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Electricity, Volume 3, Issue 3 (September 2022) – 10 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Microgrids (MGs) play an important role in the future of intelligent energy systems. This can be achieved by allowing the seamless integration of distributed energy resources (DERs) and loads, in addition to energy storage systems (ESS), in local areas. These MGs can be appropriately coordinated based on a hierarchical control strategy (HCS), including local and global control layers, to electrify remote areas. The main objective of this research is to address the issues of DC MGs’ local control layers of the HCS under various load interruptions and PV fluctuations, including inaccurate power sharing among sources and unregulated DC bus voltage of the microgrid, along with a high ripple of battery current. Therefore, a hybrid PSO–GWO algorithm is proposed in this paper to address these problems. View this paper
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17 pages, 5170 KiB  
Article
Planning Underground Power Distribution Networks to Minimize Negative Visual Impact in Resilient Smart Cities
by Francisco Pabón, Esteban Inga and Miguel Campaña
Electricity 2022, 3(3), 463-479; https://doi.org/10.3390/electricity3030024 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3436
Abstract
This paper presents the application of heuristic methods in conjunction with graph theory in the optimal routing and sizing of underground distribution networks in georeferenced (GIS) scenarios, which are modeled and simulated in the advanced engineering tool CYMDIST. The tool allows the deployment [...] Read more.
This paper presents the application of heuristic methods in conjunction with graph theory in the optimal routing and sizing of underground distribution networks in georeferenced (GIS) scenarios, which are modeled and simulated in the advanced engineering tool CYMDIST. The tool allows the deployment of underground networks to facilitate the design, planning, and implementation of networks, taking into consideration distribution company regulations, thus allowing overview and future planning in the growth of distribution systems. Further, this method is modeled in real georeferenced scenarios, where the coverage of the electric service to all users connected to the network is guaranteed according to population density and energy demand while minimizing the number of distribution transformers used. The applied method considers the location of transformer chambers, the capacity and coverage of the distribution transformers, and the voltage drops over the line section, which should not exceed 5% of the nominal value as described in the ANSI C84.1 standard. Consequently, to verify the efficiency of the applied method, the limitations and restrictions of the mathematical model are considered, as well as the characteristics of the georeferenced system and a comparison with different research studies that address the subject presented here. In addition, supply coverage is guaranteed to be 100%. Full article
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21 pages, 3812 KiB  
Article
Graphical Ways to Visualize Operational Risk Results for Transmission System Contingencies
by Zunaira Nazir and Math H. J. Bollen
Electricity 2022, 3(3), 442-462; https://doi.org/10.3390/electricity3030023 - 7 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2169
Abstract
The increased complexity of the transmission grid can endanger the operational security of the grid. Operational risk assessment, a stochastic tool, helps to enhance security. Contingency analysis and its impact quantification are the main constituents of operational risk assessment. In this study, different [...] Read more.
The increased complexity of the transmission grid can endanger the operational security of the grid. Operational risk assessment, a stochastic tool, helps to enhance security. Contingency analysis and its impact quantification are the main constituents of operational risk assessment. In this study, different graphical methods are proposed to visualize operational risk contingency-based detailed results: heat-map and risk-based contingency chart. Through the heat-map, the system operator can determine which contingencies contribute most to the operational risk and would therefore be the most threatening contingencies for operational security of the grid. The “risk-based contingency chart” allows the system operator to analyze contingency cases from the probability and impact aspect in one chart. Both tools may be used in the control room for improved operational planning. In this study of contingency analysis and various types of network studies of severity factor quantification, the IEEE 39-Bus sample network is used in Power-Factory to analyze the contingencies behavior under different operational scenarios. Full article
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32 pages, 6326 KiB  
Article
Development of Demand Factors for Electric Car Charging Points for Varying Charging Powers and Area Types
by Shawki Ali, Patrick Wintzek and Markus Zdrallek
Electricity 2022, 3(3), 410-441; https://doi.org/10.3390/electricity3030022 - 1 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2794
Abstract
With the increasing number of electric vehicles, the required charging infrastructure is increasing rapidly. The lack of historical data for the charging infrastructure compromises a challenge for distribution system operators to forecast the corresponding increase in the load demand. This challenge is characterised [...] Read more.
