The actual research in terms of energy focuses drastically on the use of green energy resources. Hydropower systems have been the most known green sources for years. However, the hydropower systems, which are seasonal and most exploited, do not cover the speed of
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The actual research in terms of energy focuses drastically on the use of green energy resources. Hydropower systems have been the most known green sources for years. However, the hydropower systems, which are seasonal and most exploited, do not cover the speed of increasing daily demand. The injection of solar power could be a supporting alternative, but it is only in daylight, weather dependent and intermittent. Therefore, a storage system is required. The batteries are the quick recourse. Not only the energy sector, but also the transport systems are not left behind; they are striving to turn green. Therefore, they are turning to electric vehicles (EVs) and electric moto-bicycles (EMBs). On the other hand, this option tends to be a sharply increasing demand that can be a burden to the grid, i.e., the increase in the EVs and EMBs implies increases in power demand, grid components and pressure on the grid. Fortunately, the EVs use batteries to store energy for their use. Therefore, the EVs are the power storage system, they become part of the power management system and they can save the power surplus. With the injection of PV solar power, there is no need for an extra storage system, as the EVs are charged from the grid and store the solar energy that can be used later after sunset. The bi-directional off-board charger is a solution as it allows the grid to charge the vehicle (G2V) and the vehicle to send power back to grid (V2G). The inclusion of EVs in power management introduces the concept of vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) when one EV can charge another, and the vehicle-to-load (V2X) where the EV can supply power to EMBs or any load. The V2G, G2V, V2X, the inclusion on solar energy to the grid and the behavior of the grid in that scenario will be illustrated in this paper.