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Environ. Sci. Proc., 2022, IECF 2021

The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Forests—Sustainable Forests: Ecology, Management, Products and Trade

Online | 1–15 September 2021

Volume Editors:
Víctor Resco de Dios, Universitat de Lleida, Spain
Panayotis Dimopoulos, University of Patras, Greece

Number of Papers: 28
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Cover Story (view full-size image): The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Forests—Sustainable Forests: Ecology, Management, Products and Trade (IECF2021) was successfully held online from 1 to 15 September 2021. Forests [...] Read more.
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Research

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161 KiB  
Abstract
A Machine Learning Algorithm Approach to Map Wildfire Probability Based on Static Parameters
by Suresh Babu KV, Vernon Visser, Glenn Moncrieff, Jasper Slingsby and Res Altwegg
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 13(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2021-10806 - 31 Aug 2021
Viewed by 723
Abstract
Wildfires are occurring throughout the world, causing more damage to plant and animal species, humans, and the environment. Fire danger indices are useful for forecasting fire danger, and these indices involve the integration of both static and dynamic indices. The static indicators, such [...] Read more.
Wildfires are occurring throughout the world, causing more damage to plant and animal species, humans, and the environment. Fire danger indices are useful for forecasting fire danger, and these indices involve the integration of both static and dynamic indices. The static indicators, such as vegetation, topographic characteristics, etc., are constant over the study area and are variables that promote the ignition of fires and, therefore, are useful for understanding fire patterns and distribution in the study area. In this study, the Static Fire Danger Index (SFDI) is generated using the MODIS Land cover type (MCD12Q1), the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Digital Elevation Model (DEM), and the Open Street Map datasets by applying a Random Forest (RF) algorithm. Random Forest (RF) is a machine learning algorithm that can automatically select important variables and flexibly evaluate the complex interactions between variables. The MODIS, TERRA, and AQUA active fire points (MCD14) during 2011–2017 have been used to train the RF algorithm, and fire probability maps are generated for the years 2018 and 2019. The fire probability maps are categorized into five fire danger classes, i.e., very low, low, medium, high, and very high, on the basis of the RF prediction probability values. The active fire points (MCD14) have been used to validate the SFDI, and accuracy is found to be 85.74% and 87.91% for the years 2018 and 2019, respectively. Thus, the machine learning algorithm is successfully applied for generating the wildfire susceptibility maps. Full article
162 KiB  
Abstract
Ink Disease of European Chestnut and Distribution of Associated Phytophthora Species in Greece
by George T. Tziros
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 13(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2021-10788 - 31 Aug 2021
Viewed by 565
Abstract
Ink disease and chestnut blight of European chestnut (Castanea sativa) represent the two major threats for chestnut orchards and coppice forests in Greece. Interestingly enough, the application of biological control of chestnut blight by introducing Cryphonectria hypovirus CHV1 on a nationwide [...] Read more.
Ink disease and chestnut blight of European chestnut (Castanea sativa) represent the two major threats for chestnut orchards and coppice forests in Greece. Interestingly enough, the application of biological control of chestnut blight by introducing Cryphonectria hypovirus CHV1 on a nationwide scale has been successful in limiting the disease. However, ink disease seems to be an increasing threat as it has caused considerable losses recently. For this reason, the occurrence of the disease was investigated and a distribution map of Phytophthora spp. has been created. In this study, the presence of ink disease was confirmed all over the country and the Phytophthora species associated with the disease were recorded. Soil and tissue samples were collected and the obtained Phytophthora isolates were identified on the basis of their morphological characteristics and molecular identification using the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (rDNA-ITS). Regarding sequence analysis, the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the isolates was amplified using primers ITS4 and ITS6. Therefore, seven different species have been detected in total, based on morphology and sequence analysis of one genomic region. P. cambivora, P. cinnamomi, and P. cryptogea were recovered from soil and tissue, while P. plurivora, P. cactorum, P. gonapodyides, and P. citrophthora were isolated only from soil. More specifically, the relative percentage of P. cambivora and P. cinnamomi isolates was 82 vs. 18%. Although P. cambivora is the prevailing species in chestnut orchards and natural coppice stands, the recent record of the more aggressive P. cinnamomi is considered a potential major threat to C. sativa in Greece. As P. cinnamomi was isolated from different chestnut orchards, it is most likely that the specific Phytophthora species was introduced through transport of infected nursery material. The nationwide distribution of the disease and the severe losses of trees demand the implementation of appropriate control measures. The crucial role of the irrigation practices adopted by the chestnut growers is considered the primary reason for the emergence of ink disease in Greece. Full article
169 KiB  
Abstract
Assessment of Carbon Stock and Its Relationships with Forest Conditions in the Leasehold Forest User Groups (A Case Study from Nawalpur District)
by Siddhartha Aryal, Sony Baral and Yajna Prasad Timilsina
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 13(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2021-10809 - 31 Aug 2021
Viewed by 609
Abstract
The introduction and implementation of the REDD+ (Reduced emission from the deforestation and forest degradation) program has resulted in an investigation of forest carbon from a local to global scale. Due to being the most productive terrestrial ecosystem, forests play an important role [...] Read more.
