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World, Volume 5, Issue 2 (June 2024) – 10 articles

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21 pages, 1494 KiB  
Review
Plastic and Micro/Nanoplastic Pollution in Sub-Saharan Africa: Challenges, Impacts, and Solutions
by Edith Dube and Grace Emily Okuthe
World 2024, 5(2), 325-345; https://doi.org/10.3390/world5020018 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 349
Abstract
Sub-Saharan Africa faces increasing levels of plastic production and importation, unregulated usage, and inadequate waste management systems. This region’s harsh conditions often lead to plastic breaking down into microplastics and nanoplastics. This review explores the abundance of micro/nanoplastics across different environmental mediums, such [...] Read more.
Sub-Saharan Africa faces increasing levels of plastic production and importation, unregulated usage, and inadequate waste management systems. This region’s harsh conditions often lead to plastic breaking down into microplastics and nanoplastics. This review explores the abundance of micro/nanoplastics across different environmental mediums, such as surface waters, sediments, and aquatic organisms, in sub-Saharan African countries. It also highlights knowledge gaps concerning the region’s abundance of micro/nanoplastics. The effects of plastics and micro/nanoplastics on food production, water quality, health, and the environment are discussed. Strategies to address the challenges of plastic pollution are proposed. Finally, the review concludes with future perspectives for addressing the ongoing challenges of plastic waste management in sub-Saharan Africa. The materials for this study were sourced from published articles on Scopus, Google Scholar, ResearchGate, and additional platforms, including reports and various press releases, using keywords such as plastic waste, micro/nano-plastic, sub-Saharan Africa, toxicity, and circular economy. Articles were initially screened by reviewing abstracts, followed by a thorough reading of full papers to identify relevant studies. Key information was extracted from these selected articles and incorporated into this review. Full article
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12 pages, 2737 KiB  
Article
Let the Trees ‘Talk’: Giving Voice to Nature through an Immersive Experience
by Rob Roggema
World 2024, 5(2), 313-324; https://doi.org/10.3390/world5020017 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 488
Abstract
Current decision-making regarding urban design, architecture, and spatial planning often
emphasizes existing power balances, which historically have excluded other humans, such as
indigenous people, and nature from conversations and decision-making. The purpose of this study
is to explore if and how an empathic [...] Read more.
Current decision-making regarding urban design, architecture, and spatial planning often
emphasizes existing power balances, which historically have excluded other humans, such as
indigenous people, and nature from conversations and decision-making. The purpose of this study
is to explore if and how an empathic experience could give insights into how nature can be given
a voice, and, more concretely, how a group of trees on the TEC campus in Monterrey would feel
about a sudden change in their direct environment. The methodology is divided into three parts.
The first is the explanation of the case study and immersion of the (human) participants in the site.
The second stage consists of deep listening and reproducing the imagined expressions of the trees.
In the third stage, the participants return from the site, evaluate, and formulate a manifesto. The
experience suggests that it is possible to inspire human beings to imagine what trees would have to
say if we only imagined their language. It also shows that it is possible to gain access to a formerly
hidden environment. The conclusion is that the empathic access to these formerly muted worlds,
such as those of nature or socially marginalized peoples, can strengthen our understanding of, and
our ability to resolve, the current environmental crisis. Full article
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20 pages, 1264 KiB  
Article
Crab Harvesting, Sustainability Issues, and International Trade: Insights from Russia
by Andrey Belov
World 2024, 5(2), 293-312; https://doi.org/10.3390/world5020016 - 10 May 2024
Viewed by 364
Abstract
This article aims to analyze Russia’s efforts, both domestically and internationally, to combat illicit crab harvesting and safeguard its marine resources. A comparison of total crab imports and allowable catch in Russian waters from 1990 to 2022 indicates a peak in shadow activities [...] Read more.
