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Solids, Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2023) – 6 articles

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7 pages, 1720 KiB  
Communication
Combined X-ray and Neutron Powder Diffraction Study on B-Site Cation Ordering in Complex Perovskite La2(Al1/2MgTa1/2)O6
by Yoo Jung Sohn, Volodymyr Baran, Ralph Gilles, Georg Roth and Robert Vaßen
Solids 2023, 4(1), 87-93; https://doi.org/10.3390/solids4010006 - 01 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1489
Abstract
Complex perovskite La2(Al1/2MgTa1/2)O6 (LAMT) crystallizes in a monoclinic unit cell with space group P21/n at room temperature. Its B-site cations are ordered in a rock-salt-type arrangement. Previously, the full occupancy of Mg [...] Read more.
Complex perovskite La2(Al1/2MgTa1/2)O6 (LAMT) crystallizes in a monoclinic unit cell with space group P21/n at room temperature. Its B-site cations are ordered in a rock-salt-type arrangement. Previously, the full occupancy of Mg on the 2c-Wyckoff position was deduced from powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). However, conventional X-rays could not properly resolve the mixed occupation on the B-site, since there is little scattering contrast between the neighbouring elements Mg and Al of the periodic table. Hence, complementary neutron diffraction studies were carried out to verify the exact B-site cation ordering in the unit cell. In this specific configuration of the B-cations, with its occupancy ratio and the presence of a heavy element Ta as well as neighbouring elements Mg and Al, only the strategy of a combined Rietveld analysis using both the X-ray and neutron diffraction data simultaneously succeeded in elucidating an accurate B-site cation ordering in this complex perovskite system. A full occupancy of Mg on the 2c-Wyckoff position and each a half occupancy of Al and Ta on the 2d-Wyckoff position could be resolved for the rock-salt-type ordering of the B-site cations in the monoclinic unit cell of LAMT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solids in Europe)
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16 pages, 4786 KiB  
Article
The Influence of the Rebound Hammer Test Location on the Estimation of Compressive Strength of a Historical Solid Clay Brick
by Girum Mindaye Mengistu, Zoltán Gyurkó and Rita Nemes
Solids 2023, 4(1), 71-86; https://doi.org/10.3390/solids4010005 - 16 Feb 2023
Viewed by 2413
Abstract
This paper presents the study of a two-hundred-year-old, demolded solid clay brick using the rebound hammer test for the estimation of the compressive strength. During the test, the location and face type influence on the rebound values are monitored and recorded. In addition, [...] Read more.
This paper presents the study of a two-hundred-year-old, demolded solid clay brick using the rebound hammer test for the estimation of the compressive strength. During the test, the location and face type influence on the rebound values are monitored and recorded. In addition, the calculation of the average rebound value has been modified to encounter the influence of location and face types. Furthermore, the estimated compressive strength is compared with the normalized mean compressive strength to check the accuracy of the rebound hammer test if it is within the confidential limit of ±25%. The result shows that the location and surface types have influence on the rebound value, which in turn affected the compressive strength. Full article
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32 pages, 1169 KiB  
Article
Second-Order Collocation-Based Mixed FEM for Flexoelectric Solids
by Kevin Tannhäuser, Prince Henry Serrao and Sergey Kozinov
Solids 2023, 4(1), 39-70; https://doi.org/10.3390/solids4010004 - 02 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1762
Abstract
Flexoelectricity is an electromechanical coupling between the electric field and the mechanical strain gradient, as well as between the mechanical strains and the electric field gradient, observed in all dielectric materials, including those with centrosymmetry. Flexoelectricity demands C1-continuity for straightforward numerical [...] Read more.
Flexoelectricity is an electromechanical coupling between the electric field and the mechanical strain gradient, as well as between the mechanical strains and the electric field gradient, observed in all dielectric materials, including those with centrosymmetry. Flexoelectricity demands C1-continuity for straightforward numerical implementation as the governing equations in the gradient theory are fourth-order partial differential equations. In this work, an alternative collocation-based mixed finite element method for direct flexoelectricity is used, for which a newly developed quadratic element with a high capability of capturing gradients is introduced. In the collocation method, mechanical strains and electric field through independently assumed polynomials are collocated with the mechanical strains and electric field derived from the mechanical displacements and electric potential at collocation points inside a finite element. The mechanical strain gradient and electric field are obtained by taking the directional derivative of the independent mechanical strain and electric field gradients. However, an earlier proposed linear element is unable to capture all mechanical strain gradient components and, thus, simulate flexoelectricity correctly. This problem is solved in the present work by using quadratic shape functions for the mechanical displacements and electric potential with fewer degrees of freedom than the traditional mixed finite element method. A Fortran user-element code is developed by the authors: first, for the linear and, after that, for the quadratic element. After verifying the linear element with numerical results from the literature, both linear and quadratic elements’ behaviors are tested for different problems. It is shown that the proposed second-order collocation-based mixed FEM can capture the flexoelectric behavior better compared to the existing linear formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advance in Ferroelectric Composites)
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15 pages, 4066 KiB  
Review
A Review on Hydration Process and Setting Time of Limestone Calcined Clay Cement (LC3)
by Yuhan Zhao and Yingda Zhang
Solids 2023, 4(1), 24-38; https://doi.org/10.3390/solids4010003 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2729
Abstract
The extensive usage of concrete and ordinary Portland cement has generated 5~8% of annual global CO2 emissions, causing serious environmental problems. To reduce such environmental impact, researchers have made significant efforts to develop alternative materials that may partially or entirely replace the [...] Read more.
The extensive usage of concrete and ordinary Portland cement has generated 5~8% of annual global CO2 emissions, causing serious environmental problems. To reduce such environmental impact, researchers have made significant efforts to develop alternative materials that may partially or entirely replace the ordinary Portland cement, such as limestone calcined clay cement (LC3). LC3 has not been commonly adopted in reality because of uncertain setting times during the transportation and construction processes. Comprehensive investigation and understanding of the setting times of LC3 has great significance to industrial upgrading. As a result, this study is committed to comprehensively reviewing the hydration process and the setting time of LC3 materials. Full article
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2 pages, 229 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of Solids in 2022
by Solids Editorial Office
Solids 2023, 4(1), 22-23; https://doi.org/10.3390/solids4010002 - 16 Jan 2023
Viewed by 802
Abstract
High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...] Full article
21 pages, 13287 KiB  
Article
Chemical and Structural Comparison of Different Commercial Food Supplements for Silicon Uptake
by Yannic Curto, Marcus Koch and Guido Kickelbick
Solids 2023, 4(1), 1-21; https://doi.org/10.3390/solids4010001 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2692
Abstract
Various food supplements for silicon uptake were compared in terms of their structures and chemical compositions. In particular, we analyzed the silanol group content, which can be an indicator of the uptake of the siliceous species in the human body. We analyzed the [...] Read more.
Various food supplements for silicon uptake were compared in terms of their structures and chemical compositions. In particular, we analyzed the silanol group content, which can be an indicator of the uptake of the siliceous species in the human body. We analyzed the commercial products Original Silicea Balsam®, Flügge Siliceous Earth Powder, Pure Colloidal Silicon, and BioSil® by applying various methods such as FTIR, 29Si NMR, and TGA. The Si-OH group content of the samples containing pure silica was the highest for the Original Silicea Balsam followed by the Pure Colloidal Silicon. The siliceous earth powder revealed the lowest content of such groups and the densest structure. BioSil® contained a considerable concentration of organic molecules that stabilized orthosilicic acid. The study may help to understand the silicon uptake behavior of different food supplements depending on their chemical structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solids in Europe)
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