The introduction and implementation of the REDD+ (Reduced emission from the deforestation and forest degradation) program has resulted in an investigation of forest carbon from a local to global scale. Due to being the most productive terrestrial ecosystem, forests play an important role in mitigating climate change as they act as major carbon stores. Leasehold forestry (LF) is a participatory model of forest management whereby patches of degraded forest are handed over to groups from low-income households to improve forest conditions and reduce poverty. The planting of grasses in the forest floor and the introduction of fodder species, and promotion of natural regeneration by the removal of shrubs have contributed towards increased plant diversity and higher economic return in leasehold forests. The improved condition of the forest might significantly increase the environmental services provided by the forest, including carbon sequestration. However, studies on the quantification of carbon stock in leasehold forestry are lacking. We estimated the forest carbon stock of leasehold forests in three carbon pools namely Above Ground Tree Biomass (AGTB), Below Ground Tree Biomass (BGTB) and Above Ground Sapling Biomass (AGSB) in Nawalpur district in Nepal and assessed its variations with respect to restoration activities. Furthermore, we analyzed trade-off and synergies between carbon stock and tree diversity. Concentric sample plots with sub plots of 8.92, 5.64 and 1 m radius for trees, sapling and regeneration respectively were systematically laid out using 1% sampling intensity in three Leasehold Forest User Group (LFUG) clusters. Over these circles we collected information about trees (height, diameter at breast height (dbh) and species name), sapling (species name and dbh) and regeneration (species name and count) were collected from respective sub-plots. Average carbon stock was found to be 11.40 t/ha and the carbon stock in the tree-based restoration plot (14.49 t/ha) was significantly higher than in the non-tree-based restoration plot (3.81 t/ha). In contrast to majority of previous findings, we found synergy between carbon stock and tree diversity. Poor forest condition and restoration activities were the major reasons for such synergy. We recommend restoration of leasehold forests through protection and management of existing natural forests and planting of diverse trees. Full article
194 KiB  
Abstract
Spatial and Temporal Variation of Species Composition and Structure of Unmanaged Secondary Forest (Abandoned satoyama) Adjacent to Late-Successional Forest
by Naoto Kawata, Takahiko Yoshioka, Yuiko Noguchi, Wakana Aoi Azuma and H. Roaki Ishii
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 13(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2021-10787 - 31 Aug 2021
Viewed by 510
Abstract
There are several ecological issues associated with unmanaged secondary forests, or abandoned satoyama, in Japan, such as decreasing species diversity and invasions by alien species. To understand its vegetation dynamics, we investigated changes in the stand structure of an unmanaged secondary forest [...] Read more.
There are several ecological issues associated with unmanaged secondary forests, or abandoned satoyama, in Japan, such as decreasing species diversity and invasions by alien species. To understand its vegetation dynamics, we investigated changes in the stand structure of an unmanaged secondary forest over 15 years. Study plots were established in a secondary forest at varying distances from a late-successional lucidophyllous forest. We calculated the Bray–Curtis similarity indices of the plots over space and time and compared them using nMDS (non-metric multidimensional scaling). The species composition of the proximal secondary forest was more similar to the lucidophyllous forest than that of the distal secondary forest, indicating that late-successional species are spreading into the unmanaged secondary forest. Over the 15-year study period, the species composition of the distal secondary forest approached that of the lucidophyllous forest. This was due to a decreasing abundance of shade-intolerant species, such as Rhododendron. Stand structure, however, changed very little because dominant canopy trees, namely Quercus serrata and Quercus variabilis, continued to grow. Although late-successional species are regenerating in secondary forests, it may take several decades for the stand to reach a late-successional structure, where evergreen broadleaved trees, namely Castanopsis cuspidata, dominate the canopy. Full article
170 KiB  
Abstract
Cost Comparison of Drone and Foot Based Early Bark Beetle Detection
by Sebastian Paczkowski and Dirk Jaeger
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 13(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2021-10792 - 31 Aug 2021
Viewed by 342
Abstract
Early bark beetle detection is still a challenge, as the symptoms of early infestation stages are hard to identify. Conventional foot-based detection is time consuming, and the associated costs mostly depend on stand characteristics. Detection by gas sensor equipped drones has the potential [...] Read more.
Early bark beetle detection is still a challenge, as the symptoms of early infestation stages are hard to identify. Conventional foot-based detection is time consuming, and the associated costs mostly depend on stand characteristics. Detection by gas sensor equipped drones has the potential to be more economical, as it does not rely on the limitations of walking speed on the ground. A novel drone-based system for early bark beetle detection by means of resin odor cues was compared to conventional foot-based detection. The results showed that the cost efficiency of the drone system was highly dependent on flight speed and hourly costs of the pilot, while the cost efficiency of the foot-based assessment highly depended on terrain slope and forest floor characteristics. In general, the drone-based detection of early infestation stages becomes more economical in comparison to the conventional foot-based detection method as forest areas, terrain slopes and understory density increase. Full article

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Jump to: Research

595 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Water Absorption Behaviour and Dimensional Stability of a Thermally Modified Tropical Hardwood (Triplochiton scleroxylon K. Schum)
by Emiliano Gennari, Rodolfo Picchio and Angela Lo Monaco
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 13(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2021-10822 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 750
Abstract
The thermal modification of wood is well known and widespread as a method to improve the dimensional stability and natural durability of this interesting material of biological origin. This work aims to evaluate the effect of a 3 h, 215 °C thermal modification [...] Read more.
The thermal modification of wood is well known and widespread as a method to improve the dimensional stability and natural durability of this interesting material of biological origin. This work aims to evaluate the effect of a 3 h, 215 °C thermal modification cycle, carried out with an industrial system with a slight initial vacuum, on some physical properties of ayous wood (Triplochiton scleroxylon K. Schum). This research will offer an overview of the dimensional stability and the water absorption behaviour of the material, comparing these properties between untreated and heat-treated ayous wood. To collect the data, the ISO reference standard was adopted. The data presented highlight the influence of thermal modification on the reduction of wood hygroscopicity. It has been possible to verify that heat-treated wood shows less swelling and reaches a lower humidity than untreated wood under the same environmental conditions. Therefore, the dimensional stability of the heat-treated wood was also improved, making the material more suitable for outdoor use. Full article
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5 pages, 535 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Could Biostimulants with Plant Active Compounds Improve the Tolerance to Oxidative Stress in Prosopis alba (Griseb.)?
by Ana Carolina Santacruz-García, Maria Gracia Senilliani, Adriana Teresita Gomez, Mauricio Ewens, Micaela Bravo, Siria Abraham and Mónica Azucena Nazareno
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 13(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2021-10801 - 14 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1075
Abstract
The aim of this work was to explore the potential of four phytoextracts derived from species with recognized antioxidant activity and/or rich in polysaccharides as plant biostimulants of seedlings of Prosopis alba. Malondialdehyde (MDA), an oxidative stress biomarker, was measured at 21 [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to explore the potential of four phytoextracts derived from species with recognized antioxidant activity and/or rich in polysaccharides as plant biostimulants of seedlings of Prosopis alba. Malondialdehyde (MDA), an oxidative stress biomarker, was measured at 21 days after the acclimation phase beginning as preliminary results showed a significant accumulation of MDA in rustified seedlings compared with control seedlings at this time. As main results, rustified seedlings sprayed with I. paraguariensis and L. divaricata extracts showed lower MDA concentration than rustified seedlings without any phytoextract application. Both extracts were characterized by their antioxidant activity. These results suggest that natural extracts of I. paraguariensis and L. divaricata could be considered plant biostimulants, reducing oxidative stress biomarkers in P. alba. Full article
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584 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Comparative Analysis of the Anatomical Variability in Pinus brutia Ten. Essential Oils
by Jorge M. S. Faria, Ana Margarida Rodrigues and Ana Fundurulic
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 13(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2021-10781 - 31 Aug 2021
Viewed by 856
Abstract
Pinus brutia Ten. is distributed throughout the Eastern Mediterranean, mainly in Turkey and bordering countries. Pine essential oils (EOs), mainly comprised of terpenoid volatiles, have high commercial value and a wide range of biological applications as repellents, insecticides, antivirals, antimicrobials and antioxidants. The [...] Read more.
Pinus brutia Ten. is distributed throughout the Eastern Mediterranean, mainly in Turkey and bordering countries. Pine essential oils (EOs), mainly comprised of terpenoid volatiles, have high commercial value and a wide range of biological applications as repellents, insecticides, antivirals, antimicrobials and antioxidants. The present work reviewed the chemical variability of EOs reported for P. brutia trees and related bioproducts. The major EO components (≥20%) reported were α-pinene, β-pinene and δ-3-carene, which generally comprised 50–90% of the EO composition. δ-3-Carene showed the highest variability, suggesting the occurrence of chemotypes. Assessing the variability of EOs extracted from different tree parts or tree bioproducts can provide useful information for guided P. brutia EO extraction according to its intended purpose. Full article
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638 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Biological Activity of Plant Essential Oils against Fusarium circinatum
by Jorge M. S. Faria and Esther Menéndez
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 13(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2021-10780 - 31 Aug 2021
Viewed by 798
Abstract
The fungus, Fusarium circinatum, causes pitch canker in susceptible Pinus spp. and Douglas fir. Infection promotes damping-off, resin-streaming cankers, on main stems and lateral branches, shoot dieback, needle chlorosis or discoloration, cone death, and increased tree mortality. Essential oils (EOs) can provide [...] Read more.
The fungus, Fusarium circinatum, causes pitch canker in susceptible Pinus spp. and Douglas fir. Infection promotes damping-off, resin-streaming cankers, on main stems and lateral branches, shoot dieback, needle chlorosis or discoloration, cone death, and increased tree mortality. Essential oils (EOs) can provide eco-friendly alternatives to chemical fungicides. The present work reviewed the available literature on EOs tested against F. circinatum. The 62 tested EOs were extracted mainly from plants belonging to the families Myrtaceae, Compositae and Apiaceae. The highest activities were reported for Cinnamomum verum, Cymbopogon citratus, Foeniculum vulgare, Syzygium aromaticum and Thymus vulgaris EOs. A higher investment in the screening of natural compounds, as eco-friendly fungicides against pitch canker, is necessary to promote more sustainable disease control measures. Full article
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625 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Physical Characterisation of Ayous Wood (Triplochiton scleroxylon K. Schum) after Three Different Cycles of Heat Treatment
by Emiliano Gennari, Rodolfo Picchio and Angela Lo Monaco
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 13(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2021-10783 - 31 Aug 2021
Viewed by 807
Abstract
Thermally modified wood has attracted an increasing interest in exteriors due to its longer service life and attractive appearance. This work evaluates the influence of the thermal modification cycle on the physical properties of ayous wood (Triplochiton scleroxylon K. Schum). Ayous planks [...] Read more.
Thermally modified wood has attracted an increasing interest in exteriors due to its longer service life and attractive appearance. This work evaluates the influence of the thermal modification cycle on the physical properties of ayous wood (Triplochiton scleroxylon K. Schum). Ayous planks were dried and then thermally treated for 6 h in a conventional oven at 180 °C, 190 °C, and 215 °C. The samples obtained were characterised for density, basic density, shrinkage and shrinkage anisotropy coefficient, and colour. Data were collected in accordance with the UNI ISO reference standards. The results of this study showed that wood density decreased by 10%, 14%, and 20%; the basic density decreased by 10%, 18%, and 22%; the tangential shrinkage decreased by 17%, 29%, and 53%; the radial shrinkage decreased by 6%, 14%, and 50%; and the volumetric shrinkage decreased by 13%, 51%, and 80%; these values are referred, respectively, to 180 °C, 190 °C, and 215 °C modification cycles. Thermo treatment is confirmed as an interesting process to enhance wood stability in outdoor use. Full article
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1516 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Fractionation and Homogenization of Recuperated Pulp Fibers from Brazilian Paper and Pulp Industry
by Pieter Samyn
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 13(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2021-10793 - 31 Aug 2021
Viewed by 860
Abstract
With a projected growth of the Brazilian pulp and paper industry of about 20% over the period 2020–2025, the innovations in waste management and utilization of side-products originating from the pulp and paper industry may mostly contribute to sustainable development of forest-based products, [...] Read more.
With a projected growth of the Brazilian pulp and paper industry of about 20% over the period 2020–2025, the innovations in waste management and utilization of side-products originating from the pulp and paper industry may mostly contribute to sustainable development of forest-based products, e.g., by implementing the recuperation and innovative processing of side-stream products at a local level. In this study, we analyze the feasibility for the reuse of recovered cellulosic fibers collected from pulp and paper mill sludge by considering some practical issues and evaluation of the quality for different side-stream fractions originating from rejects, deinking sludge, primary sludge, and secondary sludge. The situation for the Brazilian pulp and paper industry will be used as a model, for which the potential for recovery of fibers from wastewaters will be evaluated from the analysis of available data. First, the water consumption and effluents from paper mills are reviewed together with an estimation of the fiber recovery potential from primary sludge and fine fiber rejects. Second, the specific characteristics and appearance of certain fiber fractions might imply constraints on their further processing properties. Therefore, we describe some insights into the fiber fractions that could provide the highest potential for future valorization. Based on the degree of compositional homogeneity and concentration of cellulose fibers in several waste fractions, the processing of fibers from primary sludge and/or fine fiber rejects is estimated as the most economically feasible. The homogenization of the fiber fractions yields fibrillated cellulose materials with various morphologies depending on the selection of recuperated fractions. Through thorough characterization of the resulting fiber fraction, new application markets can be selected. Full article
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972 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Preferential Use of Bamboos for Industrial Production of Incense Sticks
by George Jenner Varuvel, Thiru Selvan and Kumaresan Palaniyappan
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 13(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2021-10821 - 31 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4034
Abstract
The incense stick or agarbatti stick is used exclusively for religious purposes in almost every home in India, but now it is being used worldwide for its medicinal values. Bamboo, popularly known as green gold or poor man’s timber, is a multipurpose, fast-growing [...] Read more.
The incense stick or agarbatti stick is used exclusively for religious purposes in almost every home in India, but now it is being used worldwide for its medicinal values. Bamboo, popularly known as green gold or poor man’s timber, is a multipurpose, fast-growing woody species, which occupies an essential place in the people’s diverse phases of life and culture. The primary concern of the different stakeholders of the bamboo sector is identifying the right choice of raw material to maximize incense sticks’ production. On the other hand, the market functionaries take advantage of farmers’ lack of knowledge of the demand–supply situation and make substantial margin money. Therefore, the paper evaluates the preference for the notable species, age, and the part of the culm of bamboo used for the industrial production of incense sticks. In Tripura, India, the investigation indicated that all study parameters were significantly different among the species, viz., Bambusa polymorpha, Bambusa vulgaris, Bambusa cacherensis, Bambusa tulda, Bambusa balcooa, Melocanna baccifera, Dendrocalamus asper, and Dendrocalamus longispathus. Among the bamboo species, Bambusa tulda is the most preferred one having a mean Likert scale of 4.89, followed by Dendrocalamus longispathus (4.06), B. cacharensis (3.54), B. polymorpha (3.50), etc. The most preferred age of bamboo culm is three-year-old culm (4.32), followed by four- and two-year-old culms. Therefore, it can be concluded that the middle portion of three-year-old culms of B. tulda should be preferably harvested to become the raw material for the agarbatti industry for better outturn and profit. Full article
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1534 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Addition of Charcoal Fines Can Increase the Photodegradation Resistance of Polymeric Biocomposites
by Fabíola Martins Delatorre, Allana Katiussya Silva Pereira, Álison Moreira da Silva, Elias Costa de Souza, Michel Picanço Oliveira, Demetrius Profeti, Luciene Paula Roberto Profeti and Ananias Francisco Dias Júnior
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 13(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2021-10812 - 31 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 870
Abstract
This study aims to analyze the addition of widely available, cheap, and biologically based residues, such as charcoal fines, in the production of polymeric biocomposites reinforced with natural fibers subjected to UV-C radiation. The addition of charcoal fines was 0, 10, 20, 30% [...] Read more.
This study aims to analyze the addition of widely available, cheap, and biologically based residues, such as charcoal fines, in the production of polymeric biocomposites reinforced with natural fibers subjected to UV-C radiation. The addition of charcoal fines was 0, 10, 20, 30% in the polymeric matrix of the biocomposites. The mechanical and chemical properties of the biocomposites were evaluated. The flexural strength was more resistant when subjected to UV-C radiation with 20% filling. These results attest that biocomposites with the addition of vegetative charcoal fines are less susceptible to photodegradation. Full article
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643 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Chemical and Anatomical Study of Gleditsia triacanthos to Identify Opportunities for Wood and Non-Wood Uses
by Claudia Marcela Ibañez, Michael Romero and Alvaro Camargo
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 13(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2021-10814 - 31 Aug 2021
Viewed by 822
Abstract
In Uruguay and neighbouring countries, Gleditsia triacanthos is an exotic tree species categorized as invasive; it produces severe ecological impact as it displaces native species, changing the structure of the native forest community. One way to mitigate its negative impact is to identify [...] Read more.
In Uruguay and neighbouring countries, Gleditsia triacanthos is an exotic tree species categorized as invasive; it produces severe ecological impact as it displaces native species, changing the structure of the native forest community. One way to mitigate its negative impact is to identify opportunities to use it by revaluating its biological products. This work studies the applicability of this species as a source of both combustible and non-wood products. The heat capacity, chemical composition, and anatomical description of its wood was determined. Polyphenols extracted by way of an adhesive for timber products were finally added, partially substituting petroleum derivatives; it showed promising results. Full article
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693 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Supercritical Extraction of Essential Oils from Dry Clove: A Technical and Economic Viability Study of a Simulated Industrial Plant
by Marco César Prado Soares, Paula Rocha Machado and Roger Eike Guinosa
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 13(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2021-10778 - 31 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 935
Abstract
Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is a green methodology that allows the solvent to be easily removed by simply reducing the system’s pressure or temperature. An interesting compound to be separated through SFE is the clove’s essential oil, which contains 75.5% (m/m) [...] Read more.
Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is a green methodology that allows the solvent to be easily removed by simply reducing the system’s pressure or temperature. An interesting compound to be separated through SFE is the clove’s essential oil, which contains 75.5% (m/m) of eugenol and shows many food and biomedical applications, such as antibacterial and antifungal activities, and use as an antioxidant or anti-inflammatory, and for asthma and allergy relief. Herein, we simulated the operation of a SFE plant with two 400 L-extractors using CO2 and performed the economic analysis based on real purchase costs from large-scale exportation suppliers. Our results show that this is not only a process that results in minimum harmless emissions, consuming low amounts of utilities, but is also an investment with excellent economic indicators, which is viable even if there are increases of 56% on clove’s purchase costs. A fixed capital expenditure (CAPEX) of USD 347,000 is required, leading to a high net present value (NPV) of USD 8,600,000 after the project’s lifetime (40 years), with a payback of 18.67 years and internal rate of return (IRR) of 7.29%. Full article
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721 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Pre-Dispersive Predation Influence on Natural Regeneration of Quercus robur L.
by Ignacio J. Diaz-Maroto and Olga Vizoso-Arribe
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 13(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2021-10797 - 31 Aug 2021
Viewed by 532
Abstract
Quercus robur L. shows interannual variability in the production of acorns. This process is called “masting” and can generate some disadvantages for natural regeneration by reducing seed recruitment. Acorn production not only shows variability between years, but also among trees. Our aim was [...] Read more.
Quercus robur L. shows interannual variability in the production of acorns. This process is called “masting” and can generate some disadvantages for natural regeneration by reducing seed recruitment. Acorn production not only shows variability between years, but also among trees. Our aim was to estimate the percentage of acorn losses for pre-dispersive predation. For this, we have assessed the acorns reaching the ground for three years. Of all the acorns that the tree produces, only a proportion reaches the soil in viability to germinate and establish itself as a seedling. A significant number fall to the soil before completing their development, probably due to failures during this process or by self-regulatory mechanisms of the tree itself, which only keep the seeds that it can withstand according to the resources at its disposal. Another proportion is consumed by predators on the tree, and finally a significant number of acorns are predated by insect larvae. In the oak species, most of these such larvae are coleopteran of the genus Curculio and lepidopteran of the genus Cydia. In years of copious production, the acorns that reach the ground that are viable to germinate and establish themselves as seedlings ranges between 5% and 33%. The larvae damage is not only caused by the direct consumption of cotyledons and embryo but, even in cases in which the acorns remain intact, the larvae generate cavities and galleries in the seed, which facilitates the entry of fungi, bacteria, and other insects. In conclusion, pre-dispersive acorn predation by insects could place itself as one of the main constraints for natural regeneration of Quercus species. Full article
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2085 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effect of Forest Restoration on Vegetation Composition and Soil Characteristics in North Wollo and Waghemira Zones, Northeastern Ethiopia
by Melkamu Kassaye, Abrham Abiyu and Asmamaw Alemu
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 13(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2021-10776 - 31 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1253
Abstract
As a countermeasure to deforestation and forest degradation, there are many forests restoration practices with area exclosures. However, there has been limited scientific investigation of the biophysical status of the restoration practice to show whether it is successful or not for further interventions. [...] Read more.
As a countermeasure to deforestation and forest degradation, there are many forests restoration practices with area exclosures. However, there has been limited scientific investigation of the biophysical status of the restoration practice to show whether it is successful or not for further interventions. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the impacts of forest restoration with area exclosures on vegetation and soil-property-changing aspects. The method followed the concept of forest restoration based on selected indicators and comparison against best practices. For this purpose, three districts in three agro-ecologies were selected. In each district, one exclosure, adjacent church forest, and adjacent grazing land were selected. Then, vegetation data and soil data were collected and analyzed using different diversity indices. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied for data analysis with R.Vr.3.1. The result revealed that there was a significant difference (p < 0.03) in vegetation composition, biomass, and soil attributes across land use and agro-ecology. In terms of wood density, area exclosures were recorded with the highest (1963 trees ha−1) wood density, followed by church forests (1079 trees ha−1) and grazing lands (501 trees ha−1). The highest species diversity was observed in church forests (1.53), followed by area exclosures (1.42) and grazing lands (0.64). Area exclosures show higher similarity (60%) with grazing lands than church forests (45%). Abundant woody species, herbs, and litter biomass were recorded in church forests (1320.8- and 1.8-ton ha−1), followed by exclosures (613- and 1.69-ton ha−1) and grazing lands (415- and 0.78-ton ha−1), respectively. In terms of soil property, church forests recorded the best loam sand and better AvP, Organic Matter, and total nitrogen, followed by exclosures and grazing lands. All the above vegetation and soil parameters indicate that area exclosures show intermediate values between church forests and grazing lands. Therefore, forest restoration with area exclosures is the better tool for degraded forest restoration. Further research is required to understand the ecosystem services of area exclosures and the trajectory of successional changes in vegetation composition and soil parameters of the area exclosures. Full article
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975 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Supply Potential and Annual Availability of Timber and Forest Biomass Resources for Energy in Japan
by Yusuke Matsuoka, Uichi Hayashi, Hiroaki Shirasawa and Kazuhiro Aruga
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 13(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2021-10779 - 31 Aug 2021
Viewed by 837
Abstract
This study calculated incomes and expenditures such as silvicultural and harvesting as well as stumpage prices on Japanese cedar, cypress, pine, and larch forests using the silvicultural prescriptions set based on the regional forest plans and operation systems set based on topographic conditions [...] Read more.
This study calculated incomes and expenditures such as silvicultural and harvesting as well as stumpage prices on Japanese cedar, cypress, pine, and larch forests using the silvicultural prescriptions set based on the regional forest plans and operation systems set based on topographic conditions such as slope angles and height differences with GIS. Then, this study estimated the availability of unused materials for woody biomass power generation plants under operation with FIT at the end of June 2020 as the supply potential from the profitable subcompartments. Considering the subsidy rate of 100% to secure the reforestations, the availabilities met the demands in Japan as a whole. Full article
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606 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Forest Exposure and Respiratory Function: A Literature Review
by Michele Antonelli, Davide Donelli, Valentina Maggini, Fabio Firenzuoli and Emanuela Bedeschi
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 13(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2021-10782 - 31 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 888
Abstract
Environmental health research has recently started to study the health effects of well-being-promoting practices based on forest exposure. This narrative review aims to understand whether forest exposure can directly improve respiratory function. PubMed, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar were screened, up until April [...] Read more.
Environmental health research has recently started to study the health effects of well-being-promoting practices based on forest exposure. This narrative review aims to understand whether forest exposure can directly improve respiratory function. PubMed, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar were screened, up until April 2021, for clinical studies about changes of respiratory function induced by forest exposure, preferably measured with spirometry. Relevant evidence was summarized and critically discussed. Five studies were included in this review (three trials, an observational study and a case report). Globally, forest exposure seems to be associated with improved forced expiratory volume (FEV), peak expiratory flow (PEF) and forced vital capacity (FVC). In most included studies, exposure time was at least 1 h, and sessions were repeated over time. Study participants were either healthy subjects or patients with respiratory diseases. The benefits were reported, even in terms of inflammatory markers, and were detected in children, adults and elderly individuals of both genders. The number of participants per study ranged from 1 to 65. Forest exposure coupled with light physical activity may result in short-term improvements of some respiratory function parameters (FEV1, FEV6, PEF, FVC). Autonomic responses to environmental stimuli and the inhalation of some volatile compounds detectable in the forest air seem to directly contribute to the overall effect, which may be enhanced around waterfalls and creeks due to water nebulization. However, current scientific evidence is limited, and high atmospheric levels of some plant-derived compounds, especially when reacting with air pollutants, may even worsen certain respiratory conditions. Further studies on the topic are recommended to better quantify the effect size of forest-based interventions, assess long-term benefits, ascertain potential health risks and identify any moderator variables or confounding factors. Full article
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412 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Forest Certification Related to Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) in India: Study of NTFP Harvest of Rhododendrons in Western Himalayas for Its Sustainable Use
by Sanchi Singh and Sudipto Chatterjee
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 13(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2021-10816 - 31 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1532
Abstract
Forest certification is an efficient tool for the utilization of important and economically viable forest products and linking them to sustainable forest management practices ensuring their sustainable utilization. It includes social, economic, and environmental facets, thereby helping reduce the anthropogenic pressures on forest-based [...] Read more.
Forest certification is an efficient tool for the utilization of important and economically viable forest products and linking them to sustainable forest management practices ensuring their sustainable utilization. It includes social, economic, and environmental facets, thereby helping reduce the anthropogenic pressures on forest-based resources and to maintain forest ecosystem services. The western Himalayas provides many non-timber forest products (NTFPs) that are utilized by local people providing various livelihood opportunities to native Himalayan communities. Rhododendron species with bright red-pinkish flowers, belonging to genera of the Ericaceae family, found at an altitude of 1500–3000 m in the Himalayan region, is one such economically viable NTFP in the Himalayas which is harvested extensively for its varied medicinal and economic benefits. As the current trends in forest certification are gaining increasing momentum with positive impacts on people, attention to supply chains (timber and non-wood products) and ecosystem services is rising globally; our study considers the need for forest certification for the harvest of Rhododendrons in the western Himalayas. The study explores Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification, which is globally one of the leading forest certification schemes, and its provisions for the Rhododendron NTFP harvest, as the scheme can be used as an efficient mechanism for encouraging sustainable use of the harvest. Certification of the Rhododendron harvest will help in adopting improved harvesting practices, as well as providing support to local communities, without influencing the health of forest-based resources in the long term. The findings of the research are discussed with respect to various benefits and challenges for NTFP certification in the study area. Full article
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2215 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Spatial Structure of Uneven-Aged Stands of Fir and Beech on the Borja Mountain (Bosnia and Herzegovina)
by Vojislav Dukić, Danijela Petrović and Goran Jović
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 13(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2021-10777 - 31 Aug 2021
Viewed by 830
Abstract
In the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, uneven-aged stands of fir and beech are very important from the economic and ecological points of view. A major lack of information on the simple structure of stands is that it cannot be used to draw [...] Read more.
