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J. Respir., Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2024) – 7 articles

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13 pages, 539 KiB  
Review
Education in Interventional Pulmonology: How We Got Here and Where to Go from Here
by Dylan Harrell and David M. Chambers
J. Respir. 2024, 4(1), 79-90; https://doi.org/10.3390/jor4010007 - 8 Mar 2024
Viewed by 738
Abstract
Interventional pulmonology is a rapidly growing field with increasing demand. To meet this demand, training in interventional pulmonology is expanding. What started as a single training program without a standardized curriculum has grown to 40 accredited training programs with a well-defined curriculum that [...] Read more.
Interventional pulmonology is a rapidly growing field with increasing demand. To meet this demand, training in interventional pulmonology is expanding. What started as a single training program without a standardized curriculum has grown to 40 accredited training programs with a well-defined curriculum that is now overseen by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. As the field develops, research is being actively performed to develop validated competency assessment tools and describe the learning curves for pulmonary procedures. As research evolves, this information can be used to better standardize training in interventional pulmonology and move the field towards a competency-based training model. Full article
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17 pages, 2032 KiB  
Review
Airway Stents in Interventional Pulmonology
by Sami I. Bashour and Donald R. Lazarus
J. Respir. 2024, 4(1), 62-78; https://doi.org/10.3390/jor4010006 - 1 Mar 2024
Viewed by 745
Abstract
Airway stents, first developed in the 1980s, have become fundamental in managing a multitude of airway pathologies and complications within the field of interventional pulmonology. The primary function of an airway stent is to re-establish airway patency and integrity when obstruction, stenosis, anastomotic [...] Read more.
Airway stents, first developed in the 1980s, have become fundamental in managing a multitude of airway pathologies and complications within the field of interventional pulmonology. The primary function of an airway stent is to re-establish airway patency and integrity when obstruction, stenosis, anastomotic dehiscence, or fistulae develop as a result of various malignant or benign conditions. Nevertheless, airway stents are foreign bodies that can result in complications. In this review article, we will discuss airway stents and their ongoing role in the management of several malignant and benign diseases. We will describe indications for airway stenting and review the elements that must be taken into consideration for optimal patient and stent selection. Given the prevalence of data regarding therapeutic bronchoscopy and airway stenting in malignant airway obstruction, much of the discussion in this review will focus on stent placement for that indication. We will also review the data as it pertains to safety, efficacy, and complications after stent placement, and conclude with a discussion of the future applications and research avenues related to airway stents. Full article
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12 pages, 2343 KiB  
Review
Lung Cancer Staging—A Clinical Practice Review
by Ali B. Rueschhoff, Andrew W. Moore and Maykol R. Postigo Jasahui
J. Respir. 2024, 4(1), 50-61; https://doi.org/10.3390/jor4010005 - 28 Feb 2024
Viewed by 820
Abstract
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-associated death globally. Staging provides classification of the anatomic extent of cancer that is used consistently worldwide. Lung cancer staging is necessary for prognostication, to inform treatment options, and to allow accurate representation in clinical trials. [...] Read more.
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-associated death globally. Staging provides classification of the anatomic extent of cancer that is used consistently worldwide. Lung cancer staging is necessary for prognostication, to inform treatment options, and to allow accurate representation in clinical trials. Staging also separates operable from inoperable disease. Since its introduction in the 1970s, the Tumor, Node and Metastasis (TNM) Staging System has undergone significant revisions, with the latest version, the eighth edition, being effective internationally since 2017. Advances in bronchoscopic and thoracoscopic technologies have expanded procedures to diagnose lung cancer and accurately define the anatomic stage. Understanding the advantages and disadvantages of available methods for staging lung cancer is critical to clinician decision making. In patients with lung cancer without distant metastases, the staging of mediastinal lymph nodes determines treatment options. To minimize the risk and cost, the most appropriate method of staging should identify the highest disease stage while carrying acceptable risk. Minimally invasive endoscopic needle techniques to stage the mediastinum are the first choice to assess for metastases in accessible lymph node stations. Surgical techniques are generally reserved for specific clinical situations, including following negative endoscopic needle techniques when suspicion for nodal involvement is high and to assess endoscopically inaccessible lymph nodes. This review provides a concise account of TNM staging of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and overview of procedures available for the staging of lung cancer. Full article
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15 pages, 4594 KiB  
Review
A Review of Medical Thoracoscopy and Its Role in Management of Malignant Pleural Effusion
by Michael Gioia and Rosa L. Arancibia
J. Respir. 2024, 4(1), 35-49; https://doi.org/10.3390/jor4010004 - 26 Feb 2024
Viewed by 814
Abstract
Pleural effusion is the most common disease among all pleural diseases and affects 1.5 million patients per year in the United States. Different interventions can be performed when dealing with pleural effusions. In this review, we present medical thoracoscopy as a minimally invasive [...] Read more.