With the increasing number of electric vehicles, the required charging infrastructure is increasing rapidly. The lack of historical data for the charging infrastructure compromises a challenge for distribution system operators to forecast the corresponding increase in the load demand. This challenge is characterised by two main uncertainties, namely, the charging power of the charging infrastructure and its location. Expectedly, the charging infrastructure is going to include varying charging powers and is going to be installed country-wide in different area types. Hence, this contribution sets to tackle these two uncertainties by developing demand factors for the charging infrastructure according to the area type. In order to develop the demand factors, a stochastic simulation tool for the charging profiles has been run for a simulation period of 5200 weeks (100 years) for six main charging powers and seven area types for up to 500 charging points. Thus, compromising a total of over 2.1 million simulated charging profiles. The resulting demand factor curves cover the charging powers between 3.7 kW and 350 kW with 1 kW steps for a total of 348 kW steps. Furthermore, they differ according to seven area types ranging from an urban metropolis to a rural village and are developed for up to 500 charging points. Consequently, the demand factor curves serve as a base to be used for the strategic grid planning of distribution power grids while taking the future development of the charging infrastructure into account. Full article
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14 pages, 4845 KiB  
Article
Capacity Measurements for Second Life EV Batteries
by Ngalula Sandrine Mubenga and Thomas Stuart
Electricity 2022, 3(3), 396-409; https://doi.org/10.3390/electricity3030021 - 13 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2912
Abstract
After they reached the end of their useful EV life, lithium-ion batteries are still satisfactory for second life (SL) energy storage applications. However, the spread in their SL cell capacities may be much wider than in the EV, and this raises a question [...] Read more.
After they reached the end of their useful EV life, lithium-ion batteries are still satisfactory for second life (SL) energy storage applications. However, the spread in their SL cell capacities may be much wider than in the EV, and this raises a question as to what type of cell voltage equalizer (EQU) should be used. Most users plan to retain the same passive EQU (PEQ) from the EV, but this means the battery capacity will be the same as the worst cell in the battery, just as it was in the EV. Unfortunately, the SL cell capacity spread may be much wider than it was in the EV, and if so, most of the cells will be under-utilized. This can be corrected by using an active EQU (AEQ) or a hybrid, such as the bilevel EQU (BEQ), to provide a capacity close to the cell average; but first, measured data is needed on the actual size of the cell capacity spread. To simplify and reduce the cost of these measurements, a new method is proposed that provides the capacities of the worst cell and the cell average. Full article
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31 pages, 2920 KiB  
Review
Identification of Potential Barriers to Electric Vehicle Adoption in Oil-Producing Nations—The Case of Saudi Arabia
by Saleh Alotaibi, Siddig Omer and Yuehong Su
Electricity 2022, 3(3), 365-395; https://doi.org/10.3390/electricity3030020 - 12 Aug 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 7955
Abstract
Electric vehicles (EVs) are important elements in the global strategy to tackle climate change; however, research often fails to sufficiently identify the range of barriers which affect their adoption. Taking Saudi Arabia as a case study, this paper analyses responses from 698 potential [...] Read more.
Electric vehicles (EVs) are important elements in the global strategy to tackle climate change; however, research often fails to sufficiently identify the range of barriers which affect their adoption. Taking Saudi Arabia as a case study, this paper analyses responses from 698 potential drivers in order to identify and rank the infrastructure, performance, financial, social, and policy barriers to EV adoption in a major oil-producing nation with a hot climate and a desert terrain. According to this study’s findings, the most important barriers in this context are the lack of charging infrastructure and the additional load placed on the national grid, while others include the safety and effectiveness of batteries at high temperatures, and the ability of EVs to perform in desert conditions. Common themes also include concerns that EVs may damage Saudi’s oil-based economy, cost of purchase and maintenance, low resale value, and the absence of awareness about EVs. The study concludes that EV manufacturers must demonstrate that their vehicles are suitable for the Saudi climate. Governments should also provide subsidies, or other incentives, to promote adoption of EVs as the study also found that variations in the cost of different EV models in Saudi Arabia, for example, the Tesla Model 3, is up to 40% more expensive to own than a Toyota Camry, mean that owning EVs can cost significantly more than small sized internal combustion engine-based vehicles (ICEVs). This paper identifies and ranks the barriers to EV ownership in a desert nation which is a leading petroleum producer and compares the relative costs of EVs and ICEVs in the country. As such, it has immediate relevance in countries with similar economic, geographic, and climatic conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Compatibility in Power Systems and Smart Cities)
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19 pages, 1947 KiB  
Article
Optimal Coordinated Control of DC Microgrid Based on Hybrid PSO–GWO Algorithm
by Zaid Hamid Abdulabbas Al-Tameemi, Tek Tjing Lie, Gilbert Foo and Frede Blaabjerg
Electricity 2022, 3(3), 346-364; https://doi.org/10.3390/electricity3030019 - 8 Aug 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2444
Abstract
Microgrids (MGs) are capable of playing an important role in the future of intelligent energy systems. This can be achieved by allowing the effective and seamless integration of distributed energy resources (DERs) loads, besides energy-storage systems (ESS) in the local area, so they [...] Read more.