In the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, uneven-aged stands of fir and beech are very important from the economic and ecological points of view. A major lack of information on the simple structure of stands is that it cannot be used to draw valid conclusions about the spatial distribution of woody species and about the position and dimensions of trees, and this is one of the bases for the sustainable management of mixed and uneven-aged forests. In four mixed uneven-aged fir and beech stands and one pure fir stand on Mt Borja, the basic elements of tree growth were measured and the data needed to determine the indicators of the spatial stand structure were determined. According to the Clark–Evans aggregation index, there is a tendency towards a uniform spatial distribution of trees in the stand in the case when all trees are observed. When only fir trees are observed, it is evident that there is a tendency to group fir trees in the stand. The diameter differentiation index shows that there is average tree diameter differentiation on all sample plots. The determined values of the Weber height competition index by stands are approximately the same, that is, it can be stated that there is no significant difference between stands in terms of competition between trees as regards the vertical structure of stands. Full article
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911 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Tree Size Structure of Tectona grandis (Linn f.) Stand in Hilltop and Valley-Bottom of Omo Forest Reserve
by Oladele Fisayo Falade and Stephen Busola Oguntona
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 13(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2021-10823 - 31 Aug 2021
Viewed by 768
Abstract
Variability of a microsite contributes to the size hierarchy in tree populations. Tree size symmetry varies with the available growth resources. However, competition hierarchy may not cause size symmetry in tree populations. The identification of mechanisms that determine size hierarchy has ecological significance [...] Read more.
Variability of a microsite contributes to the size hierarchy in tree populations. Tree size symmetry varies with the available growth resources. However, competition hierarchy may not cause size symmetry in tree populations. The identification of mechanisms that determine size hierarchy has ecological significance in the management of a forest stand. Therefore, this study investigated the tree size structure of the Teak stand in the Hilltop and Valley-Bottom stands of the Omo Forest Reserve. A ten-year-old Teak plantation was delineated into Hilltop and Valley-Bottom stands based on topography. Five (30 m × 30 m) sample plots were systematically demarcated on 1 km transects in each stand. Tree stems with diameter at breast height (dbh) ≥ 10 cm were enumerated. Diameter at breast height and total height were measured using Girth tape and Spiegel Relaskop. Stem size inequality, diversity and stand attributes of both stands were evaluated for diameter and height. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive, correlation, regression analysis and t-test at α0.05. Mean dbh and height in the Valley-Bottom stand (11.30 ± 4.82 cm dbh and 7.26 ± 3.21 m) were not significantly different from the Hilltop stand (10.19 ± 4.62 cm dbh and 7.12 ± 3.88 m). Stem density in the Hilltop stand (1431.0 stems/ha) was higher than in Valley-Bottom stand (1248.0 stems/ha). All distributions expressed unimodality, except the diameter distribution of the Valley-Bottom stand, which expressed bimodality. The inequality was strongly correlated with the diversity indices in dbh and height distributions in the Hilltop and Valley-Bottom stands, respectively. The same mechanism was responsible for the dbh and height structures of the Hilltop and Valley-Bottom stands, respectively. However, different mechanisms were responsible for the dbh and height structures of the Valley-Bottom and Hilltop stands, respectively. Full article
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229 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Forest, Forestry and Energy in Mongolia toward Cleaner Production
by Biligt Battuvshin and Kazuhiro Aruga
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 13(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2021-10796 - 31 Aug 2021
Viewed by 892
Abstract
This review focuses on the current situation of energy resources and usage in Mongolia in order to reduce the air pollution problems that are caused by the heavy and inefficient utilization of coal, which for instance causes 80% of the air pollution in [...] Read more.
This review focuses on the current situation of energy resources and usage in Mongolia in order to reduce the air pollution problems that are caused by the heavy and inefficient utilization of coal, which for instance causes 80% of the air pollution in the capital of Mongolia, which could be reduced by shifting to cleaner energy sources, such as woody biomass. The forest of Mongolia is over-aged, poorly stocked at around 50% below its potential, the deadwood accumulation accounts for 46.5 m3 per hectare, and approximately 77% of the total harvested wood is firewood. Therefore, there is a potential to use the unused forest resources as an alternative energy source. As a result, small- to medium-scale biomass-powered power plants can be introduced based on the availability of the resources. Therefore, further studies on the availability of resources are essential for the successful utilization of the unused forest biomass. Full article
637 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Bridging the Gap between the Estimates of Forest Management Emissions from the National GHG Inventories and Integrated Assessment Models via Model–Data Fusion
by Mykola Gusti, Andrey Lessa Derci Augustynczik, Fulvio Di Fulvio, Pekka Lauri and Nicklas Forsell
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 13(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2021-10795 - 31 Aug 2021
Viewed by 609
Abstract
Current criteria to define managed forests are inconsistent among countries’ reports of GHG emissions to UNFCCC. Integrated assessment models used for assessing countries’ mitigation pathways employ a proxy for managed forests that differ from the countries’ criteria. This is one of the reasons [...] Read more.
