Wang and Jim Haseloff
Solids 2023, 4(2), 133-155; https://doi.org/10.3390/solids4020009 - 02 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1511
Abstract
Biomass-derived materials have traditionally been used to generate electrical energy through the combustion of their organic components. However, within the past few years, certain common biomass compounds, especially plant-based products such as cellulose and lignin, have drawn attention in the energy field due [...] Read more.
Biomass-derived materials have traditionally been used to generate electrical energy through the combustion of their organic components. However, within the past few years, certain common biomass compounds, especially plant-based products such as cellulose and lignin, have drawn attention in the energy field due to their wide availability, low cost, and chemical versatility. In the case of cellulose, the combination of crystalline and amorphous domains, along with the high surface area and abundance of hydroxyl groups, has allowed for its application in multiple devices to harvest energy from the environment. However, to date, there are no reviews focusing on the different approaches that have been developed to implement these sustainable materials in the generation of renewable energies and the desirable material properties for these applications. This manuscript reviews alternative ways that have been developed to exploit biomass compounds in power generation, especially cellulose and lignin. Three different types of energy harvesting are discussed: mechanical, osmotic, and thermal energy. In the case of mechanical energy, the application of plant-derived materials in piezoelectric and triboelectric generators is described. In both cases, approaches where the biomass material has an active role in power generation instead of acting as a mechanical support are reported. For osmotic energy, the performance of inverse electrodialysis systems and the use of plant-derived materials, including the chemical modifications carried out to allow for their use for energy generation, was reviewed. Finally, for thermal energy generation, the reported work on biopolymer-based devices that work using thermoelectricity has been summarised. In each case, the latest advances in the field from the materials science perspective and the reported performance were described. Hybrid approaches involving the combination of biomass materials with other components have also been considered and compared with the performance obtained using biopolymers alone. Current limitations and opportunities are, finally, discussed to offer an overview of the current landscape and indicate future directions of the field. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 4921 KiB  
Article
Experimental Investigation of the Vibration-Induced Heating of Polyetheretherketone for High-Frequency Applications
by Michael Kucher, Martin Dannemann, Davood Peyrow Hedayati, Robert Böhm and Niels Modler
Solids 2023, 4(2), 116-132; https://doi.org/10.3390/solids4020008 - 29 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1325
Abstract
Dynamically loaded structures made of thermoplastic polymers have been extensively exploited in several demanding industries. Due to the viscoelastic and thermal properties of thermoplastic polymers, self-heating is generally inevitable, especially during dynamic deformations at high frequencies. Therefore, the thermoplastic polyether ether ketone (PEEK), [...] Read more.
Dynamically loaded structures made of thermoplastic polymers have been extensively exploited in several demanding industries. Due to the viscoelastic and thermal properties of thermoplastic polymers, self-heating is generally inevitable, especially during dynamic deformations at high frequencies. Therefore, the thermoplastic polyether ether ketone (PEEK), with its high temperature resistance and high specific strength, is a particularly ideal candidate for dynamically loaded applications. Using scanning laser Doppler vibrometry and infrared thermography, an experimental study of the vibration characteristics and the vibration-induced heating of flat-sheet PEEK specimens was carried out. The specimens were base-excited by means of a piezoelectric actuator at high frequencies in the range between 1 and 16 kHz. As a result, a maximum temperature rise of approximately 6.4 K was detected for the highest investigated excitation. A high correlation between the spatial distribution of the velocity along the beam’s axial direction and the resulting temperature increase was measured. To summarize, the occurring self-heating of PEEK due to the dissipation of vibrational energy has to be critically considered for dynamically loaded structural applications, especially areas with high displacement amplitudes, such as antinodes, which yield the highest temperature increase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Study and Application of Polymers)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 2703 KiB  
Article
Topology Optimization with Matlab: Geometrically Non-Linear Optimum Solid Structures at Random Force Strengths
by Marek Werner, Sören Bieler and Kerstin Weinberg
Solids 2023, 4(2), 94-115; https://doi.org/10.3390/solids4020007 - 29 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1858
Abstract
This paper aims to investigate multiple large-strain topology-optimized structures, by interpreting their overlay as a probability density function. Such a strategy is suited to finding an optimum design of silicon electrodes subject to a random contact. Using this method, and prescribing a zero [...] Read more.
This paper aims to investigate multiple large-strain topology-optimized structures, by interpreting their overlay as a probability density function. Such a strategy is suited to finding an optimum design of silicon electrodes subject to a random contact. Using this method, and prescribing a zero net-force constraint on the global system, the optimum structure is identified with a Schwarz P minimum-surface structure. Then, the optimum structure is subject to chemo-mechanically coupled cycling, in terms of an irreversible thermodynamic process, which shows the interplay between the mechanical and chemical fields. The Matlab-based optimization code is attached. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop