Next Issue
Volume 5, June
Previous Issue
Volume 4, December
 
 

World, Volume 5, Issue 1 (March 2024) – 8 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
19 pages, 2893 KiB  
Article
Enrichment, Bioaccumulation and Health Risks of Trace Metals in Soils and Leafy Vegetables Grown on the Banks of the Ugandan Lifeline River, River Rwizi
by Deus R. Rutehenda, Christopher Adaku, Timothy Omara, Christopher Angiro and Emmanuel Ntambi
World 2024, 5(1), 136-154; https://doi.org/10.3390/world5010008 - 15 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1005
Abstract
Urban vegetable farming in wetlands and riverbanks are common features of Ugandan cities. However, urbanization has led to various anthropogenic activities that can lead to the pollution of water resources, enrichment of pollutants in soils and, consequently, pollutant bioaccumulation in edible tissues of [...] Read more.
Urban vegetable farming in wetlands and riverbanks are common features of Ugandan cities. However, urbanization has led to various anthropogenic activities that can lead to the pollution of water resources, enrichment of pollutants in soils and, consequently, pollutant bioaccumulation in edible tissues of plants cultivated on such soils. In this study, we report on the levels of six trace metals (TMTs) in 75 samples of leafy vegetables (Brassica oleracea L., Spinacia oleracea L., Amaranthus hybridus L., Cucurbita pepo L. and Solanum nigrum L.) and soils (n = 75) grown on the banks of River Rwizi, the second longest river in Uganda only after the Nile River. The concentrations of TMTs (Mn, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr and Cu) in edible vegetable tissues and soils were quantified using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean concentrations (in mg kg−1) of the TMTs in the soil samples were 205–373.84 (Mn), 12.72–65.04 (Zn), 0.26–0.42 (Cd), 3.36–16.80 (Pb), 5.96–25.06 (Cr) and 2.83–35.27 (Cu). In vegetable samples, the concentrations ranged from 43.25 to 110.00 (Mn), 1.08 to 1.83 (Cd), 41.06 to 71.20 (Zn), 4.31 to 6.16 (Pb), 0.65 to 0.81 (Cr) and 5.70 to 14.35 (Cu). With the exception of Mn and Cr, the rest of the TMTs were bioaccumulated in the edible vegetable tissues (bioconcentration factors = 1.03 to 10.71). Considering chronic daily intake through ingestion, dermal contact and inhalation of the TMTs in soils from the banks of River Rwizi, there are no potential non-cancer and carcinogenic health effects that could be experienced in both adults and children. Consumption of leafy vegetables could pose both non-cancer health risks (from ingestion of Zn, Pb, Cr, Mn and Cd) and cancer health risks (due to intake of Cd) in both children and adults. There is therefore a need to enforce regulations to mitigate the pollution of River Rwizi for a more sustainable economic development. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 2650 KiB  
Concept Paper
A Transdisciplinary Approach and Design Thinking Methodology: For Applications to Complex Problems and Energy Transition
by Canan M. Ozsoy and M. Pinar Mengüç
World 2024, 5(1), 119-135; https://doi.org/10.3390/world5010007 - 1 Mar 2024
Viewed by 949
Abstract
In this paper, we outline a transdisciplinary approach and design thinking methodology (TADTM) to tackle complex problems. Our premise is that these problems need a fundamental understanding of technological solutions and those for human interactions, business operations, financing, socioeconomic governance, legislation, and regulations. [...] Read more.
In this paper, we outline a transdisciplinary approach and design thinking methodology (TADTM) to tackle complex problems. Our premise is that these problems need a fundamental understanding of technological solutions and those for human interactions, business operations, financing, socioeconomic governance, legislation, and regulations. They must be approached by different decisionmakers from different disciplines to establish seamless interactions and structured teamwork. In this regard, we emphasize the need for a transdisciplinary framework that accounts for personal preferences based on human behavior as well as the traditional interdisciplinary frameworks. To test and prove our hypothesis, three case studies are discussed. Case Study 1 is based on our studies at a major medical establishment, and Case Study 2 is about the integrated engineering and architecture approach we used at our university campus. Case Study 3 is based on an ongoing project to lead industrial corporations to change their energy policies with practical energy efficiency measures and by adapting renewable/alternative energy adaptations for their operations. Developing creative solutions and strategies to decrease atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions requires such an energy transition framework and should involve every person, company, entity, and all governments. It can only be achieved with efforts on both local and global levels, which needs to convince (a) industries to change their traditional operation modalities, (b) people to alter their consumption behaviors, and (c) governments to change their rules, regulations, and incentives. The complexity and magnitude of this enormous task demand the coordination and collaboration of all stakeholders, as well as the need for technological innovations. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 391 KiB  
Article
Sustainability Reporting and International Rankings in Higher Education: A Case of the University of Split, Croatia
by Nikša Alfirević, Igor Jerković, Petra Jelić, Damir Piplica and Darko Rendulić
World 2024, 5(1), 107-118; https://doi.org/10.3390/world5010006 - 2 Feb 2024
Viewed by 916
Abstract
We offer practical, case-based experiences on sustainability reporting in higher education institutions (HEIs), with a focus on the integration of sustainability activities into strategic planning and quality management. A proposed approach is based on the experience of the University of Split, Croatia, and [...] Read more.
We offer practical, case-based experiences on sustainability reporting in higher education institutions (HEIs), with a focus on the integration of sustainability activities into strategic planning and quality management. A proposed approach is based on the experience of the University of Split, Croatia, and the lessons learned from the SEA-EU University Alliance. In line with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), our model emphasizes the active engagement of stakeholders and the continuous collection and review of sustainability data. In addition, we propose to automate the collection and dissemination of sustainability research findings through the implementation of a Current Research Information System (CRIS). Our case study provides a roadmap for improving sustainability performance and reporting. The experience of the University of Split (Croatia) could be helpful and generalizable to a number of universities with an intermediate level of maturity in sustainability management and reporting, trying to improve their university rankings. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

28 pages, 4643 KiB  
Article
Investigating Loss and Damage in Coastal Region of Bangladesh from Migration as Adaptation Perspective: A Qualitative Study from Khulna and Satkhira District
by Sumya Naz, Tasin Islam Himel, Taufiqur Rafi, Sazzadul Islam, Saleha Bushra Neha, Syeda Tabassum Islam, Md Mahmud Hasan, Nur Mohammad Ha-Mim, Md. Zakir Hossain and Khan Rubayet Rahaman
World 2024, 5(1), 79-106; https://doi.org/10.3390/world5010005 - 30 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1687
Abstract
This study aims to examine the loss and damage experienced by coastal regions from the perspective of adaptation. It also seeks to evaluate the adaptation techniques employed when migration is utilized as a significant approach to mitigate the effects of loss and damage [...] Read more.
This study aims to examine the loss and damage experienced by coastal regions from the perspective of adaptation. It also seeks to evaluate the adaptation techniques employed when migration is utilized as a significant approach to mitigate the effects of loss and damage on coastal communities. This study evaluates the extent of loss and damage caused by constraints on adaptation. Two districts, Khulna and Satkhira, in the Khulna division of Bangladesh, were chosen for the study. In these districts, a total of twenty-four detailed interviews and one focus group discussion (FGD) were conducted with individuals living in rural areas whom climate-related effects and disasters have impacted. Additionally, seven interviews were conducted with climate migrants residing in informal settlements within the words of Khulna City Corporation. The process of identifying appropriate interview candidates involves utilizing a combination of specific criteria and snowball sampling techniques. The study employed NVivo 14 software to conduct theme analysis on textual data obtained from interviews. In the coding procedure, we sequentially employed semantic coding, latent coding, categorization, pattern exploration, and theme creation, all of which were in line with the research aim. The study indicates that most affected persons utilize seasonal and temporary movement as an adaptive strategy to deal with the slow effects of climate change, such as increasing temperatures and salinity in rural regions, and when they encounter limitations in their ability to adapt. Conversely, they opted for permanent migration in response to stringent constraints imposed by severe climate events like cyclones and river erosion, leaving them with no alternative but to move to urban regions. Social networks are crucial in influencing migration choices, as several families depend on information provided by urban relatives and rural neighbors to inform their relocation decisions. Nevertheless, not all individuals impacted by the situation express a desire to relocate; others opt to remain in rural areas due to their sentimental attachment to their birthplaces and a sense of dedication to their ancestral territory. Due to the exorbitant cost of urban life, they believe that opting not to migrate is a more practical option for addressing the repercussions of climate-induced loss and damage. The study’s findings aid policymakers in determining migration strategies and policies to address the adverse effects of coastal population displacement in Bangladesh. Additionally, it aids in determining strategies to address the challenges faced by climate migrants in both urban and rural environments. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 302 KiB  
Article
Comparing the Effect of Scientific Background on University Students’ Environmental Views
by Eleftheria Fytopoulou, Evangelia Karasmanaki and Georgios Tsantopoulos
World 2024, 5(1), 58-78; https://doi.org/10.3390/world5010004 - 16 Jan 2024
Viewed by 822
Abstract
Creating an environmentally aware society is not an easy task and requires knowledge about what affects the formation of environmental views. At the same time, to contribute to environmental protection, individuals with different educational backgrounds need to have environmental awareness, because their decisions [...] Read more.
Creating an environmentally aware society is not an easy task and requires knowledge about what affects the formation of environmental views. At the same time, to contribute to environmental protection, individuals with different educational backgrounds need to have environmental awareness, because their decisions as future professionals may affect the environment. The problem, however, is that there is not adequate research on the association between educational background and environmental views. To address this gap, the aim of this study is to investigate whether scientific background affects environmental views and attitudes. Specific objectives are to examine whether scientific background affects university students’ views on environmental issues as well as their attitudes towards the solution to environmental problems. To achieve this aim, a comparative study was performed on two student groups: students attending environmental studies and students attending classical studies. The results showed that non-environmental students were less willing to change their habits to protect the environment and to participate in environmental actions compared to environmental students who expressed a pronounced willingness to do so. However, both student groups did not acknowledge their personal environmental responsibility. Categorical regression revealed that students’ certain sociodemographic variables affected their willingness to change habits. However, other additional variables are recommended to be analyzed in future studies. The results from this study provide support for making changes in the curricula of non-environmental departments and for carrying out actions to reinforce the participation of students in initiatives aimed at raising environmental awareness. Full article
22 pages, 5620 KiB  
Review
Exploring the Potentials of Halophytes in Addressing Climate Change-Related Issues: A Synthesis of Their Biological, Environmental, and Socioeconomic Aspects
by Abdul Hameed, Sadiq Hussain, Aysha Rasheed, Muhammad Zaheer Ahmed and Sahar Abbas
World 2024, 5(1), 36-57; https://doi.org/10.3390/world5010003 - 11 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2357
Abstract
Halophytes are naturally salt-tolerant plants with immense potential to become alternate crops for saline lands. While their economic benefits have gained increasing attention, often, the roles of halophytes in addressing different climate change-related issues are overlooked. Halophytes can be a renewable resource for [...] Read more.
Halophytes are naturally salt-tolerant plants with immense potential to become alternate crops for saline lands. While their economic benefits have gained increasing attention, often, the roles of halophytes in addressing different climate change-related issues are overlooked. Halophytes can be a renewable resource for clean ‘carbon-neutral’ energy by serving as biofuel or biogas feedstock, help in the sequestration of rising CO2 as well as the phytoremediation of various pollutants, can be a good source of food and fodder thereby help in achieving food security in arid/saline areas, can help in protection and biodiversity conservation in various ecosystems, and can provide livelihood to poor local communities inhabiting barren lands. This review also attempts to highlight various usages of halophytes in connection with a global change perspective. However, there are still many challenges such as economic viability, customer preferences, environmental impacts, and scale-up challenges, which need further research, innovation, effective policies, and collaboration. In general, this review provides a synthesis of various biological, environmental, and socioeconomic aspects of halophytes to fully exploit the potential of halophytes for human welfare and combating global climate changes. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1322 KiB  
Article
A Regional Perspective of Socio-Ecological Predictors for Fruit and Nut Tree Varietal Diversity Maintained by Farmer Communities in Central Asia
by Muhabbat Turdieva, Agnès Bernis-Fonteneau, Maira Esenalieva, Abdihalil Kayimov, Ashirmuhammed Saparmyradov, Khursandi Safaraliev, Kairkul Shalpykov, Paolo Colangelo and Devra I. Jarvis
World 2024, 5(1), 22-35; https://doi.org/10.3390/world5010002 - 11 Jan 2024
Viewed by 968
Abstract
The five independent countries of Central Asia, namely Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, contain one of the richest areas in the world for the specific and intraspecific diversity of temperate fruit and nut tree species. Research was carried out via the collaboration [...] Read more.