Current criteria to define managed forests are inconsistent among countries’ reports of GHG emissions to UNFCCC. Integrated assessment models used for assessing countries’ mitigation pathways employ a proxy for managed forests that differ from the countries’ criteria. This is one of the reasons for the gap of 5.5 GtCO2 year−1 between the modelled and reported global land-use GHG emissions. Using multiple data, we developed a map of managed forests (0.5 × 0.5 deg), consistent with official GHG inventories. We applied the map in the G4M model for masking a managed forest area and estimating the GHG emissions from that area. Full article
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7 pages, 1711 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Quantification of Pinus pinea L. Pinecone Productivity Using Machine Learning of UAV and Field Images
by Shawn C. Kefauver, Ma. Luisa Buchaillot, Joel Segarra, Jose Armando Fernandez Gallego, Jose Luis Araus, Xavier Llosa, Mario Beltrán and Míriam Piqué
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 13(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2021-10789 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1184
Abstract
Currently, for Pinus pinea L., a valuable Mediterranean forest species in Catalonia, Spain, pinecone production is quantified visually before harvest with a manual count of the number of pinecones of the third year in a selection of trees and then extrapolated to estimate [...] Read more.
Currently, for Pinus pinea L., a valuable Mediterranean forest species in Catalonia, Spain, pinecone production is quantified visually before harvest with a manual count of the number of pinecones of the third year in a selection of trees and then extrapolated to estimate forest productivity. To increase the efficiency and objectivity of this process, we propose the use of remote sensing to estimate the pinecone productivity for every tree in a whole forest (complete coverage vs. subsampling). The use of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) flights with high-spatial-resolution imaging sensors is hypothesized to offer the most suitable platform with the most relevant image data collection from a mobile and aerial perspective. UAV flights and supplemental field data collections were carried out in several locations across Catalonia using sensors with different coverages of the visible (RGB) and near-infrared (NIR) spectrum. Spectral analyses of pinecones, needles, and woody branches using a field spectrometer indicated better spectral separation when using near-infrared sensors. The aerial perspective of the UAV was anticipated to reduce the percentage of hidden pinecones from a one-sided lateral perspective when conducting manual pinecone counts in the field. The fastRandomForest WEKA segmentation plugin in FIJI (Fiji is just ImageJ) was used to segment and quantify pinecones from the NIR UAV flights. The regression of manual image-based pinecone counts to field counts was R2 = 0.24; however, the comparison of manual image-based counts to automatic image-based counts reached R2 = 0.73. This research suggests pinecone counts were mostly limited by the perspective of the UAV, while the automatic image-based counting algorithm performed relatively well. In further field tests with RGB color images from the ground level, the WEKA fastRandomForest demonstrated an out-of-bag error of just 0.415%, further supporting the automatic counting machine learning algorithm capacities. Full article
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718 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Understanding the Impacts of Pyrolysis Temperature on the Energy Performance of Eucalyptus spp. Charcoal
by Allana Katiussya Silva Pereira, Dalton Longue Júnior, Álison Moreira da Silva, Elias Costa de Souza, Fabíola Martins Delatorre, Brunela Pollastrelli Rodrigues and Ananias Francisco Dias Júnior
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 13(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2021-10794 - 31 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 773
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the influence of two pyrolysis temperatures (300 °C and 450 °C) on the energy quality of charcoal using a mix of commercial eucalypt woods. In this study, pyrolysis was carried out at a heating rate of 3.33 °C.min [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the influence of two pyrolysis temperatures (300 °C and 450 °C) on the energy quality of charcoal using a mix of commercial eucalypt woods. In this study, pyrolysis was carried out at a heating rate of 3.33 °C.min−1 for a duration of 3 h. The apparent density, bulk density, immediate analysis, high heating value, energy density, and combustibility index of the charcoal were measured. Under the conditions analyzed, pyrolysis performed at a final temperature of 450 °C resulted in charcoal with better energy performance than that produced at 300 °C. Full article
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7 pages, 1526 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Spatial Structure, Biodiversity Indicators and Carbon Stocks of the Old-Growth Natural Forests in the Protected Areas of the Ukrainian Carpathians
by Mykola Korol, Serhii Havryliuk, Olha Tokar and Mykola Gusti
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 13(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2021-10803 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 863
Abstract
Intensive management in European forests in the 20th century resulted in the substitution of the old-growth natural forests with plantations on vast territories. The spatial structure and tree species composition of the planted forests are simplified making the forests vulnerable to diseases and [...] Read more.
Intensive management in European forests in the 20th century resulted in the substitution of the old-growth natural forests with plantations on vast territories. The spatial structure and tree species composition of the planted forests are simplified making the forests vulnerable to diseases and disturbances. The old-growth natural forests that remained in some places can be used as etalon forests for the reconstructed forests in similar environmental conditions. We studied spatial structure, biodiversity indicators and carbon stocks of the old-growth natural forests in the Ukrainian Carpathians in order to set forest management targets for the forest plantations in the region. Full article
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501 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Evaluation of Operational Projects Supported by Cohesion Funds for the National Forest Parks of Greece
by Athina Zikouli, Zacharoula Andreopoulou and Thekla Tsitsoni
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 13(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2021-10813 - 31 Aug 2021
Viewed by 587
Abstract
National forest parks (NFP) represent protected areas playing a critical role in reversing biodiversity loss and contributing to sustainable development in Greece. However, the NFPs of Greece lack funding. A common way to support the NFPs is through EU funds. The Cohesion Fund [...] Read more.
National forest parks (NFP) represent protected areas playing a critical role in reversing biodiversity loss and contributing to sustainable development in Greece. However, the NFPs of Greece lack funding. A common way to support the NFPs is through EU funds. The Cohesion Fund (CF) is a European structural and investment fund that was implemented by the EU during the 2014–2020 period for the ‘Natura 2000’ regions. The scope of this research is to figure out the number of assigned projects and payments that were funded by the CF for this period; which planning expenditure target was mostly proposed; and to assess the progress of CF absorption. The data were categorized into two groups, group 2019 and group 2020, and a regression analysis was conducted. The results can provide a model of fund programming in order to achieve a higher absorption rate of CFs. Full article
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