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Gases, Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2024) – 2 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): India, the world’s most populous nation and the third-largest emitter of greenhouse gases (GHGs), faces a critical challenge in reconciling its emission reduction targets with its growing energy needs. Coal currently dominates the energy mix, hindering the reduction of GHG emissions. Despite commendable strides in renewables such as solar and hydrogen, they are unlikely to meet the projected energy demand increase. Exploring scenarios with differing GDP growth rates and using multiple forecasting techniques, our research predicts a significant natural gas shortfall by 2050, with LNG imports estimated to cover 30–50% of this deficit. Based on these predictions, we recommend boosting domestic gas production, increasing LNG imports, and continuing to expand renewables to ensure long-term energy security and sustainability. View this paper
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24 pages, 945 KiB  
Review
A Review on the Process of Greenhouse Gas Inventory Preparation and Proposed Mitigation Measures for Reducing Carbon Footprint
by Cevat Yaman
Gases 2024, 4(1), 18-40; https://doi.org/10.3390/gases4010002 - 15 Mar 2024
Viewed by 872
Abstract
Greenhouse gases trap heat in the atmosphere, causing the Earth’s surface temperature to rise. The main greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, perfluorocarbons, hydrofluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride. Human activities are increasing greenhouse gas concentrations rapidly, which is causing global climate change. [...] Read more.
Greenhouse gases trap heat in the atmosphere, causing the Earth’s surface temperature to rise. The main greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, perfluorocarbons, hydrofluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride. Human activities are increasing greenhouse gas concentrations rapidly, which is causing global climate change. Global climate change is increasing environmental and public health problems. To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, it is necessary to identify where the emissions are coming from, develop a plan to reduce them, and then implement and monitor the plan to ensure that emissions are actually reduced. Anthropogenic global climate change has large and increasingly adverse economic effects. Cities emit the most greenhouse gas due to fossil fuel burning and power usage. The four major greenhouse gas emitters are energy, transportation, waste management, and urban land use sectors. Organizations should prepare action plans to lower their greenhouse gas emissions and stop the worst consequences of climate change. These action plans require companies and local authorities to submit their greenhouse gas emissions reports on a yearly basis. A greenhouse gas emissions management system includes several processes and tools created by organizations to understand, measure, monitor, report, and validate their greenhouse gas emissions. Two of the most widely adapted frameworks for greenhouse gases inventory reporting are ISO 14064 and the greenhouse gas protocol. This review paper aims to identify some of the key points of GHG inventory preparation and mitigation strategies. Full article
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17 pages, 1873 KiB  
Article
Natural Gas Matters: LNG and India’s Quest for Clean Energy
by Subhadip Ghosh, Rajarshi Majumder and Bidisha Chatterjee
Gases 2024, 4(1), 1-17; https://doi.org/10.3390/gases4010001 - 3 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1327
Abstract
India, the world’s most populous country, is the world’s third-largest emitter of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Despite employing several energy sources, it still relies heavily on coal, its primary energy source. Given India’s swiftly rising energy demand, this challenges meeting emission reduction targets. In [...] Read more.
India, the world’s most populous country, is the world’s third-largest emitter of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Despite employing several energy sources, it still relies heavily on coal, its primary energy source. Given India’s swiftly rising energy demand, this challenges meeting emission reduction targets. In recent years, India has significantly increased investments in renewables like solar and hydrogen. While commendable, these initiatives alone cannot meet the country’s expanding energy demands. In the short term, India must rely on both domestic and imported fossil fuels, with natural gas being the most environmentally friendly option. In this context, this paper attempts to forecast energy consumption, natural gas production, and consumption in India until 2050, using both univariate and multivariate forecasting methods. For multivariate forecasting, we have assumed two alternative possibilities for GDP growth: the business-as-usual and the high-growth scenarios. Each of our forecasts indicates a notable shortfall in the projected production of natural gas compared to the expected demand, implying our results are robust. Our model predicts that nearly 30–50 percent of India’s natural gas consumption will be met by imports, mainly in the form of LNG. Based on these findings, this paper recommends that Indian government policies emphasize increasing domestic natural gas production, importing LNG, and expanding renewable energy resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Gas)
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