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J. Respir., Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2024) – 3 articles

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16 pages, 827 KiB  
Review
Management of Pleural Infection: A Historical Review and Updates
by Thomas Presti, Aleezay Asghar and Nakul Ravikumar
J. Respir. 2024, 4(2), 112-127; https://doi.org/10.3390/jor4020010 - 26 Apr 2024
Viewed by 373
Abstract
Pleural infection, including empyema, continues to have a high morbidity. A deep understanding of the pathobiology and appropriate medical management is crucial to avoid complications and progression to the need for surgery. Over the last several decades, we have learned much about the [...] Read more.
Pleural infection, including empyema, continues to have a high morbidity. A deep understanding of the pathobiology and appropriate medical management is crucial to avoid complications and progression to the need for surgery. Over the last several decades, we have learned much about the pathophysiology, microbiology, and epidemiology of pleural infections. Management has changed considerably over the years with more recent clinical practices favoring minimally invasive interventions over surgery. Here we discuss in detail the pathophysiology of parapneumonic effusions as they progress from uncomplicated parapneumonic effusions to empyema and how this relates to their diagnosis and management. We review the microbiology and how it relates to recommended empiric antibiotic regimens. As intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy has become the cornerstone of management, we outline the literature on this topic dating back decades up to the most recent clinical trials and give our recommendations for management based on the literature. Full article
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10 pages, 223 KiB  
Review
ICD in Cardiac Sarcoidosis: Variables Associated with Appropriate Therapy, Inappropriate Therapy, and Device Complications
by Sebastian Mactaggart and Raheel Ahmed
J. Respir. 2024, 4(2), 102-111; https://doi.org/10.3390/jor4020009 - 13 Apr 2024
Viewed by 414
Abstract
Introduction: Those with cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) are at risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD), which may be prevented using an implantable cardioverter–defibrillator (ICD). There are limited data available that follow the post-procedural outcomes of patients with cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) who have had an [...] Read more.
Introduction: Those with cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) are at risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD), which may be prevented using an implantable cardioverter–defibrillator (ICD). There are limited data available that follow the post-procedural outcomes of patients with cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) who have had an ICD implanted. Areas Covered: This review highlights studies that focused on both appropriate and inappropriate therapies in those with an ICD, as well as device complications in this group. There were several variables, including age, sex, ventricular characteristics, and findings on cardiac imaging that were investigated and discussed as influencing factors in predicting appropriate and inappropriate therapies. Conclusions: Adverse events in those with an ICD and CS have been minimally reported in the literature. Individuals diagnosed with CS are at high risk of ventricular arrhythmia, with comparable rates of appropriate therapy but with a higher incidence of side effects and inappropriate therapy. The younger average age of CS patients in comparison to other ICD cohorts warrants the need for further, large-scale, prospective trials with periodic interim follow-ups focused on those with this condition. Full article
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11 pages, 536 KiB  
Article
Effect of Oscillation and Pulmonary Expansion Therapy on Pulmonary Outcomes after Cardiac Surgery
by Christopher D. Williams, Kirsten M. Holbrook, Aryan Shiari, Ali A. Zaied, Hussam Z. Al-Sharif, Abdul R. Rishi, Ryan D. Frank, Adel S. Zurob and Muhammad A. Rishi
J. Respir. 2024, 4(2), 91-101; https://doi.org/10.3390/jor4020008 - 2 Apr 2024
Viewed by 466
Abstract
Background: Oscillation and pulmonary expansion (OPE) therapy can decrease postoperative pulmonary complications in a general surgical population, but its effect after cardiac surgery has not been reported, to our knowledge. We hypothesized that using an OPE device after cardiac surgery before extubation would [...] Read more.
Background: Oscillation and pulmonary expansion (OPE) therapy can decrease postoperative pulmonary complications in a general surgical population, but its effect after cardiac surgery has not been reported, to our knowledge. We hypothesized that using an OPE device after cardiac surgery before extubation would decrease pulmonary complications. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included adults undergoing elective open cardiac surgery at our institution from January 2018 through January 2019, who had an American Society of Anesthesiologists score of 3 or greater. For mechanically ventilated patients after cardiac surgery, a new OPE protocol was adopted, comprising an initial 10-min OPE treatment administered in-line with the ventilator circuit, then continued treatments for 48 h after extubation. The primary outcome measure was the occurrence of severe postoperative respiratory complications, including the need for antibiotics, increased use of supplemental oxygen, and prolonged hospital length of stay (LOS). Demographic, clinical, and outcome data were compared between patients receiving usual care (involving post-extubation hyperinflation) and those treated under the new OPE protocol. The primary outcome measure was the occurrence of severe postoperative respiratory complications, including the need for antibiotics, increased use of supplemental oxygen, and prolonged hospital length of stay (LOS). Demographic, clinical, and outcome data were compared between patients receiving usual care (involving post-extubation hyperinflation) and those treated under the new OPE protocol. Results: Of 104 patients, 54 patients received usual care, and 50 received OPE. Usual-care recipients had more men (74% vs. 62%; p = 0.19) and were older (median, 70 vs. 67 years; p = 0.009) than OPE recipients. The OPE group had a significantly shorter hospital LOS than the usual-care group (mean, 6.2 vs. 7.4 days; p = 0.04). Other measures improved with OPE but did not reach significance: shorter ventilator duration (mean, 0.6 vs. 1.1 days with usual care; p = 0.06) and shorter LOS in the intensive care unit (mean, 2.7 vs. 3.4 days; p = 0.06). On multivariate analysis, intensive care unit LOS was significantly shorter for the OPE group (mean difference, −0.85 days; 95% CI, −1.65 to −0.06; p = 0.04). The OPE group had a lower percentage of postoperative complications (10% vs. 20%). Conclusions: OPE therapy after cardiac surgery is associated with decreased intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital LOS. Full article
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