Microgrids (MGs) are capable of playing an important role in the future of intelligent energy systems. This can be achieved by allowing the effective and seamless integration of distributed energy resources (DERs) loads, besides energy-storage systems (ESS) in the local area, so they are gaining attraction worldwide. In this regard, a DC MG is an economical, flexible, and dependable solution requiring a trustworthy control structure such as a hierarchical control strategy to be appropriately coordinated and used to electrify remote areas. Two control layers are involved in the hierarchy control strategy, including local- and global-control levels. However, this research focuses mainly on the issues of DC MG’s local control layer under various load interruptions and power-production fluctuations, including inaccurate power-sharing among sources and unregulated DC-bus voltage of the microgrid, along with a high ripple of battery current. Therefore, this work suggests developing local control levels for the DC MG based on the hybrid particle swarm optimization/grey wolf optimizer (HPSO–GWO) algorithm to address these problems. The key results of the simulation studies reveal that the proposed control scheme has achieved significant improvement in terms of voltage adjustment and power distribution between photovoltaic (PV) and battery technologies accompanied by a supercapacitor, in comparison to the existing control scheme. Moreover, the settling time and overshoot/undershoot are minimized despite the tremendous load and generation variations, which proves the proposed method’s efficiency. Full article
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21 pages, 4433 KiB  
Article
Investigating Various Severity Factor Behaviors for Operational Risk Assessment
by Zunaira Nazir and Math H. J. Bollen
Electricity 2022, 3(3), 325-345; https://doi.org/10.3390/electricity3030018 - 5 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1811
Abstract
Operational risk assessment is a stochastic approach to quantify the operational security of power systems. In this study, the interrelation between severity factor and operational risk, two important parameters in operational risk assessment, is analyzed. Four different definitions of severity factor, based on [...] Read more.
Operational risk assessment is a stochastic approach to quantify the operational security of power systems. In this study, the interrelation between severity factor and operational risk, two important parameters in operational risk assessment, is analyzed. Four different definitions of severity factor, based on the results from network studies, are proposed and applied, resulting in different values for the operational risk indices. The behavior of these indices is analyzed under varying operating conditions and compared with the behavior of the severity factor for individual contingencies. This study confirms the importance of the severity factor definition and shows that multiple operational risk indices are required to obtain a clear picture of the operational security of a transmission system. One risk index may increase while another decreases. Full article
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28 pages, 7617 KiB  
Article
Power System Impacts of Electric Vehicle Charging Strategies
by Jose David Alvarez Guerrero, Thomas L. Acker and Rafael Castro
Electricity 2022, 3(3), 297-324; https://doi.org/10.3390/electricity3030017 - 30 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2979
Abstract
This article explores the potential impacts of integrating electric vehicles (EVs) and variable renewable energy (VRE) on power system operation. EVs and VRE are integrated in a production cost model with a 5 min time resolution and multiple planning horizons to deduce the [...] Read more.