This article aims to analyze Russia’s efforts, both domestically and internationally, to combat illicit crab harvesting and safeguard its marine resources. A comparison of total crab imports and allowable catch in Russian waters from 1990 to 2022 indicates a peak in shadow activities during the mid-2000s, with a cessation of large-scale illegal fishing observed since 2013. A narrative analysis of institutional shifts reveals that the bolstering of internal oversight, heightened accountability for harvesters, and enhanced global cooperation have been pivotal in fostering these positive dynamics. Concerning trends, however, emerged towards the beginning of the current decade, indicating potential instability within the legal framework of the crab industry. Persistent statistical discrepancies in trade with South Korea, diminishing institutional capacities within Russia to combat shadow activities, and heightened media scrutiny of illicit crab harvesting underscore the need for sustained vigilance in addressing both internal and external dimensions of this multifaceted problem. Full article
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17 pages, 1411 KiB  
Systematic Review
Autonomous Ships: A Thematic Review
by Ruhaimatu Abudu and Raj Bridgelall
World 2024, 5(2), 276-292; https://doi.org/10.3390/world5020015 - 28 Apr 2024
Viewed by 493
Abstract
Ships connect the global economy through maritime transport. However, their susceptibility to increasing geopolitical conflicts has heightened concerns about the risks to crew safety and navigation security. This systematic literature review (SLR), utilizing the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) [...] Read more.
Ships connect the global economy through maritime transport. However, their susceptibility to increasing geopolitical conflicts has heightened concerns about the risks to crew safety and navigation security. This systematic literature review (SLR), utilizing the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) framework, rigorously examines the safety and security of autonomous ships in maritime transport. The methodology employs a comprehensive search across major databases including Scopus, Google Scholar, and Science Direct, based on explicit inclusion criteria focusing on recent advancements from 2014 to 2023. By methodically analyzing 58 relevant publications screened from an initial pool of 1407, this paper highlights critical trends and gaps in the application of advanced sensor technologies, cybersecurity measures, and autonomous navigation systems. The findings provide insights into the operational challenges and technological developments shaping the future of maritime safety and security, offering valuable guidance for policymakers and industry stakeholders. This research contributes to scholarly discourse in this industry by mapping the trajectory of technological integration and its implications for maritime operations in a global context. Full article
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18 pages, 3811 KiB  
Article
Data-Driven Strategies for Optimizing Albania’s Utilization of Renewable Energy Sources from Urban Waste: Current Status and Future Prospects
by Sonila Vito, Ilirjana Boci, Mohammad Gheibi, Klodian Dhoska, Ilirjan Malollari, Elmaz Shehu, Reza Moezzi and Andres Annuk
World 2024, 5(2), 258-275; https://doi.org/10.3390/world5020014 - 26 Apr 2024
Viewed by 365
Abstract
Albania is now implementing a range of steps as part of its journey towards European Union integration, based on agreements that have been achieved. Key to these initiatives is the extensive adoption of circular economy concepts through comprehensive waste management systems. This collaboration [...] Read more.
Albania is now implementing a range of steps as part of its journey towards European Union integration, based on agreements that have been achieved. Key to these initiatives is the extensive adoption of circular economy concepts through comprehensive waste management systems. This collaboration is based on systematically implementing measures that align with the fundamental principles of the waste management hierarchy. Albania wants to lead in waste-to-energy conversion exploration by focusing on trash minimization, reuse, recycling, and energy generation from residual waste. Although there has been notable advancement, especially in aligning laws with EU requirements, there are practical obstacles, especially in the execution of waste-to-energy projects. The challenges involve the need for effective waste segregation, higher recycling rates, and the use of advanced waste-to-energy technologies. The essay utilizes meticulously selected data on Albania’s waste generation from reputable organizations and the legal framework regulating waste management to assess the current situation and predict future possibilities, which may be advantageous for government ministries and agency platforms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Data-Driven Strategic Approaches to Public Management)
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18 pages, 42465 KiB  
Article
From Glimmer to Grind: Unveiling the Conflict Potential of South Kalimantan’s Diamonds
by Rochgiyanti Rochgiyanti, Deasy Arisanty, Ismi Rajiani, Karunia Puji Hastuti, Jumriani Jumriani and Muhammad Muhaimin
World 2024, 5(2), 240-257; https://doi.org/10.3390/world5020013 - 24 Apr 2024
Viewed by 392
Abstract
This study delves into the intricate social dynamics of South Kalimantan’s traditional diamond mines, revealing a potential for conflict amidst the promise of economic uplift. South Kalimantan is one of the provinces in Indonesia, known nationwide for its diamond production. Going beyond conventional [...] Read more.