Pleural effusion is the most common disease among all pleural diseases and affects 1.5 million patients per year in the United States. Different interventions can be performed when dealing with pleural effusions. In this review, we present medical thoracoscopy as a minimally invasive procedure with both diagnostic and therapeutic utility in the management of pleural disease. It has a higher diagnostic yield than commonly performed percutaneous procedures (thoracentesis, closed pleural biopsy) and simultaneously offers many of the therapeutic benefits of more invasive procedures, such as video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, with a lower risk profile. The role of medical thoracoscopy is evolving and will likely continue to expand as more centers start performing the procedure nationwide. Full article
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9 pages, 200 KiB  
Review
Bronchoscopy and Thermal Ablation: A Review Article
by Aristides J. Armas Villalba and Bruce F. Sabath
J. Respir. 2024, 4(1), 26-34; https://doi.org/10.3390/jor4010003 - 29 Jan 2024
Viewed by 673
Abstract
Thermal ablative techniques are part of the armamentarium of interventional pulmonologists for the treatment of a diverse range of pathologies, but most importantly used in airway obstruction and airway bleeding. These techniques can be categorized based on their onset of action into rapid [...] Read more.
Thermal ablative techniques are part of the armamentarium of interventional pulmonologists for the treatment of a diverse range of pathologies, but most importantly used in airway obstruction and airway bleeding. These techniques can be categorized based on their onset of action into rapid and delayed ablative methods. Understanding the nuances of each technique is essential, as most clinical scenarios demand a combination of modalities, commonly referred to as a “multi-modality approach”. This comprehensive review aims to elucidate the fundamental principles of rapid ablative techniques, including laser therapy, argon plasma coagulation (APC), and electrocautery, along with the research that underpins their clinical application. Full article
14 pages, 313 KiB  
Article
Clinical and Functional Characteristics of Interstitial Lung Disease in Algeria: A Single-Center Prospective Study
by Abdelbassat Ketfi, Fayçal Selatni, Cherifa Djouadi and Rama Touahri
J. Respir. 2024, 4(1), 12-25; https://doi.org/10.3390/jor4010002 - 29 Dec 2023
Viewed by 992
Abstract
Introduction: There are a limited number of epidemiological studies describing the global burden of chronic diffuse interstitial lung diseases (ILD) and their subtypes’ heterogeneity worldwide. Our main is to characterize new-onset ILDs in Algeria and compare our results with data from other populations. [...] Read more.
Introduction: There are a limited number of epidemiological studies describing the global burden of chronic diffuse interstitial lung diseases (ILD) and their subtypes’ heterogeneity worldwide. Our main is to characterize new-onset ILDs in Algeria and compare our results with data from other populations. Materials and Methods: Newly diagnosed ILDs were prospectively collected in a single-center observational cohort study including all patients diagnosed as ILDs in the pulmonology, phthisiology, and allergology departments between 2015 and 2019. Detailed anamnestic and clinical data were collected at the time of diagnosis. The results of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), serological tests, biology data, and respiratory functional exploration were systematically performed and collected. Results: A total of 455 cases were included. The mean age was 59.4 ± 13.2 years. There was a slight predominance of females (300; 65.9%). The most common disease was ILD secondary to connective tissue disease (CTD) or ILD-CTD (48.1%), followed by idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) (23.5%), sarcoidosis (16.9%), interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features (IPAF) (12.1%), and hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) (2.4%). Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) was present in 8.6% and unclassifiable ILD in 4.6% of the total ILD cases. Conclusions: ILD-CTD, IIP, and sarcoidosis were the most frequently observed ILDs in this Algerian population. Similarities and many differences were found compared to previous data from other countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pulmonary Fibrosis: Pathophysiology and Novel Therapeutic Approaches)
11 pages, 1445 KiB  
Article
Thromboelastography-Guided Anticoagulation in Critically Ill COVID-19 Patients: Mortality and Bleeding Outcomes
by Sean Duenas, Juliana Derfel, Margaret Gorlin, Serena Romano, Wei Huang, Alex Smith, Javier Ticona, Cristina Sison, Martin Lesser, Linda Shore-Lesserson, Negin Hajizadeh and Janice Wang
J. Respir. 2024, 4(1), 1-11; https://doi.org/10.3390/jor4010001 - 23 Dec 2023
Viewed by 766
Abstract
Hypercoagulability in COVID-19 patients was associated with increased mortality risk during the pandemic. This retrospective, observational study investigated whether the use of a thromboelastography (TEG)-guided anticoagulation protocol could decrease death and bleeding in critically ill COVID-19 patients. A TEG-guided protocol was instituted in [...] Read more.
Hypercoagulability in COVID-19 patients was associated with increased mortality risk during the pandemic. This retrospective, observational study investigated whether the use of a thromboelastography (TEG)-guided anticoagulation protocol could decrease death and bleeding in critically ill COVID-19 patients. A TEG-guided protocol was instituted in one of two intensive care units. Primary outcomes of composite scores were the following: (0) major bleed and death; (1) death without major bleed; (2) major bleed without death; and (3) no bleed or death. Out of 134 patients, 67 in the TEG group were propensity matched to 67 in the comparator group based on age, gender, body mass index, presence of chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and duration of non-invasive ventilation. There were no significant differences in rates of composite outcomes of bleeding or death in patients managed with or without a TEG-guided protocol (p = 0.22, Bowker symmetry testing). Out of the 67 patients in the TEG group, the TEG protocol led to anticoagulation change in 26 patients. Death was lower in this TEG-changed group (54%) compared to the comparator group (81%), although not significant (p = 0.07). TEG-guided protocol use did not reduce composite outcomes of death and bleeding, Future studies may further elucidate potential benefits. Full article
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