This article explores the potential impacts of integrating electric vehicles (EVs) and variable renewable energy (VRE) on power system operation. EVs and VRE are integrated in a production cost model with a 5 min time resolution and multiple planning horizons to deduce the effects of variable generation and EV charging on system operating costs, EV charging costs, dispatch stacks, reserves and VRE curtailment. EV penetration scenarios of the light-duty vehicle fleet of 10%, 20%, and 30% are considered in the RTS-GMLC test system, and VRE penetration is 34% of annual energy consumption. The impacts of EVs are investigated during the annual peak in the summer and during the four weeks of the year in which high VRE and low loads lead to overgeneration. Uncoordinated and coordinated EV charging scenarios are considered. In the uncoordinated scenario, charging is undertaken at the convenience of the EV owners, modeled using data from the Idaho National Laboratory’s EV Project. Coordinated charging uses an “aggregator” model, wherein EV charging is scheduled to minimize operating costs while meeting the daily charging requirements subject to EV availability and charging constraints. The results show that at each EV penetration level, the uncoordinated charging costs were higher than the coordinated charging costs. During a high-VRE, low-load week, with uncoordinated EV charging at 30% penetration (3% energy penetration), the peak load increased by as much as 27%. Using coordinated charging, the EV load shifts to hours with low prices, coincident with either low load, high VRE, or both. Furthermore, coordinated charging substantially reduces the curtailment of PV by as much as nine times during the low-load seasons, and the curtailment of wind generation by more than half during the summer peak season, compared to the scenarios with no EVs and uncoordinated EV charging. Using a production cost model with multiple planning cycles, load and VRE forecasts, and a “look ahead” period during scheduling and dispatching units was crucial in creating and utilizing the flexibility of coordinated EV charging. Full article
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33 pages, 6028 KiB  
Review
Achieving 100% Renewable and Self-Sufficient Electricity in Impoverished, Rural, Northern Climates: Case Studies from Upper Michigan, USA
by Adewale A. Adesanya, Nelson Sommerfeldt and Joshua M. Pearce
Electricity 2022, 3(3), 264-296; https://doi.org/10.3390/electricity3030016 - 9 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3391
Abstract
The development of 100% renewable electricity (RE) systems play a pivotal role in ensuring climate stability. Many municipalities blessed with wealth, an educated and progressive citizenry, and large RE resources, have already reached 100% RE generation. Impoverished municipalities in unwelcoming environments both politically [...] Read more.
The development of 100% renewable electricity (RE) systems play a pivotal role in ensuring climate stability. Many municipalities blessed with wealth, an educated and progressive citizenry, and large RE resources, have already reached 100% RE generation. Impoverished municipalities in unwelcoming environments both politically and climatically (e.g., northern latitudes with long, dark winter conditions) appear to be incapable of transitioning to renewables. This study challenges that widespread assumption by conducting a detailed technical and economic analysis for three representative municipalities in the Western Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Each municipality is simulated with their own hourly electricity demand and climate profiles using an electrical supply system based on local wind, solar, hydropower, and battery storage. Sensitivities are run on all economic and technical variables. Results show that transition to 100% RE is technically feasible and economically viable. In all baseline scenarios, the 100% RE systems produced a levelized cost of electricity up to 43% less than the centralized utility rates, which are predominantly fueled by gas and coal. Current policies, however, prevent such self-sufficient systems from being deployed, which are not only detrimental to the global environment, but also aggravate the economic depression of such regions. Potential energy savings advance the prohibitive energy justice principle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Electricity Markets and Energy Transition)
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13 pages, 2762 KiB  
Article
Symmetrical Components and Sequence Networks Connections for Short-Circuit Faults in Five-Phase Electrical Systems
by Catalin Iosif Ciontea
Electricity 2022, 3(3), 251-263; https://doi.org/10.3390/electricity3030015 - 24 Jun 2022
Viewed by 2729
Abstract
The method of symmetrical components is an important mathematical tool for electrical engineering, as it simplifies the analysis of unbalanced electrical circuits. The method is used almost exclusively for three-phase networks, but with the advancement of multiphase electrical systems, it could be convenient [...] Read more.
The method of symmetrical components is an important mathematical tool for electrical engineering, as it simplifies the analysis of unbalanced electrical circuits. The method is used almost exclusively for three-phase networks, but with the advancement of multiphase electrical systems, it could be convenient to utilize it for such systems as well. In this paper, the method of symmetrical components is used to analyze a generic five-phase electrical system for various short-circuit faults and to determine the sequence networks connections for these faults. The analysis performed covers the derivation of the symmetrical components for voltage/current and of fault currents. The analytical results and the inferred sequence networks connections are validated by computer simulations. This paper therefore extends the literature on short-circuit analysis of multiphase electrical systems using the method of symmetrical components. Full article
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