This study delves into the intricate social dynamics of South Kalimantan’s traditional diamond mines, revealing a potential for conflict amidst the promise of economic uplift. South Kalimantan is one of the provinces in Indonesia, known nationwide for its diamond production. Going beyond conventional economic and environmental perspectives, the research employs Galtung’s Conflict Theory, examining the interplay of attitudes, behaviours, norms, values, and political influences. By adopting this nuanced approach, the study unveils hidden fault lines within these communities, providing a comprehensive understanding of how diverse factors converge to create discord. The consequences of unaddressed conflict include shattered livelihoods, environmental degradation, and fractured communities. The study employs rigorous quantitative methods to empower stakeholders in proactive conflict management, including questionnaires and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with data from 400 respondents. The findings underscore the significant roles of behaviours, attitudes, norms, and politics in fueling tension, with values demonstrating surprisingly less direct influence. This insight is a roadmap for conflict prevention and sustainable development, allowing stakeholders to tailor interventions based on specific conflict-driving factors. The study urges a shift from reactive to proactive measures, envisioning a future where prosperity continues and communities thrive in harmony, free from conflict. Full article
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21 pages, 1890 KiB  
Review
A Review of Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Their Application in Sustainable Solid Waste Management
by Benett Siyabonga Madonsela, Khomotso Semenya and Karabo Shale
World 2024, 5(2), 219-239; https://doi.org/10.3390/world5020012 - 12 Apr 2024
Viewed by 679
Abstract
Indigenous communities have always used their knowledge systems to improve their quality of life. For example, rural communities’ resort to indigenous cultural practices to manage their own waste when local administration lacks coordinated ways to manage waste. In the context of indigenous knowledge [...] Read more.
Indigenous communities have always used their knowledge systems to improve their quality of life. For example, rural communities’ resort to indigenous cultural practices to manage their own waste when local administration lacks coordinated ways to manage waste. In the context of indigenous knowledge systems, the idea of waste is non-existent. As indigenous knowledge is believed to provide a holistic framework for an approach that effectively promotes sustainability. As such, the current study conducted a systematic review to evaluate the extent to which indigenous solid waste management practices contribute to sustainable waste disposal methods. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines, a literature search was carried out in the field of indigenous solid waste management practices. The results indicate a significant imbalance in the amount of conclusive evidence that has been produced to date that suggests the sustainability of indigenous solid waste management practices. It is for this reason that the current study has discovered a substantial literature gap in sustainable solid waste management associated with indigenous knowledge systems. This is an unprecedented trend, especially for a knowledge system that is supposed to promote sustainability practices. However, to improve the likelihood of incorporating indigenous solid waste disposal methods into modern practices, it is imperative to understand the foundational elements that contribute to the advancement of sustainability, lest the sustainability aspect associated with this knowledge system in the discipline of solid waste management remain a mere rhetoric. Full article
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27 pages, 1235 KiB  
Systematic Review
Unlocking Energy from Waste: A Comprehensive Analysis of Municipal Solid Waste Recovery Potential in Ghana
by Abdul-Wahab Tahiru, Samuel Jerry Cobbina, Wilhemina Asare and Silas Uwumborge Takal
World 2024, 5(2), 192-218; https://doi.org/10.3390/world5020011 - 1 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1384
Abstract
Ghana is currently facing a waste crisis that presents considerable risks to its environment, economy, and public health. This investigation evaluates four prospective waste-to-energy options—namely, incineration, anaerobic digestion, gasification, and landfill gas—with the objective of mapping out a sustainable strategy for efficient waste [...] Read more.
Ghana is currently facing a waste crisis that presents considerable risks to its environment, economy, and public health. This investigation evaluates four prospective waste-to-energy options—namely, incineration, anaerobic digestion, gasification, and landfill gas—with the objective of mapping out a sustainable strategy for efficient waste management. Among these solutions, anaerobic digestion stands out as a superior option, offering renewable energy production, valuable bio-product creation, and a comparatively lower greenhouse gas emission effect. A cost analysis further reveals that utilizing biogas from anaerobic digestion is not only environmentally friendly but also economically more viable than relying on light crude oil. Producing 200 MW of energy using biogas costs 36% less, potentially resulting in monthly savings of USD 5.46 million for Ghana. However, several obstacles impede the development of WtE. Inaccurate waste data and a lack of clear policies on waste-to-energy hinder the harnessing of Ghana’s WtE potential. To address this, the study recommends (1) implementing a well-defined national strategy complete with regulations and incentives to attract investments and (2) conducting specialized research to optimize WtE technologies for Ghana’s unique waste composition and context. By surmounting these challenges, Ghana stands poised to secure a sustainable future, simultaneously meeting the targets of Sustainable Development Goals 7 and 11. This entails ensuring access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all (SDG 7) and fostering inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable cities and human settlements (SDG 11). Full article
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19 pages, 695 KiB  
Article
Comparative Analysis of the Determinants of Entrepreneurial Activities in the Middle East and Latin America
by Irery L. Melchor-Duran and Allan Villegas-Mateos
World 2024, 5(2), 173-191; https://doi.org/10.3390/world5020010 - 27 Mar 2024
Viewed by 608
Abstract
This study aims to contribute to advancing the understanding of entrepreneurial ecosystems, Latin American development, and the evolution and future perspectives of the Middle East. It used a cross-sectional research design and quantitative data with 750 observations from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, specifically [...] Read more.
This study aims to contribute to advancing the understanding of entrepreneurial ecosystems, Latin American development, and the evolution and future perspectives of the Middle East. It used a cross-sectional research design and quantitative data with 750 observations from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, specifically the National Experts Survey and the Adult Population Survey. The results were analyzed by the Partial Least Squares Technique (PLS-SEM) by grouping countries into two balanced samples of underexplored regions: the Middle East and Latin America. The two regions, Latin America and the Middle East, have diverse entrepreneurial ecosystems; each condition impacts entrepreneurial activities in different ways. In Latin America, the most significant variable is “Physical Infrastructure”, while in the Middle East, the most significant determinants are “Commercial and Professional Infrastructure” and “Entrepreneurship Culture”. This study shows that to support entrepreneurial activities, each region requires different settings for their entrepreneurial ecosystems. It contributes to the literature on regional entrepreneurial ecosystems and to less explored regions to advance our understanding, which will drive better policies and actions. Full article
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18 pages, 477 KiB  
Article
Training Future Managers to Address the Challenges of Sustainable Development: An Innovative, Interdisciplinary, and Multiregional Experience on Corporate Sustainability Education
by Rosley Anholon, Tiago F. A. C. Sigahi, Gustavo Tietz Cazeri, Patricia Fernanda da Silva Siltori, Wagner Luiz Lourenzani, Eduardo Guilherme Satolo, Adriana Cristina Ferreira Caldana, Gustavo Hermínio Salati Marcondes de Moraes, Vitor William Batista Martins and Izabela Simon Rampasso
World 2024, 5(2), 155-172; https://doi.org/10.3390/world5020009 - 24 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1247
Abstract
This paper presents an innovative experience involving students and professors from diverse backgrounds and regions that was designed to integrate corporate sustainability (CS) knowledge into undergraduate programs. An action research approach was adopted, with the course running over one semester. The course involved [...] Read more.
This paper presents an innovative experience involving students and professors from diverse backgrounds and regions that was designed to integrate corporate sustainability (CS) knowledge into undergraduate programs. An action research approach was adopted, with the course running over one semester. The course involved 146 students with diverse academic backgrounds from universities across Brazil along with eight professors from Brazil, Chile, and South Africa. The proposed approach provides actionable insights into the integration of sustainability concepts in the higher educational setting, thereby contributing to the development of a more environmentally and socially conscious generation of professionals. The learning outcomes are discussed in the light of the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) Agenda, particularly SDG 7 (affordable and clean energy), SDG 9 (industry, innovation, and infrastructure), and SDG 13 (climate action). In addition, it is important to highlight that the dissemination of the course’s key features can be useful for universities, professors, and researchers engaged in training future professionals capable of addressing real-world problems of innovation and sustainability. By employing an action research methodology and fostering collaboration among students and professors with diverse academic backgrounds and from different countries, including Brazil, Chile, and South Africa, this paper presents a multiregional and interdisciplinary perspective that sets it apart from conventional practices. The emphasis on providing actionable insights and its potential applicability for universities, professors, and researchers involved in training future professionals further underscore its distinctive contribution to education for sustainable development. Full article
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