The five independent countries of Central Asia, namely Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, contain one of the richest areas in the world for the specific and intraspecific diversity of temperate fruit and nut tree species. Research was carried out via the collaboration of national research and education institutes with local community-based agencies and farmer communities. Raw data (2014 observations) for almond, apple, apricot, cherry plum, currant, grapevine, pear, pomegranate, and walnut were collected at the household (HH) level across the five countries: Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Kyrgyzstan. A set of models was used, including household variety richness as the dependent variable, to understand the influence of socio-ecological variables on the amount and distribution of crop varietal diversity in the farmers’ production systems. Four variables were included as explanatory variables of variety richness (fixed factors): ecoregion, ethno-linguistic group, management, and abiotic stress. The results show clear evidence that abiotic stress determines a higher richness of intra-specific diversity in the form of local varieties grown by farmers living in climatically unfavorable areas. The results for the studied ecoregions follow the same trend, with ecoregions with harsher conditions displaying a higher positive correlation with diversity. Mild environments such as the Central Asian riparian woodlands show an unexpectedly lower diversity than other harsher ecoregions. Ethno-linguistic groups also have an effect on the level of varietal diversity used, related to both historic nomadic practices and a culture of harvesting wild fruit and nuts in mountainous areas. The home garden management system hosts a higher diversity compared to larger production systems such as orchards. In Central Asia, encouraging the cultivation of local varieties of fruit and nut trees provides a key productive and resilient livelihood strategy for farmers living under the harsh environmental conditions of the region while providing a unique opportunity to conserve a genetic heritage of global importance. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 5054 KiB  
Article
From Granary to Arts Incubator: An Evolutionary Perspective on the Concept of Food for Thought
by Carlos José Lopes Balsas
World 2024, 5(1), 1-21; https://doi.org/10.3390/world5010001 - 9 Jan 2024
Viewed by 867
Abstract
Does our food for thought come virtually from the internet? When we take a long view, the instant stroke of a keyboard pales in comparison to the centuries-old evolution of real food harvesting and the generation and exchange of ideas, which have resulted [...] Read more.
Does our food for thought come virtually from the internet? When we take a long view, the instant stroke of a keyboard pales in comparison to the centuries-old evolution of real food harvesting and the generation and exchange of ideas, which have resulted in creative capital. The vernacular architecture of the agricultural built environment has almost dematerialized in its transition from the ancient pre-industrial era to the post-truth world, to become almost only an imagined concept. The symbology of the common threshing terrace of a Portuguese remote mountain village can now be found in multiple spaces of the urban realm, including in the metaphor of a community arts incubator’s modus operandi in Albany, New York (USA). How has the concept of food for thought developed and materialized? How has it evolved? And what are some of the expected ways it might be utilized in the future? The purpose of the paper is to trace the evolution of this concept and its elements via the BLC Framework. The methodology employs a time analysis of approximately three centuries to distinguish three distinct evolutionary phases: (i) the pre-industrial era, (ii) the industrial era, and (iii) the information-driven era. The key finding is an up-to-date discussion of the food for thought concept in two distinct geographical worlds and three-time eras, as well as a set of lessons learned according to a protest poem and a rock song. The results are presented in the form of five lessons learned with implications for public policy: the first two lessons pertain to issues of procedural justice as encapsulated in the anonymous ‘The Goose’ poem, while the last three result from a discussion of selected verses in Nick Cave’s ‘Fable of the Brown Ape’ rock song. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop