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Gases, Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2024) – 5 articles

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16 pages, 618 KiB  
Article
Carbon Dioxide Capture under Low-Pressure Low-Temperature Conditions Using Shaped Recycled Fly Ash Particles
by Sherif Fakher, Abdelaziz Khlaifat and Abdullah Hassanien
Gases 2024, 4(2), 117-132; https://doi.org/10.3390/gases4020007 - 23 May 2024
Viewed by 207
Abstract
Carbon-capture technologies are extremely abundant, yet they have not been applied extensively worldwide due to their high cost and technological complexities. This research studies the ability of polymerized fly ash to capture carbon dioxide (CO2) under low-pressure and low-temperature conditions via [...] Read more.
Carbon-capture technologies are extremely abundant, yet they have not been applied extensively worldwide due to their high cost and technological complexities. This research studies the ability of polymerized fly ash to capture carbon dioxide (CO2) under low-pressure and low-temperature conditions via physical adsorption. The research also studies the ability to desorb CO2 due to the high demand for CO2 in different industries. The adsorption–desorption hysteresis was measured using infrared-sensor detection apparatus. The impact of the CO2 injection rate for adsorption, helium injection rate for desorption, temperature, and fly ash contact surface area on the adsorption–desorption hysteresis was investigated. The results showed that change in the CO2 injection rate had little impact on the variation in the adsorption capacity; for all CO2 rate experiments, the adsorption reached more than 90% of the total available adsorption sites. Increasing the temperature caused the polymerized fly ash to expand, thus increasing the available adsorption sites, thus increasing the overall adsorption volume. At low helium rates, desorption was extremely lengthy which resulted in a delayed hysteresis response. This is not favorable since it has a negative impact on the adsorption–desorption cyclic rate. Based on the results, the polymerized fly ash proved to have a high CO2 capture capability and thus can be applied for carbon-capture applications. Full article
20 pages, 5570 KiB  
Article
Combustion Diagnosis in a Spark-Ignition Engine Fueled with Syngas at Different CO/H2 and Diluent Ratios
by Santiago Martinez-Boggio, Pedro Teixeira Lacava, Felipe Solferini de Carvalho and Pedro Curto-Risso
Gases 2024, 4(2), 97-116; https://doi.org/10.3390/gases4020006 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 326
Abstract
The gasification of residues into syngas offers a versatile gaseous fuel that can be used to produce heat and power in various applications. However, the application of syngas in engines presents several challenges due to the changes in its composition. Such variations can [...] Read more.
The gasification of residues into syngas offers a versatile gaseous fuel that can be used to produce heat and power in various applications. However, the application of syngas in engines presents several challenges due to the changes in its composition. Such variations can significantly alter the optimal operational conditions of the engines that are fueled with syngas, resulting in combustion instability, high engine variability, and misfires. In this context, this work presents an experimental investigation conducted on a port-fuel injection spark-ignition optical research engine using three different syngas mixtures, with a particular focus on the effects of CO/H2 and diluent ratios. A comparative analysis is made against methane, considered as the baseline fuel. The in-cylinder pressure and related parameters are examined as indicators of combustion behavior. Additionally, 2D cycle-resolved digital visualization is employed to trace flame front propagation. Custom image processing techniques are applied to estimate flame speed, displacement, and morphological parameters. The engine runs at a constant speed (900 rpm) and with full throttle like stationary engine applications. The excess air–fuel ratios vary from 1.0 to 1.4 by adjusting the injection time and the spark timing according to the maximum brake torque of the baseline fuel. A thermodynamic analysis revealed notable trends in in-cylinder pressure traces, indicative of differences in combustion evolution and peak pressures among the syngas mixtures and methane. Moreover, the study quantified parameters such as the mass fraction burned, combustion stability (COVIMEP), and fuel conversion efficiency. The analysis provided insights into flame morphology, propagation speed, and distortion under varying conditions, shedding light on the influence of fuel composition and air dilution. Overall, the results contribute to advancing the understanding of syngas combustion behavior in SI engines and hold implications for optimizing engine performance and developing numerical models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Energy: Biogas, Biomethane and Green-Hydrogen)
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23 pages, 4332 KiB  
Article
Transitioning to a Hydrogen Economy: Exploring the Viability of Adapting Natural Gas Pipelines for Hydrogen Transport through a Case Study on Compression vs. Looping
by Abubakar Jibrin Abbas, Salisu Kwalami Haruna, Martin Burby, Idoko Job John and Kabir Hassan Yar’Adua
Gases 2024, 4(2), 74-96; https://doi.org/10.3390/gases4020005 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 460
Abstract
The growing importance of hydrogen as an energy carrier in a future decarbonised energy system has led to a surge in its production plans. However, the development of infrastructure for hydrogen delivery, particularly in the hard-to-abate sectors, remains a significant challenge. While constructing [...] Read more.
The growing importance of hydrogen as an energy carrier in a future decarbonised energy system has led to a surge in its production plans. However, the development of infrastructure for hydrogen delivery, particularly in the hard-to-abate sectors, remains a significant challenge. While constructing new pipelines entails substantial investment, repurposing existing pipelines offers a cost-effective approach to jump-starting hydrogen networks. Many European countries and, more recently, other regions are exploring the possibility of utilising their current pipeline infrastructure for hydrogen transport. Despite the recent efforts to enhance the understanding of pipeline compatibility and integrity for hydrogen transportation, including issues such as embrittlement, blend ratios, safety concerns, compressor optimisation, and corrosion in distribution networks, there has been limited or no focus on pipeline expansion options to address the low-energy density of hydrogen blends and associated costs. This study, therefore, aims to explore expansion options for existing natural gas high-pressure pipelines through additional compression or looping. It seeks to analyse the corresponding cost implications to achieve an affordable and sustainable hydrogen economy by investigating the utilisation of existing natural gas pipeline infrastructure for hydrogen transportation as a cost-saving measure. It explores two expansion strategies, namely pipeline looping (also known as pipeline reinforcement) and compression, for repurposing a segment of a 342 km × 36 inch existing pipeline, from the Escravos–Lagos gas pipeline system (ELPS) in Nigeria, for hydrogen transport. Employing the Promax® process simulator tool, the study assesses compliance with the API RP 14E and ASME B31.12 standards for hydrogen and hydrogen–methane blends. Both expansion strategies demonstrate acceptable velocity and pressure drop characteristics for hydrogen blends of up to 40%. Additionally, the increase in hydrogen content leads to heightened compression power requirements until approximately 80% hydrogen in the blends for compression and a corresponding extension in looping length until around 80% hydrogen in the blend for looping. Moreover, the compression option is more economically viable for all investigated proportions of hydrogen blends for the PS1–PS5 segment of the Escravos–Lagos gas pipeline case study. The percentage price differentials between the two expansion strategies reach as high as 495% for a 20% hydrogen proportion in the blend. This study offers valuable insights into the technical and economic implications of repurposing existing natural gas infrastructure for hydrogen transportation. Full article
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16 pages, 5133 KiB  
Article
Towards the Isothermal Gas Compression—A Novel Finned Piston-Cylinder with Increased Efficiency
by Alfred Rufer
Gases 2024, 4(2), 59-73; https://doi.org/10.3390/gases4020004 - 8 Apr 2024
Viewed by 293
Abstract
In this paper, a novel concept of a finned piston system is presented and analyzed in which the compression heat is continuously extracted from the compression chamber. The resulting compression characteristic moves in the direction of an isothermal process, reducing the temperature of [...] Read more.
In this paper, a novel concept of a finned piston system is presented and analyzed in which the compression heat is continuously extracted from the compression chamber. The resulting compression characteristic moves in the direction of an isothermal process, reducing the temperature of the compressed fluid in the compression chamber and reducing the necessary mechanical work required to carry out the process. The finned piston concept consists in an integrated heat exchanger inside of the chamber that is constituted of imbricated flat fins placed on the stator part and on the mobile piston. The internal heat exchange on the surface is strongly increased in comparison with a classical piston/cylinder. The energetic performance of the new system is evaluated with the help of simulation. The pressures, forces, and temperature of the compressed gas are simulated as well as the mechanical work needed. The different curves are compared with the system’s adiabatic and isothermal characteristics. Full article
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18 pages, 5804 KiB  
Article
Thermodynamic Analysis of Low-Emission Offshore Gas-to-Wire Firing CO2-Rich Natural Gas: Aspects of Carbon Capture and Separation Systems
by Alessandra de Carvalho Reis, Ofélia de Queiroz Fernandes Araújo and José Luiz de Medeiros
Gases 2024, 4(2), 41-58; https://doi.org/10.3390/gases4020003 - 25 Mar 2024
Viewed by 534
Abstract
Despite the growth of renewable energy, fossil fuels dominate the global energy matrix. Due to expanding proved reserves and energy demand, an increase in natural gas power generation is predicted for future decades. Oil reserves from the Brazilian offshore Pre-Salt basin have a [...] Read more.
Despite the growth of renewable energy, fossil fuels dominate the global energy matrix. Due to expanding proved reserves and energy demand, an increase in natural gas power generation is predicted for future decades. Oil reserves from the Brazilian offshore Pre-Salt basin have a high gas-to-oil ratio of CO2-rich associated gas. To deliver this gas to market, high-depth long-distance subsea pipelines are required, making Gas-to-Pipe costly. Since it is easier to transport electricity through long subsea distances, Gas-to-Wire instead of Gas-to-Pipe is a more convenient alternative. Aiming at making offshore Gas-to-Wire thermodynamically efficient without impacting CO2 emissions, this work explores a new concept of an environmentally friendly and thermodynamically efficient Gas-to-Wire process firing CO2-rich natural gas (CO2 > 40%mol) from high-depth offshore oil and gas fields. The proposed process prescribes a natural gas combined cycle, exhaust gas recycling (lowering flue gas flowrate and increasing flue gas CO2 content), CO2 post-combustion capture with aqueous monoethanolamine, and CO2 dehydration with triethylene glycol for enhanced oil recovery. The two main separation processes (post-combustion carbon capture and CO2 dehydration) have peculiarities that were addressed at the light shed by thermodynamic analysis. The overall process provides 534.4 MW of low-emission net power. Second law analysis shows that the thermodynamic efficiency of Gas-to-Wire with carbon capture attains 33.35%. Lost-Work analysis reveals that the natural gas combined cycle sub-system is the main power destruction sink (80.7% Lost-Work), followed by the post-combustion capture sub-system (14% Lost-Work). These units are identified as the ones that deserve to be upgraded to rapidly raise the thermodynamic efficiency of the low-emission Gas-to-Wire process. Full article
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