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NeuroSci, Volume 5, Issue 1 (March 2024) – 6 articles

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11 pages, 1705 KiB  
Article
Exploring Spinal Cord Changes in Multiple Sclerosis Patients Using MRI
by Amani A. Alrehaili, Nahla L. Faizo, Batool M. Alsulimani, Raghad K. Alsulimani, Dana A. Aldwaila, Nada J. Alqarni and Nisreen Lutfi Faizo
NeuroSci 2024, 5(1), 87-97; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurosci5010006 - 12 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1219
Abstract
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease affecting the central nervous system (CNS). The diagnosis of MS is based on clinical signs and symptoms as well as findings in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences by demonstrating the spatial and temporal dispersion of white [...] Read more.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease affecting the central nervous system (CNS). The diagnosis of MS is based on clinical signs and symptoms as well as findings in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences by demonstrating the spatial and temporal dispersion of white matter lesions, which are thought to be typical of MS in distribution, shape, extent, and signal abnormalities. Spinal cord MRI can identify asymptomatic lesions and rule out malignancies or spinal stenosis in patients for whom brain imaging is not helpful in making an MS diagnosis. This study examines the MRI features of Saudi Arabian patients clinically proven to have MS with typical lesions exclusively evident in the spinal cord. This retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out in 151 patients who are confirmed cases of MS based on clinical findings and MRI results. Patients’ MRI data were reviewed from the picture archiving and communication system (PACS). The study revealed that MS incidence was higher in females than males and that the number of people diagnosed with MS increased in middle age. Cervical cord plaques and cervical cord curve straightening were the most frequent changes (67% and 56%, respectively), indicating that MRI can complement and even replace clinical data in MS diagnosis, leading to earlier, more precise diagnoses and speedier starts to treatment. Full article
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16 pages, 379 KiB  
Review
The Role of Astrocytes and Alpha-Synuclein in Parkinson’s Disease: A Review
by David Brash-Arias, Luis I. García, César Antonio Pérez-Estudillo, Fausto Rojas-Durán, Gonzalo Emiliano Aranda-Abreu, Deissy Herrera-Covarrubias and Donaji Chi-Castañeda
NeuroSci 2024, 5(1), 71-86; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurosci5010005 - 8 Mar 2024
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Abstract
The search for new therapies to reduce symptoms and find a cure for Parkinson’s disease has focused attention on two key points: the accumulation of alpha-synuclein aggregates and astrocytes. The former is a hallmark of the disease, while the latter corresponds to a [...] Read more.
The search for new therapies to reduce symptoms and find a cure for Parkinson’s disease has focused attention on two key points: the accumulation of alpha-synuclein aggregates and astrocytes. The former is a hallmark of the disease, while the latter corresponds to a type of glial cell with an important role in both the prevention and development of this neurodegenerative disorder. Traditionally, research has focused on therapies targeting dopaminergic neurons. Currently, as more is known about the genetic and molecular factors and the neuroglial interaction in the disease, great emphasis has been placed on the neuroprotective role of astrocytes in the early stages of the disease and on the astrocytic capture of alpha-synuclein under both physiological and pathological conditions. This review aims to analyze the contribution of alpha-synuclein and astrocytes to the development and progression of Parkinson’s disease, as well as to evaluate recent therapeutic proposals specifically focused on synucleopathies and astroglial cells as potential therapies for the disease. Full article
12 pages, 1572 KiB  
Article
Novel ML-Based Algorithm for Detecting Seizures from Single-Channel EEG
by Yazan M. Dweiri and Taqwa K. Al-Omary
NeuroSci 2024, 5(1), 59-70; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurosci5010004 - 29 Feb 2024
Viewed by 674
Abstract
There is a need for seizure classification based on EEG signals that can be implemented with a portable device for in-home continuous minoring of epilepsy. In this study, we developed a novel machine learning algorithm for seizure detection suitable for wearable systems. Extreme [...] Read more.
There is a need for seizure classification based on EEG signals that can be implemented with a portable device for in-home continuous minoring of epilepsy. In this study, we developed a novel machine learning algorithm for seizure detection suitable for wearable systems. Extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) was implemented to classify seizures from single-channel EEG obtained from an open-source CHB-MIT database. The results of classifying 1-s EEG segments are shown to be sufficient to obtain the information needed for seizure detection and achieve a high seizure sensitivity of up to 89% with low computational cost. This algorithm can be impeded in single-channel EEG systems that use in- or around-the-ear electrodes for continuous seizure monitoring at home. Full article
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20 pages, 5146 KiB  
Article
Moving towards an Understanding of the Role of the Inferior Fronto-Occipital Fasciculus in Language Processing
by Princess Eze, Efrem Omorotionmwan and Jacqueline Cummine
NeuroSci 2024, 5(1), 39-58; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurosci5010003 - 2 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1006
Abstract
Evidence has been provided for a clear structural distinction between the dorsal and ventral portions of the inferior frontal occipital fasciculus (IFOF). As such, there is reason to propose that there might also be a functional differentiation of the dorsal and ventral components [...] Read more.
Evidence has been provided for a clear structural distinction between the dorsal and ventral portions of the inferior frontal occipital fasciculus (IFOF). As such, there is reason to propose that there might also be a functional differentiation of the dorsal and ventral components of the IFOF. Here, we explored three main hypotheses/schools of thought with regards to the functional frameworks of the dorsal and ventral components of the IFOF: (1) the phonological vs. semantic processing hypothesis, (2) the difficult vs. non-difficult task processing hypothesis and (3) the automatic vs. non-automatic processing hypothesis. Methods: Participants (N = 32) completed a series of behavioral tasks that aligned with each of the main hypotheses. Using a regression-based approach, we assessed the unique contribution of behavioral performance to dorsal and ventral IFOF white matter indicators (i.e., fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity). Results: We found significant relationships between ventral IFOF indices and orthographic awareness (p = 0.018) and accuracy (p = 0.009). Overall, our results provide converging evidence that the IFOF primarily operates as a ventral language tract in adults. Thus, the structural distinction between dorsal and ventral IFOF does not manifest as a parallel functional distinction. Full article
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31 pages, 391 KiB  
Review
On the Cranial Nerves
by Hugo M. Libreros-Jiménez, Jorge Manzo, Fausto Rojas-Durán, Gonzalo E. Aranda-Abreu, Luis I. García-Hernández, Genaro A. Coria-Ávila, Deissy Herrera-Covarrubias, César A. Pérez-Estudillo, María Rebeca Toledo-Cárdenas and María Elena Hernández-Aguilar
NeuroSci 2024, 5(1), 8-38; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurosci5010002 - 28 Dec 2023
Viewed by 3455
Abstract
The twelve cranial nerves play a crucial role in the nervous system, orchestrating a myriad of functions vital for our everyday life. These nerves are each specialized for particular tasks. Cranial nerve I, known as the olfactory nerve, is responsible for our sense [...] Read more.
The twelve cranial nerves play a crucial role in the nervous system, orchestrating a myriad of functions vital for our everyday life. These nerves are each specialized for particular tasks. Cranial nerve I, known as the olfactory nerve, is responsible for our sense of smell, allowing us to perceive and distinguish various scents. Cranial nerve II, or the optic nerve, is dedicated to vision, transmitting visual information from the eyes to the brain. Eye movements are governed by cranial nerves III, IV, and VI, ensuring our ability to track objects and focus. Cranial nerve V controls facial sensations and jaw movements, while cranial nerve VII, the facial nerve, facilitates facial expressions and taste perception. Cranial nerve VIII, or the vestibulocochlear nerve, plays a critical role in hearing and balance. Cranial nerve IX, the glossopharyngeal nerve, affects throat sensations and taste perception. Cranial nerve X, the vagus nerve, is a far-reaching nerve, influencing numerous internal organs, such as the heart, lungs, and digestive system. Cranial nerve XI, the accessory nerve, is responsible for neck muscle control, contributing to head movements. Finally, cranial nerve XII, the hypoglossal nerve, manages tongue movements, essential for speaking, swallowing, and breathing. Understanding these cranial nerves is fundamental in comprehending the intricate workings of our nervous system and the functions that sustain our daily lives. Full article
7 pages, 2719 KiB  
Case Report
Recurrent Falls as the Only Clinical Sign of Cortical–Subcortical Myoclonus: A Case Report
by Giulia De Napoli, Jessica Rossi, Francesco Cavallieri, Matteo Pugnaghi, Romana Rizzi, Marco Russo, Federica Assenza, Giulia Di Rauso and Franco Valzania
NeuroSci 2024, 5(1), 1-7; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurosci5010001 - 28 Dec 2023
Viewed by 763
Abstract
Some authors use the term cortical–subcortical myoclonus to identify a specific type of myoclonus, which differs from classical cortical myoclonus in that the abnormal neuronal activity spreads between the cortical and subcortical circuits, producing diffuse excitation. The EEG shows generalized spike-and-wave discharges that [...] Read more.
Some authors use the term cortical–subcortical myoclonus to identify a specific type of myoclonus, which differs from classical cortical myoclonus in that the abnormal neuronal activity spreads between the cortical and subcortical circuits, producing diffuse excitation. The EEG shows generalized spike-and-wave discharges that correlate with the myoclonic jerks. We report the case of a 79-year-old patient with a history of right thalamic deep hemorrhagic stroke, with favorable evolution. Fifteen years later, he was readmitted to the emergency department for episodes characterized by sudden falls without loss of consciousness. An EEG with EMG recording channel on the right deltoid muscle was performed, which documented frequent diffuse spike–wave and polyspike–wave discharges, temporally related to myoclonic jerks in the lower limbs. Brain MRI showed the persistence of a small right thalamic hemosiderin residue at the site of the previous hemorrhage. Antiseizure treatment with levetiracetam was started, with rapid clinical and electroencephalographic improvement. Our case may represent a lesion model of generalized epilepsy with myoclonic seizures. Furthermore, it highlights that lower limb myoclonus of cortical–subcortical origin may be an underestimate cause of gait disturbances and postural instability. Then, it may be reasonable to include the EEG in the diagnostic work-up of patients with recurrent falls. Full article
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